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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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E, VAM; E and VAM; as synonym for sugata essence. (see Light of Wisdom, vol. 1). [RY]

Earlier Tantras. The earlier Tantras are those introduced primarily in the eighth century at the time of Padmakara's visit to Tibet. The later Tantras are said to date from the translations of Rinchen Zangpo in the mid tenth century. [Peter Roberts]

Early and Later Translation of the Great Perfection (rdzogs pa chen po snga 'gyur phyi 'gyur). This phrase refers to the Eighteen Major Scriptures of the Mind Section, a set of Dzogchen tantras taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana and Lekdrub of Tsang, as listed in chapter Fourteen of The Lotus-Born (Shambhala Pub.), or, what's more commonly known as Sanglingma. Five of them were translated by Vairochana before his exile to Tsawarong while the remaining thirteen were later translated by Vimalamitra and Yudra Nyingpo, hence the name. [ZL] [RY]

Early Translation school (snga 'gyur rnying ma), often simply called Nyingma, is the earliest tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, (see Appendix 1). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Early Translation School (snga 'gyur). See Nyingma School [LW1] [RY]

Early Translation School; six superior qualities of [LWx] [RY]

Early Translations (snga 'gyur). A synonym for the Old School, the Nyingma tradition. The teachings translated before the great translator Rinchen Sangpo, during the reigns of the Tibetan kings Trisong Deutsen and Ralpachen.[AL] [RY]

Earth Terma (sa gter). A revelation based on physical substance, often in the form of dakini script, a vajra, a statue, etc. Compare with 'mind terma.'[AL] [RY]

Earth Treasure (sa gter) among the seven transmissions [LW1] [RY]

Earth-owning spirits (sa bdag). [RY]

Easy Path to Omniscience (byang chub lam gi rim pa'i khrid yig thams cad mkhyen par bgrod pa'i bde lam) is one of the so-called eight great scriptures on the graded path (lam rim). This commentary was written by Lobzang Chökyi Gyaltsen (blo bzang chos kyi rgyal mtshan, 1570-1662). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

eating a white lion's flesh. Eating a white lion's flesh is a symbolic term as often found in the Tantric vows such as in the twenty-three vows of Anu yoga Tantric conduct. Though this apparently relates to abuse of the guru, the actual set of commitments have not been definitely identified. [Peter Roberts]

Effort, Energy (virya, brtson 'grus). n. of fourth Perfection, joy in the practice of virtue. [RY]

Ego-clinging (bdag 'dzin). The habitual clinging to the mistaken idea that the 'I' is an independent, singular and permanent entity. Ego-clinging is the source of disturbing emotions and the basis for all negative karmic actions leading to endless samsaric existence. [RY] Egolessness (bdag med). The absence or lack of a self-entity in both the individual person as well as matter and mind. [RY]

Egolessness (bdag med). The absence or lack of a self-entity in both the individual person as well as matter and mind. Egolessness is not an acheivement but the natural state of things. Practitioners of the lower vehicles, the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, attain a partial realization of egolessness, but it is the bodhisattva who through practicing the six paramitas dicovers reality as it is. [RY]

eight and sixteen fears. The very Indian principal eight fears are: lions, elephants, snakes, great rivers, chains (i.e. imprisonment), robbers and demons. The sixteen fears are: enemies, lions, elephants, fire, snakes, robbers, prison, ocean waves, demons, leprosy, the emissaries of Indra (Indra being the ruler of the paradise upon Mount Meru, his emissaries are powerful supernatural beings, called gandharvas, or "smell-eaters"), poverty, separation from one's loved ones, a king's punishment, and failure. [Peter Roberts]

eight aspects of the main stage of the dhyanas [LW1] [RY]

eight aspects of the preparatory stage [LW1] [RY]

eight aspirations of a Bodhisattva (byang chub sems dpa'i rtog pa brgyad). 1) To become able to dispel all the sufferings of beings, 2) to establish in wealth all those stricken by poverty, 3) to become able to give one's flesh and blood for the welfare of beings, 4) to remain in the hell realm and bring some good there, 5) to fulfill the hopes of beings with the bounty of samsara and nirvana, 6) to attain enlightenment, and remove forever the suffering of beings, 7) never to enjoy harming others rather than benefiting them, and 8) to want all beings to become happy through the exchange of one's happiness for their suffering. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Eight bodhisattvas (byang chub sems dpa' brgyad). Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri, Maitreya, Samantabhadra, Vajrapani, Ksitigarbha, Akashagarbha, Nirvaranaviskambin. [RY]

Eight bodhisattvas (byang chub sems dpa' brgyad). See Eight main bodhisattvas. [RY]

Eight branches (yan lag brgyad). The seven branches in addition to arousing bodhicitta. [RY] Eight Chariots of the Practice Lineage (sgrub brgyud shing rta brgyad), listing of [LW1] [RY]

eight chariots of the practice lineages (sgrub brgyud shing rta brgyad). Nyingma (rnying ma), Kadam (bka' gdams), Sakya (sa skya), Kagyu (bka' brgyud), Shangpa Kagyu (zhangs pa bka' brgyud), Shiche and Chöd (zhi byed and gcod), Kalachakra or Jordrug (dus 'khor or sbyor drug), and Orgyen Nyengyu (o rgyan bsnyen brgyud). For a collection of instructions and empowerments related to these eight chariots, see DZ. [MR-ShabkarNotes] Eight Chariots of Transmission: (sgrub brgyud shin rta chen po rgyad) : (1) Nyingma (rnying ma), Kadam (bka' gdams), Sakya (sa skya), Kagyu (bka' brgyud), Shangpa Kagyu (zhangs pa bka' brgyud), Shiche and Chöd (zhi byed and gcod), Kalachakra or Jordrug (dus 'khor or sbyor drug), and Orgyen Nyengyu (o rgyan bsnyen brgyud). [MR]

Eight charnel grounds (dur khrod brgyad): 1) Cool Grove, Sitavana (bsil ba tshal), in the east. 2) Perfected in Body (sku la rdzogs) to the south. 3) Lotus Mound (pad ma brtsegs) to the west. 4) Lanka Mound (lan ka brtsegs) to the north. 5) Spontaneously Accomplished Mound (lhun grub brtsegs) to the south-east. 6) Display of Great Secret (gsang chen rol pa) to the south-west. 7) Pervasive Great Joy (he chen brdal ba) to the north-west. 8) World Mound ('jig rten brtsegs) to the north-east. There are also numerous other lists of charnel grounds. [RY]

Eight classes (sde brgyad). The same as the Eight Classes of Gods and Spirits (lha srin sde brgyad). [RY] eight classes of gods and demons (lha srin sde brgyad) listing of [LW1] [RY] Eight classes of gods and demons (lha srin sde brgyad). [RY] Eight classes of gods and Spirits (lha srin sde brgyad). There are various descriptions but in the sutras the most general is: devas, nagas, yakshas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kinnaras, and mahoragas. All of them were able to receive and practice the teachings of the Buddha. These eight classes can also refer to various types of mundane spirits who can cause either help or harm, but remain invisible to normal human beings: ging, mara, tsen, yaksha, raksha, mamo, rahula, and naga. On a subtle level, they are regarded as the impure manifestation of the eight types of consciousness. [ZL] [RY]

eight classes of gods and raksas (lha srin sde brgyad). According to the Yamantaka Tantra (gshin rje gshed kyi rgyud, see TC, p. 3090) these are gshin rje, ma mo, srin po, mi'am ci, sa bdag btsan, and bdud. In his sde brgyad gser skhyems, Nub Sangye Yeshe enumerates six different series of these eight classes. See NS, vol.2, pp. 158-59. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

eight classes of herukas or means for attainment (sgrub pa bka' brgyad). 1) Yamantaka, the wrathful Manjusri, the deity of body ('jam dpal sku); 2) Hayagriva, the deity of speech (padma gsung); 3) Vishuddha, the deity of mind (yang dag thugs); 4) Vajramrita, the deity of enlightened qualities (bdud rtsi yon tan); 5) Vajra Kila, the deity of action (phur ba 'phrin las); 6) Matarah, the deity of calling and dispatching (ma mo rbod gtong); 7) the worldly deities of offering and praise ('jig rten mchod bstod); and 8) the worldly deities of wrathful mantras (mod pa drag sngags). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

eight classes of Mahadevas (lha chen brgyad) [LW1] [RY]

Eight Close Sons (nye ba'i sras brgyad), main bodhisattvas [LW1] [RY]

Eight Close Sons (nye ba'i sras brgyad). The same as the 'eight bodhisattvas.' [RY]

Eight collections (tshogs brgyad).

Eight Collections of Consciousness (rnam shes tshogs brgyad): the all-ground consciousness, the defiled mental consciousness, the mental cognition, and the cognitions of eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body. [AL] [RY]

Eight collections of consciousnesses (rnam shes tshogs brgyad). The all-ground consciousness, mind-consciousness, defiled mind-consciousness, and the five sense-consciousnesses. The eight groups of the cognitions of the eight consciousnesses: the five sense consciousnesses, mind consciousness, ego consciousness and all-ground consciousness. [RY]

Eight common siddhis (thun mong gi dngos grub brgyad). Eight types of mundane miraculous powers. [RY]

Eight conditions which limit one's natural potential to attain freedom; (ris chad blo yi mi khom rnam pa brgyad): (1) To be fettered by one's family, wealth and occupations so that one does not have the leisure to practice the dharma. (2) To have a wicked nature that leads to extremely bad conduct, so that even when one meets a spiritual teacher it is very hard for one to turn one's mind to the dharma (3) To have no fear of the suffering of samsara and therefore no feeling of renunciation or no weariness at all of samsara. (4) To lack the jewel of faith and therefore have no inclination whatsoever to meet a spiritual teacher and enter the threshold of the teachings (5) To delight in negative actions and have no compunction about them, thus turning one's back to the dharma (6) To have no more interest in the dharma than a dog for grass and therefore to be unable to develop any positive quality. (7) To have spoiled one's vows and Mahayana precepts, and therefore to be doomed to the lower realms of existence where there is no leisure to practice the dharma (8) Having entered the extraordinary path of the Vajrayana, to have broken one's samaya with one's teacher and vajra brothers and sisters, and thus have no chance of achieving any realization. [MR]

Eight conditions which cause one to drift away from the dharma; ('phral byung rkyen gyi mi khom rnam pa brgyad): Gyalwa Longchenpa, Longchen Rabjam; explains: (1) To be greatly disturbed by the five poisonous emotions (2) To be extremely stupid (3) To fall prey to evil influences (4) To be distracted by laziness (5) To lead a wrong way of life (6) To be enslaved or controlled by others (7) To practice only for the sake of protection from dangers (8) To practice a mere semblance of the dharma for the sake of gain and fame. [MR]

Eight consciousnesses (rnam shes tshogs brgyad). The all-ground consciousness, mind-consciousness, afflicted mind-consciousness, and the five sense-consciousnesses. [RY]

Eight consciousnesses; (rnam shes tshogs brgyad): 1) The undetermined and amorphous ground consciousness, already obscured by ignorance but undetermined with respect to virtue and non-virtue. 2 to 6) The consciousnesses associated with each of the five sense organs. 7) Mind consciousness, or intellectual cognition of the senses. 8) Intellection which is predominantly tainted by the negative emotions (klesas). The first six do not accumulate karma, while the last two do. [MR]

Eight constructs (spros pa brgyad). The mental formulations of mind or phenomena having such attributes as arising and ceasing, being singular or plural, coming and going, and being the same or being different. [RY]

Eight deviations (shor sa brgyad). The four basic and the four temporary strayings. [RY]

Eight disciples (rje 'bangs brgyad). The eight chief recipients in Tibet of the Eight Sadhana Teachings transmitted by Guru Rinpoche: King Trisong Deutsen, Namkhai Nyingpo, Sangye Yeshe, Gyalwa Cho-yang, Yeshe Tsogyal, Palgyi Yeshe, Palgyi Senge, and Vairochana. [ZL] [RY]

Eight doors to samsara ('khor ba'i sgo brgyad). The eight openings of one's body not counting the aperture at the top of one's head. [RY]

eight emancipations (rnam thar brgyad); expl. [LWx] [RY] eight emancipations. See emancipations [LW1] [RY]

Eight extremes {spros mtha' brgyad}. Creation, cessation, nihilism, eternalism, coming, going, diversity and identity. [RY]

Eight female bodhisattvas (byang chub sems ma brgyad). Lasya, Mala, Gita, Nirti, Pushpa, Dhupa, Aloka and Gandha. [RY]

eight freedoms (dal ba brgyad) and ten favorable conditions ('byor ba bcu) conducive to practicing the dharma. First are the freedoms from eight obstacles to practicing the Dharma, which are, 1) to be born in a hell realm, 2) among the pretas, or tormented spirits, 3) as an animal, 4) among savages, 5) as a long-living god, 6) holding totally erroneous views, 7) in a dark kalpa, during which no Buddha has appeared in the world, 8) with impaired sense faculties. Second, among the ten favorable conditions, there are five conditions that depend on ourselves (rang 'byor lnga): 1) to be born as a human being, 2) in a place where the Dharma flourishes, 3) with complete sense faculties, 4) without the karma of living in a way totally opposite to the Dharma, 5) and having faith in what deserves it. There are five conditions that depend upon others (gzhan 'byor lnga): 1) a Buddha should have appeared in the world, 2) and have taught the Dharma, 3) the Dharma should have remained until our days, 4) we should have entered the Dharma, 5) and have been accepted by a spiritual teacher. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Eight freedoms (dal ba brgyad). Not being in the three lower realms, not a long-living god, not having wrong views, not a savage, a mute, or born in an age without buddhas. [RY]

eight gates (sgo brgyad) [LW1] [RY]

eight gates manifesting as outward luminosity (phyi gsal snang ba'i sgo brgyad); expl. [LWx] [RY]

eight gates of spontaneous presence [LWx] [RY]

eight gates of the manifestation modes; expl. [LWx] [RY]

Eight Gling pa - Lineage of gter ston active in the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries [RY]

Eight goddesses (lha mo brgyad). Lasya, Mala, Gita, Nirti, Pushpa, Dhupa, Aloka and Gandha. [RY]

eight great caves (brag phug chen po brgyad), listing of [LW1] [RY]

Eight Great Chariots of the Practice Lineage (sgrub brgyud shing rta brgyad). The eight independent schools of Buddhism that flourished in Tibet: Nyingma, Kadam, Marpa Kagyü, Shangpa Kagyü, Sakya, Jordruk, Nyendrub, Shije and Chö. Today only the first five survive as independent lineages. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Eight Great Disciplines - ascetic practices concerned with food, dress, speech, body, mind, teaching, benefiting others, and compassion. [RY]

Eight great gter stons are Ratna gling pa, Padma gling pa, Orgyen gling pa, Sangs rgyas gling pa, rDo rje gling pa, Karma gling pa, Orgyen rDo rje gling pa, and Orgyen Padma gling pa. There gter stons are lived during the 14th and 15th centuries. [RY]

eight great treasure mines of courageous eloquence (spobs pa'i gter chen brgyad); listing of [LW1] [RY]

eight great vidyadhara receivers of the transmissions (bka' babs rig 'dzin chen po brgyad), listing of [LW1] [RY]

Eight great vidyadharas, receivers of the transmissions (bka' babs rig 'dzin chen po brgyad. 1) The receiver of the transmission of Manjushri was Manjushrimitra ('jam dpal bshes gnyen), the vidyadhara of Body. 2) The receiver of the transmission of Mighty Padma (pad ma dbang) [Hayagriva] was Nagarjuna (klu sgrub snying po), the vidyadhara of Speech. 3) The receiver of the transmission of Vishuddha (yang dag) was Hungchenkara (hung mdzad), the vidyadhara of Mind. 4) The receiver of the transmission of Amrita Medicine (bdud rtsi sman) was Vimalamitra (dri med bshes gnyen), the vidyadhara of Qualities. 5) The receiver of the transmission of Kilaya (phur pa) was Prabhahasti ('od kyi glang po), the vidyadhara of Activity. 6) The receiver of the transmission of Botong (rbod gtong) was Danasanskrit (nor gyi legs sbyar), the vidyadhara of Mamo. 7) The receiver of the transmission of Mopa (dmod pa) was Shintamgarbha (zhi ba'i snying po), the vidyadhara of Fierce Mantra (drag sngags). 8) The receiver of the transmission of Loka ('jig rten) was Guhyachandra (gsang ba'i zla ba), the vidyadhara of Worship (mchod bstod). [RY]

Eight Heruka Sadhanas - the eight Heruka Sadhanas are part of the meditative realization transmission which preserves essential instructions for practice. Each of these sadhanas is connected with a particular root text and with various specific practices containing everything necessary for enlightenment. the were transmitted from Padmasambhava to eight of his disciples who were known as the Eight Great Acharyas. The Eight Heruka Sadhanas are: 'jam dpal sku (gshin rje); Padma gsung; Yang dag thugs; rdo rje phur ba 'phrin las; bdud rtsi yon tan; ma mo rbod stong; 'jig rten mchod bstod; and dmod pa drag sngags. [RY]

Eight heruka sadhanas (sgrub pa bka' brgyad). Eight yidams and their corresponding sadhanas received by Padmakara from the Eight Vidyadharas. [RY]

Eight Indian Vidyadharas (rgya gar gyi rig 'dzin brgyad). Manjushrimitra, Nagarjuna, Hungchenkara, Vimalamitra, Prabhahasti, Danasanskrit, Shintamgarbha and Guhyachandra. [RY]

Eight jewel ornaments (rin po che'i rgyan brgyad). The crown, earrings, choker, short necklace, long necklace, arm rings, bracelets and anklets, belt. [RY]

eight kinds of death ('chi ba rnam pa brgyad) [Peter Roberts]

eight knowledge-holders; alias eight great vidyadharas; [LWx] [RY]

eight lay precepts (bsnyen gnas kyi sdom pa). A lay ordination of precepts taken for twenty-four hours, from dawn to dawn. These include avoiding 1) taking life, 2) taking what is not given, 3) sexual intercourse, 4) telling lies, 5) drinking liquor, 6) dancing, wearing garlands, using perfumes, playing worldly music, 7) sleeping on a high and ornamented bed, and 8) eating after noon. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

eight limiting, or conditioning concepts (spros pa'i mtha' brgyad): conceiving of reality in terms of existence and non-existence, eternity and nothingness, going and coming, sameness and difference. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

eight limiting, or conditioning, concepts (spros pa'i mtha' brgyad). Conceiving of reality in terms of existence and nonexistence, eternity and nothingness, going and coming, sameness and difference. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

eight limits of constructs (spros pa'i mtha' brgyad) [LW1] [RY]

Eight Lingpas (gling pa brgyad). Sangye, Dorje, Rinchen, Padma, Ratna, Kunkyong, Do-ngag and Tennyi Lingpa.[AL] [RY]

Eight Lokla Dey (logs la sde brgyad) [LW1] [RY]

Eight main bodhisattvas (nye ba'i sras brgyad). Kshitigarbha, Akashagarbha, Avalokiteshvara, Vajrapani, Maitreya, Sarvanirvarana vishkambin, Samantabhadra and Manjushri. [RY] eight major and minor classes of haughty spirits [LW1] [RY]

Eight male and female bodhisattvas. [Daki] [RY]

Eight mamo goddesses and eight yoginis. [Daki] [RY]

eight manifestations (gu ru mtshan brgyad), listing [LW1] [RY]

Eight manifestations (gu ru mtshan brgyad). Eight forms of Guru Rinpoche: Shakya Senge, Padmasambhava, Nyima Özer, Senge Dradrok, Dorje Drollo, Tsokye Dorje, Padma Gyalpo and Loden Choksey. [RY]

eight masteries (zil gnon brgyad) [LW1] [RY]

Eight Maya Sections (sgyu 'phrul sde brgyad). Basic Mahayoga scriptures. Listed in Chapter 12. [ZL] [RY]

Eight Maya Sections (sgyu 'phrul sde brgyad). See Eight Sections of Magical Net, Magical Net [LW1] [RY]

Eight objects (yul brgyad). The objects of the eight consciousnesses: sight, sound, smell, taste, texture, mental objects, the all-ground, and appearance. [RY]

Eight personal treasures of the king. [Daki] [RY]

Eight Places of the Accomplished Ones (grub thob gnas brgyad), in the Golden Valley of Rekong, are eight places prophesied by Guru Padmasambhava, where eight great yogins of his lineage practiced, attained realization and performed many miracles. In AC, vol.2, pp. 304-12, the eight (or nine) places are identified as follows: In the center is Balgi Khargong Lakha ('bal gyi mkhar gong la kha) the meditation place of the Bodhisattva of Bol ('bol gyi byang chub sems dpa'). In the east is Taklung Shelgi Riwo (stag lung shel gyi ri bo), the meditation place of Shelgi Odeh Gung Gyal (shel gyi 'o de gung rgyal). In the southeast is Lhadrak Karpo, in the Upper part of Chang, (spyang phu'i lha brag dkar po), where Kalden Gyatso had a vision of Kasarpani and one of the Sixteen Arhats. In the vicinity is Ratse Phug (rwa rtse phug), the meditation place of Masö Shili Urwa (ma gsod zhi li 'ur ba). In the south, in Dambu, is Drakar Serkhang ('dam bu'i brag dkar gser khang), the meditation place of the great Brahmin Litrö (bram ze chen po li khrod). In the southwest is Thamug Dzongmar Gonpa (mtha' smug rdzong dmar dgon pa), the meditation place of Athu Ngakpa Yu Ngok (a mthu'i sngags pa g.yu rngogs). In the west is Sheldel Chökyi Potrang (shel del chos kyi pho brang), the meditation place of Tönpa Odeh Shampo (ston pa 'o de sham po). AC mentions that this is actually an extra, or ninth place. In the northwest is Kyagang Nemö Bangwa or Dori Palkyi Ritse (skya sgang gnas mo'i bang ba, or do ri dpal gyi ri rtse), the meditation place of Seyi Gyalwa Changchup (bse yi rgyal ba byang chub), where there are many images that have appeared naturally on the rocks. In the north is Gongmo Gurkhang Draktsa (gong mo'i gur khang brag rtsa), the meditation place of the Bönpo master Drenpa Namkha (dran pa nam mkha'). In the north-east, Chuchik Shel (bcu gcig shel), the meditation place of Kathok Dorje Wangpo (ka thog rdo rje dbang po, see note 6), Chöpa Rinpoche and Jetsun Kalden Gyatso (see note 2). In RO, pp.46-58, nine places where eight siddhas meditated are identified in a slightly different way. The spelling of the names of the places and of the siddhas also vary. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

eight places of the accomplished ones (grub thob gnas brgyad). The Eight Sacred Sites of the Accomplished Ones, located in the Golden Valley of Rekong, are eight places prophesied by Guru Padmasambhava, where eight great yogins of his lineage practiced, attained realization, and performed many miracles. In AC, vol.2, pp. 304-12, the eight (or nine) places are identified as follows:In the center is Balgi Khargong Lakha ('bal gyi mkhar gong la kha) the meditation place of the Bodhisattva of Bol ('bol gyi byang chub sems dpa'). In the east is Taklung Shelgi Riwo (stag lung shel gyi ri bo), the meditation place of Shelgi Odeh Gung Gyal (shel gyi 'o de gung rgyal). In the southeast is Lhadrak Karpo, in the Upper part of Chang, (spyang phu'i lha brag dkar po), where Kalden Gyatso had a vision of Kasarpani and of the Sixteen Arhats. In the vicinity is Ratse Phug (rwa rtse phug), the meditation place of Masö Shili Urwa (ma gsod zhi li 'ur ba). In the south, in Dambu, is Drakar Serkhang ('dam bu'i brag dkar gser khang), the meditation place of the great Brahmin Litrö (bram ze chen po li khrod). In the southwest is Thamug Dzongmar Gonpa (mtha' smug rdzong dmar dgon pa), the meditation place of Athu Ngakpa Yu Ngok (a mthu'i sngags pa g.yu rngogs). In the west is Sheldel Chökyi Potrang (shel del chos kyi pho brang), the meditation place of Tönpa Odeh Shampo (ston pa 'o de sham po). AC mentions that this is actually an extra, or ninth place. In the northwest is Kyagang Nemö Bangwa or Dori Palkyi Ritse (skya sgang gnas mo'i bang ba, or do ri dpal gyi ri rtse), the meditation place of Seyi Gyalwa Changchup (bse yi rgyal ba byang chub), where there are many sacred images that have appeared naturally on the rocks. In the north is Gongmo Gurkhang Draktsa (gong mo'i gur khang brag rtsa), the meditation place of the Bönpo master Drenpa Namkha (dran pa nam mkha'). In the northeast, Chuchik Shel (bcu gcig shel), the meditation place of Kathok Dorje Wangpo (ka thog rdo rje dbang po, see notes 5 and 6), Chöpa Rinpoche and Jetsun Kalden Gyatso (see note 2). In RO, p.46-58, nine places where eight siddhas meditated are identified in a slightly different way. The spelling of the names of the places and of the siddhas also vary. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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--Richard 12:29, 12 August 2008 (EDT)