Madhyamaka

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Madhyamaka (dbu ma)


Brief definitions

  • Madhyamaka - Philosophical school linked to the Prajnaparamita; developed on the basis of Nagarjuna's teachings RY
  • Madhyamaka - Philosophical school linked to the Prajnaparamita; devel­oped on the basis of Nagarjuna's teachings. [Tarthang]
  • Madhyamaka (dbu ma), the Middle Way, is the corpus of the highest philosophical view of the Mahayana, free from all limiting concepts. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
  • Madhyamaka (dbu ma). The Middle (Way). The highest of the four buddhist schools of philosophy. The Middle Way means not holding any extreme views, especially those of eternalism or nihilism. RY
  • Madhyamaka (dbu ma). The Middle Way. The highest of the four Buddhist schools of philosophy. The Middle Way means not holding any extreme views, especially those of eternalism or nihilism. RY
  • Madhyamaka {du ma chen po}. Middle way. Madhyamaka has two main schools, Svatantrika and Prasangika. The first one considers that, in terms of absolute truth, phenomena have no true existence whatsoever; but in terms of relative truth, phenomena appear through the combination of causes and conditions, perform their function, and have a verifiable conventional existence. The second school asserts that, from both an absolute and a relative point of view, phenomena are totally devoid of existence and cannot be characterized by any concept such as "existent," "nonexistent," "both existent and nonexistent," or "neither existent nor nonexistent." For the Prasangikas, absolute truth is the nondual pristine wisdom of the Buddhas, free from conceptual elaboration. RY

Madhyamaka (dbu ma)

  • Derived from the Sanskrit expression madhyamapratipad, meaning the "Middle Way" between the extremes of eternalism and nihilism, which was expounded by Śākyamuni Buddha, Madhyamaka (dbu ma) is the name of the most influential among the four classical schools of Indian Buddhist philosophy. Within the context of the Madhyamaka school, the Middle Way refers to the doctrine of emptiness (śūnyatā), which is held to be the true nature of all things. According to this view, all phenomena, whether mental or physical, cannot be found to possess any independent or self-validating nature, and their existence and identity are regarded as valid only within a relative framework of worldly convention. Further, it is propounded that not only do phenomena exist solely in dependence upon causes and conditions, but even their identities depend on conceptions and labelling. Nevertheless, this school holds that, unlike mere fantasies, such as unicorns for example, phenomena do exist conventionally and their ontology must be accepted as valid. Such a metaphysical position is designated the "Middle Way" in that it is the mid-point between the extremes of total non-existence or nihilism and the positing of an ultimate, independent existence of reality, or eternalism. Founded by Nāgārjuna in the second century AD, the Madhyamaka school was later classified into two subdivisions, based on different interpretations of Nāgārjuna's views which were made by Buddhapalita and Bhavaviveka, namely: the Prāsaṅgika, who utilise only consequential reasoning (prasaṅga) and the Svātantrika, who utilise independent syllogisms (svatantra). A further distinction, which was developed subsequently in Tibet, differentiates between this outer Madhyamaka, which emphasises dialectics as a means of realising the intrinsic emptiness (rang stong) of all things, and the inner Great Madhyamaka (dbu ma chen po) which emphasises meditative insight into the nature of buddha-attributes. These attributes are viewed as a coalescence of pure appearance and emptiness, which is extraneously empty (gzhan stong) of all the impure phenomena associated with cyclic existence. On Madhyamaka in general, see D.S. Ruegg, The Literature of the Madhyamaka School of Philosophy in India; Paul Williams, Mahāyāna Buddhism, pp. 55-76; and for the rNying-ma interpretation of Madhyamaka, see bDud-'joms Rin-po-che, NSTB, pp. 162-186. GD (from the Glossary to Tibetan Elemental Divination Paintings)

Occurrences

'jug pa - 1) intr. {'jug pa, zhugs pa, 'jug pa, zhugs} intr. v.; 2) {'jug pa, bcug pa, gzhug pa, chug} trans. v.; to mean, apply to, refer to; name of a text; {dbu ma la 'jug pa} Madhyamakavatara; to insert, infuse; to engage/ enter/ begin/ become involved; to infuse (i.e. with blessings); involvement/ functioning/ operation; application [as in awakening mind of ...]; descent, entrance, regular sequence, setting out. Syn {dbu ma la 'jug pa} Syn {bya ba} 1) usage. 2) establishing [others on the path]. 3) to enter, to place, the going into, to follow, to go or walk in, to enter, to undertake, the entering. 4) manifestation, 5) [gradual] involvement. 6) proceeds [compassion which proceeds to all beings], to proceed, to undertake; starting to function, proceed, act, function, start working, functioning, entering, 'actually entering', application, practice, activity, continuity [of cause and effect]. to be penetrated, Regular sequence, as one of the ten non-concurrent formations; Def. by Jamgön Kongtrül: {skad cig dang bar chad pa la de mi rung bas rgyu 'bras kyi gnas skabs kyi rgyun bar mi chad par 'byung ba'o}; // for ex.: gzhan la gsod 'jug pa - to allow; penetrate, fully comprehend, occur, enter // Entering the Middle Way; Madhyamakavatara [RY]

gtan tshigs lnga - five syllogisms of Madhyamaka. Five Logical Axioms According to Madhyamaka. The vajra fragments {rdo rje zegs ma} the production and cessation of existence and non-existence {yod med skye 'gog} the production and cessation of the four limits {mu bzhi skye 'gog} the supreme relativity {rten 'brel chen po} and the singular and the multiple {gcig dang du bral} [RY]

gtan tshigs chen po bzhi - Four Great Axioms / Syllogisms of Madhyamaka. 1) The vajra fragments {rdo rje zegs ma}; 2) the production and cessation of the four limits {mu bzhi skye 'gog}; 3) the supreme relativity {rten 'brel chen po}; 4) and the singular and the multiple {gcig dang du bral}. See also {gtan tshigs lnga}. [RY]

gtan tshigs chen po bzhi - four great syllogisms of Madhyamaka [IW]

thal 'gyur - 1) Prasangika [madhyamaka school founded by chandrakirti/ {zla ba grags pa}. [prasang] logical consequence, contradictory]; 2) consequence [in Prasan.gika dialectic] the reductio ad absurdum of Madhyamaka, pointing out an] undesired consequence, a proposition in which the three modes are complete, refuting the phyogs snga or, snga rgol phyi rgol gnyis la mthun snang grub nges kyi tshul gsum 'god pa'i ngag EG, against someone maintaining sound is produced but permanent: the dharmin sound, is unproduced, because it is permanent OR, the dharmin sound is impermanent, because it is produced, [Gd][phyogs snga sun 'byin par mi 'dod pa'i thal ba 'phen pa'am, rgol phyi rgol gnyis la mthun snang grub nges kyi tshul gsum 'god pa'i ngag dper na, sgra rtag par 'dod pa'i gang zag gi ngor, sgra chos can, ma byas par thal, rtag pa'i phyir, zhes pa lta bu sun 'byin pa dang, yang na, sgra chos can, mi rtag pa yin par thal, byas pa'i phyir, zhes pa lta bu tshul gsum tsang ba'i ngag go. Prasan.gika dialectic. the reductio ad absurdum of Madhyamaka. Book 1, pp. 000-000. [Gd-mk]. Prasangika, founded by chandrakirti/ {zla ba grags pa}. [prasang] logical consequence, contradictory [IW]

thal 'gyur - Prasangika; Prasangika dialectics. reductio ad absurdum of Madhyamaka. founded by Chandrakirti / {zla ba grags pa} logical consequence, 3) contradictory [RY]

don dam bden pa - absolute truth [one of the two truths, Vaibhashika: whatever bcom pa or blos cha shas so sor bsal ba na rang 'dzin gyi blo 'dor du mi rung ba'i chos cha med gnyis dang, Sautrantikas: sgra rtog gis btags par ma ltos par rang gi sdod lugs kyi ngos nas rigs pas dpyad bzod du grub pa'i chos rang mtsan; Mind-only: don dam dpyod byed kyi rig shes tshad mas rnyed don yongs grub kyi chos, Madhyamaka: rang mngon sum du rtogs pa'i perceptual pramana rang nyid gnyis snang nub pa'i [IW]

bdag lta bzhi - fourfold view of self [in Madhyamaka] [RY]

mdo sde spyod pa'i dbu ma - Sautrantika Madhyamaka; {gzhan ngor phyi rol gyi don tha snyad tsam du khas len pa rags pa phyi'i dbu ma pa} tha snyad du phyi rol gyi don yod par 'dod pa ste legs ldan 'byed sogs so [RY]

mdo sde spyod pa'i dbu ma rang rgyud pa - sautrantika Sv tantrika Madhyamaka [IW]

mdo sde sbyod pa'i dbu ma rang rgyud pa - Sv tantra Madhyamaka adherents who follow the Sautrantikas, Sautrantika Svatantrika Madhymika [IW]

nang phra ba'i dbu ma - the subtle & inner Madhyamaka [RY]

nang phra ba'i dbu ma - the subtle and inner Madhyamaka GD [IW]

rnam pa nyi shu byang chub pa - Twenty Ways In Which The Body Is Enlightened. According to Nyoshul Khen Rinpoche, this refers here to the ten aspects of renunciation and the ten aspects of realization which pertain to the ten bodhisattva levels. The term may also refer in Madhyamaka to the fourfold view of self {bdag lta bzhi} which applies to each of the five components of form, feeling, perception, habitual tendencies, and consciousness, and in the context of the vehicles of secret mantra, it may refer to accomplishment in twenty specific exercises pertaining to the experiential cultivation of the energy channels, currents and seminal points within the body. [GM] [RY]

rnal 'byor spyod pa dbu ma - Yogachara-Madhyamaka. Great Madhyamaka [RY]

rnal 'byor spyod pa'i dbu ma - Yogacharya-Madhyamika, founded by Shantarakshita; Yogachara Madhyamaka. Def. {tha snyad du shes pa tsam las ma gtogs pa phyi'i don med par khas len pa phra ba nang gi dbu ma pa} and {tha snyad du phyi don med par 'dod pa ste zhi ba 'tsho sogs so} [RY]

phyi rags kyi dbu ma - the coarse & outer Madhyamaka [RY]

phra nang gi dbu ma chen po - subtle & inner Great Madhyamaka [RY]

dbu ma - 1) Middle Way; Skt. Madhyamaka. The highest of the four Buddhist schools of philosophy. The Middle Way means not holding any extreme views, especially those of eternalism or nihilism. 2) avadhuti - central channel. The central subtle channel within the body, running from the base of the spine to the crown of the head [RY]

dbu ma - makhyama, central pathway, middle, middle course, central, principal artery, related to the center, SA ye shes kyi rlung, rnal 'byor spyod pa'i dbu ma rang rgyud pa, Centrism, Madhyamaka, central channel [JV]

dbu ma - Madhyamaka [RY]

dbu ma - middle way; central (channel); Madhyamaka; 1) middle, center; 2) Madhyamaka, [Madhyamaka]; 1) the middle, central. 2) Madhyamika, the middle way, [Mahayana philosophical school]. 3) avadhuti, the central channel. [Syn. {su su ma}, {kun 'dar ma}. 4) system of the Middle way Syn Madhyamaka, [Tibetan Monastic]. study of this system [RY]

dbu ma rgyan - Ornament of the Middle Way; Madhyamakalamkara-karika; Shantarakshita, 8th century [RY]

dbu ma rgyan - the Madhyamaka-lamkara [Shantirakshita's "ornament of the middle way"] [IW]

dbu ma rgyan - the Madhyamaka-lamkara [IW]

dbu ma rgyan - madhyamak'alangk'ara by sh'antarakshita'a, 705-762; the Madhyamaka-Lamkara, Shantarakshita "Ornament of the Middle Way" [RY]

dbu ma che 'bring - the 'great' and 'intermediate' Madhyamaka [RY]

dbu ma chen po - Great Middle Way, Mahamadyamika, great Madhyamaka [RY]

dbu ma 'jug pa - Introduction to the Middle Way; Madhyamaka-Avatara-nama; Chandrakirti, 7th century [RY]

dbu ma 'jug pa - The Madhyamakavatara, Chandrakirti's Introduction to the Middle Way, text on the middle way view by Chandrakirti [RY]

dbu ma nyigs tshogs - collection of Madhyamaka arguments [RY]

dbu ma snying po - Heart of the Middle Way; Madhyamaka-hrdaya-karika; Bhavaviveka, 6th century [RY]

dbu ma snying po - the Madhyamaka-hridaya, Bhavaviveka's "essence of the middle way" [IW]

dbu ma snying po - the Madhyamaka-hridaya, Bhavaviveka's "Essence of the Middle Way" [RY]

dbu ma thal 'gyur ba - Prasangika Madhyamaka School; Prasangika Madhyamika. adherents of the Prasangika dialectics; advanced school of absolute reductionism; the system of Chandrakirti; Def. by Jamgön Kongtrül: {sgrub byed kyi gtan tshigs tshul gsum dngos stobs kyis sgrub pa'i rang rgyud pa 'god pa med cing/ skye med dang stong nyid sogs gzhan gyi log rtog dgag pa'i phyir gzhan ngor khas len cing dngos smra ba la nang 'gal ston pa'i thal 'gyur tsam las rang lugs bsgrub bya med pas khas len dang bral ba'o} [RY]

dbu ma bden gnyis - {dbu ma bden gnyis} [work on Madhyamaka by {ye shes snying po} [IW]

dbu ma bden gnyis - a work on Madhyamaka by {ye shes snying po} [RY]

dbu ma pa - proponent of Middle Way -; Madhyamika, middle way school, adherent of the Madhyamaka system, centrist; Madhyamika, [Madhyamika] Def. by Jamgön Kongtrül: {yod med skye 'gag la sogs pa'i mtha' thams cad las rnam par grol bas gang la'ang dmigs pa med par sma ba ni dbu ma pa zhes bya ste} [RY]

dbu ma pa chen po - great Madhyamaka master [RY]

dbu ma phyi nang phra rags gnyis - the two types of Madhyamaka, [the coarse outer madhyamaka of the svatantrikas and prasangikas, and the subtle inner madhyamaka of the yogachara-madhyamaka, divisions as presented by the latter] [IW]

dbu ma phyi nang phra rags gnyis - the two types of Madhyamaka, coarse outer and subtle inner. the coarse outer Madhyamaka of the Sautrantikas and Prasangika, and the subtle inner Madhyamaka of the Yogachara-Madhyamaka [RY]

dbu ma phyi nang phra rags gnyis - the two types of Madhyamaka, [IW]

dbu ma phyi nang phra rags gnyis - the two types of Madhyamaka, [the coarse outer madhyamaka of the svatantrikas and prasangikas, and the subtle inner madhyamaka of the yogachara-madhyamaka] [IW]

dbu ma rtsa ba shes rab - T 3824 - Madhyamaka-Karika, by Nagarjuna [RY]

dbu ma bzhi brgya pa'i tshig don rnam par bshad pa klu dbang dgongs rgyan - a rare and previously unpublished commentary on a'aryadeva's monumental work on Madhyamaka philosophy - the catu:shatakash'astrak'arik'a; by {bod pa sprul sku mdo sngags bstan pa'i nyi ma} (1907-1959) [RY]

dbu ma rang rgyud - Svatantrika-Madhyamaka [RY]

dbu ma rang rgyud pa - Svatantrika Madhyamaka School [RY]

dbu ma rigs tshogs lnga - Five Collections of Madhyamaka Reasoning. Works of Nagarjuna [RY]

dbu ma la 'jug pa - Entering the Middle Way, Madhyamakavatara [RY]

dbu ma shing rta gnyis - the 2 chariots of Madhyamaka, Nagarjuna and Asanga [RY]

dbu ma'i sgom rim gsum - Bhavana-krama, Kamalashila's "Stages of Meditation on the Middle Way, in three parts], the three Madhyamaka Bhavamakrama by Kamalashila [RY]

dbu ma'i bstan bcos - Nagarjuna's "Fundamental Treatise on the Middle Way, the Mula-Madhyamaka Karika. fundamental treatise on the middle way [RY]

rtsa ba shes rab - Madhyamakakarikas [dbu ma rtsa ba'i tshig le'ur byas pa shes rab ces bya ba, sher phyin dngos bstan gyi stong nyid de, zab mo dbu ma'i lta ba rnam dpyod rigs lam gyis ston pa'i gzhung, rgya gar gyi slob dpon klu sgrub kyis mdzad pa'o,.... Prajnamula, the "fundamental treatise on the middle way called prajna", [first of nagarjuna's six main works, syn {dbu ma'i tshig le'ur byas pa} 1 of the {rigs tshogs drug - the six logical works of the maadhyamika by nargarjuna] [IW]

zhi ba 'tsho - Lobpon Bodhisattva, Shantarakshita, 'Guardian of Peace.' The Indian pandita and abbot of Vikramashila and of Samye who ordained the first Tibetan monks. He was an incarnation of the bodhisattva Vajrapani and is also known as Khenpo Bodhisattva or Bhikshu Bodhisattva Shantarakshita. He is the founder of a philosophical school combining Madhyamika and Yogachara. This tradition was reestablished and clarified by Mipham Rinpoche in his commentary on the Madhyamaka Lamkara [RY]

gzhung chen bcu gsum - Thirteen major philosophical texts / great root texts of philosophy. The fundamental treatises on Buddhist philosophy covering the topics of Vinaya, the bodhisattva trainings, Maitreya's five treatises covering Prajnaparamita etc. as well as Abhidharma, and Madhyamaka [RY]

zla grags - Candrakirti (7th century Madhyamaka also in Guhyasamaja tradition transmitted by mahasiddha Saraha) [JV]