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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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Chökyi Nyima. Richard Barron. Contemporary Author and Translator. Head of The Padma Translation Committee [RY]

Chökyi Wangchuk, Shamar VI: 1584-c.1635 [MR]

Chokyong Gongdu. [RY]

Choling. The first Choling Rinpoche, Chokgyur Dechen Lingpa 1829-1870. [Peter Roberts]

Chölung (chos lung) is located in Olka ('ol kha), a hundred kilometers. west of Lhasa. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Chöpal Yeshe (Shamar III): 1406-1452 [MR]

Chowang Gyatsa (gcod dbang brgya rtsa). A collection of one hundred empowerments for the practice of 'Chod.' [RY]

Chöwang Tulku [LW1] [RY]

Chöying Dorje, Karmapa X: 1604-1674 [MR]

Choyul (gcod yul). Synonymous with Chod. [RY]

Chözam (chos zam) is a small village. Dotsen (rdo mtshan), or "sexed stones," is so called because of large stones naturally shaped as the linga of Chakrasamvara and the bhaga of Vajravarahi. They were kept in the Dotsen Temple (rdo mtshan gtsug lag khang). Childless couples would come to circumambulate the temple and pray to be blessed with a child. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Chronicles of Padma (pad ma bka' thang) [LW1] [RY]

chu dbar sgrub sde: Initially a blooming retreat center of the Drigung tradtition, it was then turned to the Karma Kamtsang kar ma kam tshang tradition by the 10th Karmapa who erected there a new large temple and a protectors' temple. Then at the 5th Dalai Lama's time it was turned to the Geluk tradition and renamed dga' ldan 'gro phan gling. Among the main relics found there are a statue of Jetsun Milarepa made by Rechungpa with clay mixed with Milarepa's funeral ashes and Milarepa's nose blood (pur thal and shang mtshal) ; an ivory statue of Milarepa made by Rechungpa, too; and a stone from Milarepa's cremation hearth, upon which the six-syllables of the yi ge drug pa (mani mantra) appeared miraculously. /brag dmar po mtho mchong lung (MR) Also: Chubar Gonpa - The place where Jetsun Milarepa passed away, also known as the Retreat Center of Chubar (chu dbar sgrub sde). At one time a flourishing retreat center of the Drigung tradition, it was then converted to the Karma Kamtsang (kar ma kam tshang) tradition by the Tenth Karmapa who erected a large temple there and a protectors' temple. Then in the fifth Dalai Lama's time, the monastery was converted to the Geluk (alt. sp. - 'Gelug' ) (dge lugs) tradition and renamed Ganden Drophen Ling (dga' ldan 'gro phan gling). (MR)-ShabkarNotes]

Chuchik Shel (bcu gcig shel gi dgon pa bde chen chos kyi pho brang, lit. the "Dharma Palace of Great Bliss, the Crystal Monastery in Eleven," is thus called because of the "Crystal Monastery" located in the lower part of a valley named "Eleven." Crystals in the shape of deities, such as Chakrasamvara, Guru Padmasambhava and the eight Bodhisattvas, and of stupas, conches, vajra and bell, etc.. are found in abundance on the boulders around the monastery. (MR)-ShabkarNotes]

Chumar Chungwa Ngawang Gedun Tashi Gyatso (chu dmar chung ba ngag dbang dge 'dun bkra shis rgya mtsho). Born in Shohong Lakha, he studied under both Geluk and Nyingma masters, such as Chöying Tobden Dorje (chos dbyings stobs ldan rdo rje, c.1787-1848. (MR)-ShabkarNotes]

Chusang Monastery (chu bzang dgon) Ganden Mingyur Ling (dga' ldan mi 'gyur gling); near there in ba khog the big and small Thayenchi retreat places (tha yan chi che chung) founded by chu bzang rnam rgyal dpal 'byor, 1578-1651. (MR)

Chuwori (chu bo ri) [LW1] [RY]

Chittamatra (sems tsam pa)- One of the four major schools of Buddhist philosophy, characterized by emphasis on mental events. The Mind-Only School of Mahayana, asserting the view that all phenomena are 'only' the appearances of 'mind.' [RY]

City of Gandharvas {dri za'i grong khyer}. A curious phenomenon sometimes seen by people with visionary faculties: a city complete with buildings and inhabitants appears, and then disappears again without a trace, after a few days or just a few moments. [RY]

Clairvoyance (mngon shes) -

Clarifying the Aspects of the Auspicious Melody [LW1] [RY]

Clarity (gsal ba). See 'bliss, clarity and nonthought.'[AL] [RY]

Clear Dharma-eye. The enlightened vision which clearly sees the four noble truths ('phags pa'i bden pa bzhi) (for Hinayana), or the truth of the nonarising of dharmas (skye med chos kyi bzod pa) (for Mahayana). In the Maharatnakuta Sutra, this term mainly applies to Hinayana. [RY]

Clear Mirror which is found in the second volume of Kagye Desheg Dupa. [RY]

Clear Words [commentary on Nagarjuna's Fundamental Treatise on the Middle Way]; Mulamadhyamaka-vrtti-prasannapada; (tshigs gsal ba); Chandrakirti, 7th century. [PK] [RY]

Clearing the Obstacles of the Path (bar chad lam sel). A supplication to Guru Rinpoche. RY (The Light of Wisdom, vol. 1). Also, in a special download here[1] (.pdf)

Close approach (nye bar bsnyen pa). The second of the 'four aspects of approach and accomplishment. [RY]

Cloud of Dharma (chos kyi sprin) bhumi The tenth of the ten bodhisattva levels. (The Light of Wisdom, vol. 1) [RY]

"Cloud of Dharma Sutra" (chos kyi sprin zhes bya ba'i mdo sde). [ZL] [RY]

Cloud of Jewels Sutra (dkon mchog sprin gyi mdo, Ratnamegha Sutra). [EMP] [RY]

Cloudless Light (sprin med 'od) [LW1] [RY]

Coemergent (lhan cig skyes pa). Born together; coincidence of the nature of things (natural or innate.) born together; natural or innate. [The two aspects of mind, appearance and emptiness, co-exist. As is said: "Coemergent mind is dharmakaya, coemergent appearance is the light of dharmakaya." [RY]

Coemergent appearance (snang ba lhan cig skyes pa). [RY]

coemergent ignorance (lhan cig skyes pa'i ma rig pa) 1) as synonym for the all-ground; explanation as in Dzogchen. 2) 'Coemergent' means arising together with or coexisting with one's mind, like sandalwood and its fragrance. 'Ignorance' here means lack of knowledge of the nature of mind; 3) in Mahamudra practice the deluded aspect, the moment of oblivion that allows confused thinking to occur. 4) Ignorance which is coemergent with our innate nature and remains present as the potential for confusion to arise when meeting with the right conditions. 5) The ignorance one is born with. 6) The lack of knowledge of one's own nature. [RY]

Coemergent mind (sems nyid lhan cig skyes pa). [RY]

Cognition (shes pa). [RY]

cognition, ensuing cognition, acceptance and ensuing acceptance of the Dharma (chos rjes shes bzod) [LW1] [RY]

cognitive act (sems) [LW1] [RY]

cognitive obscuration (shes bya'i sgrib pa). The subtle obscuration of holding on to the concepts of subject, object and action. This is temporarily purified in the moment of recognizing the nature of mind, and utterly purified through the vajra-like samadhi at the end of the tenth bhumi. 2) (shes sgrib); as synonym for all-ground; at the time of the ground; explanation of the subtle aspect; in relation to the seven vajra qualities; 3) The objects to be abandoned by means of the ten bhumis are ten types of cognitive obscuration which are not disturbing emotions, so that here, in terms of being antidotes to these, our ten wisdoms are defined as our realization of these ten bhumis. See also obscuration [LW1] [RY]

Cognizance (gsal ba). The mind's inherent capacity for knowing. [RY]

Cognizant quality (gsal cha). The mind's inherent capacity for knowing. [RY]

Collected Works {sdud pa}. Name of a sutra. [RY]

Collections (sde snod), Bodhisattva; Shravaka; three or four. Collections; see also Tripitaka; Three; Three, expl.; [LW1] [RY]

Combined Sadhana of the Three Wrathful Ones (drag po sum bsgril). [ZL] [RY]

Commentary on Bodhichitta; Bodhichittavivarana; (byang chub sems 'grel); Smrtijñanakirti, 10th-11th centuries. [PK] [RY]

Commentary on Logic [commentary on Dignaga's Compendium of Logic (Pramanasamuccaya), (tshad ma bsdus pa); Pramanavarttika-karika; (tshad ma rnam 'grel); Dharmakirti, 7th century. [PK] [RY]

Commentary on the Essence Manual of Instructions [LW1] [RY]

Commentary on the Vajra Heart (rdo rje snying 'grel) [LW1] [RY]

Common and supreme siddhis (thun mong dang mchog gi dngos grub). Usually they refer to the eight common siddhis and the supreme siddhi of mahamudra, complete enlightenment. [RY] The supreme siddhi is the accomplishment of complete enlightenment. The common siddhis are usually eight types of miraculous powers.[Primer] [RY]

common Mantrayana (sngags thun mong) [LW1] [RY]

Common vehicles (thun mong gi theg pa). A term for Hinayana and Mahayana taken together and compared with the 'supreme vehicle,' Vajrayana. (See the comparison with the Vajra Vehicles rdo rje theg pa) [LW1] [RY]


Compassion Display Tantra (snying rje rol pa'i rgyud). One of the Five Display Tantras among the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. [ZL] [RY]

Compendium (sdud pa) [LW1] [RY]

Compendium of all Practices; Shiksasamuccaya; (bslab btus) – Shantideva, 8th century. [PK] [RY]

Compendium of Conception Tantra (rtog pa bsdus pa'i rgyud). One the Four Major Sections of Yoga Tantra. [ZL] [RY]

Compendium of the Abhidharma; Abhidharmasamuccaya; (mngon pa kun btus); Asanga, 4th century. [PK] [RY]

Compendium of Valid Knowledge, Pramanasamuccharya, (tshad ma kun las btus pa), by Dignaga. [MR]

Complete and Perfect Buddha, samyak sambuddha, (yang dag par rdzogs pa'i sangs rgyas). [RY]

Complete Array {kun bkod}. Name of an aeon. [RY]

Complete Collection of the Eight Instructions. (bka' brgyad yongs 'dus) [Peter Roberts]

Complete enlightenment (rdzogs pa'i byang chub). Same as 'buddhahood.' [RY]

Complete Illumination (kun tu 'od)". The eleventh level or bhumi "Complete Illumination" : Sanskrit: Samantaprabhumi; Tibetan:, the state of Buddhahood. Note however that there is also a system of twelve Bodhisattva levels with "Complete Illumination" being the twelfth. [Peter Roberts]

Completing Stage (utpanna krama, rdzogs pa'i rim pa). Second of the Two Stages of Anuttara Yoga Tantra. [RY]

Completion Anu Yoga. See Anu Yoga [LW1] [RY]

Completion in an instant's thought (skad cig dran rdzogs) [Peter Roberts]

Completion Stage or sometimes, completion phase {rdzogs rim}. Of the two aspects of Vajrayana practice, the development stage being the other and which is usually entered into first, (although ultimately the two come to be experienced as inseparable), the completion stage is the unelaborate, subtle phase of creative visualization in the Tantric Vehicles, also called perfection stage. Completion stage (rdzogs rim). 'Completion stage with marks' (mtshan bcas rdzogs rim) is the Six Doctrines and it means yogic practices such as tummo. 'Completion stage without marks' (mtshan med rdzogs rim) is the practice of Essence Mahamudra or Dzogchen. See also 'development and completion.' channels, winds, and essences; The completion stage in relation to the definitive meaning; luminosity; meaning of mandala. completion stage. [LWx] [RY]

Complexities (spros pa). Any mental formulation. A conceptual construct which is not innate to our nature of mind. [RY]

Compounds and noncompounds ('dus byas dang 'dus ma byas). Two categories of phenomena according to the Abhidharma system. 1) Compounds are products dependent upon causes and conditions and arise, remain and cease. 2) Noncompounds, like space or suchness, are unconditioned. [RY]

concealed teachings on passion [LW1] [RY]

concealment of the relative [LW1] [RY]

concentration (bsam gtan) [LW1] [RY]

Concentration (Skt. samadhi, ting nge 'dzin). 1) A state of one-pointed attention. 2) concentration; expl. three types of the fifth paramita. The Light of Wisdom Vol. 1, pg. 126. RY

Concept and discernment (rtog dpyod). Gross conception and fine discrimination. [RY]

concept of a self-entity (bdag rtog); as one of the causes of samsara [LW1] [RY]

conceptionless god ('du shes med pa'i lha) [LW1] [RY]

conceptionless serenity ('du shes med pa'i snyoms 'jug) [LW1] [RY]

Conceptual Ignorance (kun brtags kyi ma rig pa). In Vajrayana, conceptual ignorance is this mind apprehending itself as subject and object; conceptual thinking. In the Sutra system, conceptual ignorance means superimposed or 'learned' wrong views; gross general beliefs which obscure the nature of things, phenomena. explanation as in Dzogchen; conceptual ignorance in relation to the mind consciousness; in Mahamudra practice, it means conceptual thinking. [LW1] [RY]

Conceptual mind (blo). In this context, the act of our intellect which discerns and classifies phenomena is a hindrance for the naked state of awakened mind which can operate unimpededly without concepts. [RY]

conceptual mind consciousness (yid shes rtog bcas); [RY]

Conceptualizations, conceptions, concepts (vi) kalpa, (rnam par) (rtog pa). Conceptual Thought. [RY]

Conceptualizing the three spheres ('khor gsum du dmigs pa). Retaining the concepts of a subject, object, and action. [RY]

Conch-lettered instructions {dung yig can} by Vimalamitra. Part of the Bima Nyingthig. [RY]

Concise Manual For Daily Practice (rnal 'byor rgyun gyi bkol byang). The condensed version of the guru sadhana of Lamey Tukdrub Barchey Künsel. [RY]

Concise Practice Way of the Vajra Recitation (rdo rje'i bzlas pa lam du byed tshul 'dus pa) [LW1] [RY]

concurrent cause (mtshungs ldan gyi rgyu); in terms of ignorance [LW1] [RY]

concurrent formations (ldan pa'i 'du byed); listing of fifty-one within the aggregate of formations [LW1] [RY]

Condensed Meaning of the Graded Path (byang chub lam gyi rim pa'i nyams len bsdus don), written by Tsongkhapa. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Condensed Perfection of Wisdom (Skt. Prajnaparamita-sancayagatha, Tib. 'phags pa shes rab pha rol tu phyin pa sdud pa tshig su bcad pa, T 13). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Condensed Prajnaparamita (sher phyin bsdus pa). A Mahayana scripture. [RY]

Condensed Tantra (bsdus rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Condensed version of Hevajra Tantra (brtags pa gnyis pa). [RY]

Conditioned Virtue (zag bcas kyi dge ba). Spiritual practice in which a dualistic point of reference is used. Includes the preliminaries, seven branches and so forth. Unconditioned virtue is the recognition of buddha nature, often called 'threefold purity.' These two aspects of virtue gather the two accumulations, remove the two obscurations, manifest the twofold knowledge, and actualize the two kayas. [AL] [RY]

Confession of Downfalls from Bodhichitta (byang chub ltung bshags). A Mahayana sutra. [ZL] [RY]

Confession of Misdeeds (ltung bshags) is part of the Triskandhaka sutra (phung po gsum gyi mdo, T 284). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Confession of the Expanse of the View (lta ba'i klong gi bshags pa). The same as the Natural Confession. [ZL] [RY]

Confession of the Supreme Wisdom Body (ye shes sku mchog gi bshags pa). [ZL] [RY]

Confession of Twenty-eight Points for Adopting and Avoiding (nyi shu rtsa brgyad blang dor gyi bshags pa). [ZL] [RY]

Confident faith (yi ches kyi dad pa). The third of the three kinds of faith which is unshakable confidence. [RY]

Confucius: 551-479 BC [MR]

Confused experiences ('khrul snang). All the experiences of ordinary people which, actually being like the dream state, are regarded as being real and solid. [RY]

Confusion and liberation ('khrul grol). Same as samsara and nirvana. [RY]

Confusion arising from indivisibility [LW1] [RY]

Confusion arising from no presence [LW1] [RY]

Confusion arising from the presence of a basis [LW1] RY

Conqueror (jina, rgyal ba) (bcom ldan 'das). Names for the Buddha. [RY]

Conquerors' Offspring or Son, jina putra, (rgyal ba'i sras). Bodhisattva. [RY]

Consciousness (rnam shes). [RY]

Consciousness transference {'pho ba}. A practice to directly send the consciousness to the Buddhafield of Amitabha at the time of death. [RY]

Consciousnesses of the five senses (sgo lnga'i rnam par shes pa). The acts cognizing visual form, sound, smell, taste, and texture. [RY]

consecration (rab gnas). [RY]

Consecration and Empowerment (byin brlab dbang bskur). A phase in the development stage at the end of having created the visualization of the yidam deity which involves consecrating one's three higher chakras with enlightened body, speech, and mind as well as empowering the deity with the crown of the five buddha families. [RY]

Constructs (spros pa). Any mental formulation. A conceptual fabrication which is not innate to the nature of mind. [RY] constructs

Contamination (asrava, zag pa). [RY]

Contemplating (bsam pa). In the context of learning, contemplating and meditating, it means reflecting on the meaning of these teachings one has received so as to clear away doubts and misconceptions. [RY]

Contemplation {ting nge 'dzin}. Skt. Samadhi. A state of profound concentration. [RY]

Contest of Miracles - When Jetsun Milarepa and the Bönpo Naro Bönchung held their famous contest of miracles to decide who would retain supremacy over the sacred mountain, they left imprints of their feet in the rocks and many other miraculous signs. [[[MR]]-ShabkarNotes]

continuity (rgyud); as sugata essence; definition of tantra; [LW1] [RY]

continuity of cause (rgyu rgyud); explanation of sugata essence [LWx] [RY]

continuity of ground (gzhi rgyud); explanation of sugata essence [LWx] [RY]

continuity; as sugata essence; as synonym for sugata essence; expl.; definition of tantra; definition of ground, expl. [LWx] [RY]

continuous instant of deluded thinking ('khrul rtog rgyun gyi skad cig ma); creator of samsara [LW1] [RY]

Continuous Mantra Practice (sngags sgrub na ra ma). Text composed by Padmasambhava on Mahayoga sadhana. [ZL] [RY]

continuous torma (rgyun gtor). one that remains upon the shrine throughout the practice, either as offerings or as representations of the deity. [RY]

continuous wheel of eternity (rtag pa rgyun gyi 'khor lo) [LW1] [RY]

conventional bodhichitta [LW1] [RY]

Conventional homage of the gesture (drang don kun rdzob brda phya). [RY]

Conventional truth (kun rdzob kyi bden pa). The seeming, superficial and deceptive aspect of reality. It is defined differently by the different philosophical schools. See also two truths [LW1] [RY]

convoluted pattern (pa tra) [Peter Roberts]

Cool Grove (bsil ba tshal, Skt. Sitavana). [ZL] [RY]

Copper Colored Mountain (zangs mdog dpal ri). The name of the pure land of Guru Rinpoche. [RY]

Corpse raiser, corpse raising spirit, vetala, (ro langs). A kind of demon or spirit that occupies dead bodies. [RY]

correct discrimination. See also four correct discriminations [LW1] [RY]

Correct posture: This is usually described as the five aspects of meditation posture, or the seven aspects of Buddha Vairochana's posture. The details vary from text to text, surprisingly different in each "authoritative" work. The variances are usually because two features are counted as one, or another is left out. Principal differences are as to whether the eyes are focused upon the tip of the nose, or eight finger-widths beyond it. While one version merely states that the hands are four finger-widths below the navel in the meditation mudra and that the shoulders are level, another specifies that the elbows should not be bent and the shoulders should be uplifted like a vulture's wings. An example of the five features: 1.Legs crossed. 2.Hands in meditation mudra four finger-widths below the navel with the shoulders uplifted. 3.Chin bent inwards. 4.eyes gaze at the tip of the nose. 5.Lips and teeth only just meeting and the tip of the tongue against the palate. / An example of the seven features: 1.Legs in the vajra posture. 2. Hands in meditation mudra four finger-width below the navel. 3.A straight back. 4.Shoulders raised. 5.Chin bent downwards. 6. Lips just meeting and the tongue's tip against the palate. 7. The eyes focused four finger-widths beyond the tip of the nose. [Peter Roberts]

Correct superficial truth (yang dag kun rdzob kyi bden pa). [RY]

couch-grass. Tibetan dur ba. Sanskrit durva. Widespread throughout the world and difficult to eradicate because of the nature of its segmented roots. For that reason it is an auspicious offering for long-life, particularly the roots. [Peter Roberts]

Countless (asamkhya, asamkhyeya; grangs med pa). A very large finite number. The number of ten followed by approximately fifty zeros. [RY]

courageous eloquence (spobs pa), explanation of eight great treasure mines [LW1] [RY]

Cow nectar (ba byung sna lnga). Five essences from a special cow. [RY]

Cow Utilizing Continent (ba glang spyod) [LW1] [RY]

Cow-products, five; panca gavya, (ba'i rnam lnga). Milk, sour mink or yogurt, butter, dung, urine. [RY]

Crazy Tekya (rtas skya smyon pa): rtas skya is written in a mystic dakini script and has no ordinary intelligible meaning. As communicated by Trulshik Rinpoche, because he was refused the consort he needed for the discovery of the guru sadhana (bla sgrub), Donyö Dorje (don yod rdo rje), could not reveal it fully and write it down. Soon afterward, the maiden who should have been his consort died. The parents felt great regret and contacted the yogin, who said that the auspicious connection had been missed. It is said that he brought the girl back to life for a few moments and gave her instructions, adding that he would guide her in the bardo. After these events, Donyö Dorje concealed the Yellow Scroll (shog ser) in a mask, to be discovered again as a yang gter. His immediate reembodiment, the former Trulshik Rinpoche, Thongdrol Dorje (mthong grol rdo rje), found this Yellow Scroll when he came to Nepal with Dzatrul Ngawang Tendzin Norbu (rdza sprul ngag dbang bstan 'dzin nor bu, 1867-1940, the present Trulshik Rinpoche's root teacher) to perform the reconsecration of the Bodhnath stupa. Thongdrol Dorje also wrote expanded versions of the other sadhanas of the Three Roots. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Created nirmanakaya (bzo sprul sku). An emanation of the buddhas for the purpose of converting particular beings. Sometimes statues and scriptures are also included under this type of nirmanakaya. [RY]

Crystal Cave Chronicles (bka' thang shel brag ma) [LW1] [RY]

Crystal Cave of Drag Yangdzong (sgrag yang rdzong shel gyi brag phug). The retreat place of Padmasambhava's body. Situated between Lhasa and Samye in central Tibet. [ZL] [RY]

Crystal Cave of Yarlung (g.yar klung shel gyi brag phug). One of the five major retreat places of Guru Rinpoche; the place of enlightened qualities. It is also the site where one of his chief disciples, Kharchen Yeshe Shönnu, attained realization of Nectar Quality. Situated one day's walk above Tramdruk in the Yarlung valley, central Tibet. [ZL] [RY]

Crystal Cave Reed Fortress (shel phug chu shing rdzong), west of Chubar. See MI, p.186. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Crystal Peak of Rong (rong shel mo gangs), is a sacred mountain in Limi Rong in the district of Dolpo, Western Nepal. There is a guide to this legendary site, gnas chen shel mo gangs gi dkar chag mthong ba rang grol, written by one bla ma pad ma dngos grub. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Culminated Awareness (rig pa tshad phebs). The third of the four visions in Dzogchen. [RY]

Cultivate pure realms (dag pa'i zhing sbyong ba). In this context a practice connected with dream yoga. [RY]

Curd Drinker, the rishi (drang srong zho 'thung) [LW1] [RY]

Cutting (gcod). Synonymous with Chod. [RY]

Cutting Off Errors and Deviations, the Lion's Roar (gol shor tshar gcod seng ge'i nga ro) is a text from the cycle of the Longchen Nyingthig (klong chen snying thig). The cycle rediscovered in a vision by Rigdzin Jigme Lingpa. This text explains the various deviations through which a practitioner may go astray in his meditation. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Cutting through (khregs chod). Cutting through the stream of the thoughts of the three times. Same as 'Trekcho.' [RY]

Cutting Through of Primordial Purity (ka dag khregs chod). The main practice in Dzogpachenpo. See Trekcho [RY]

Cyclic existence ('khor ba, samsara). [RY]

The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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--Richard 12:23, 12 August 2008 (EDT)