New Schools of Later Translations
New Schools of Later Translations (phyi 'gyur gsar ma).
Old and New Schools (gsar rnying). Although there were no new or old schools in India, these names are given to the early and later spread of the teachings in Tibet. Translations from the 7th through the 9th centuries up to and including King Triral are called the Old School of Early Translations (snga 'gyur snying ma), and later ones are known as the New Schools of Later Translations (phyi 'gyur gsar ma). Lochen Rinchen Sangpo (lo chen rin chen bzang po) is regarded as the first translator of the New Mantra School.
Old and New Traditions. The Old Tradition, or the Tradition of the Ancient Translation (sna 'gyur snying ma), or Nyingma, is the tradition related to the texts translated during the early period of the spread of Buddhism in Tibet, from the time of Guru Rinpoche up to the translator Rinchen Sangpo; (rin chen bzang po, 957-1055). The New Tradition (gsar ma) correspond to the period of later translations of Indian scriptures, and includes the Kadam (bka' gdams), Kagyu (bka' brgyud), Shangpa Kagyu (zhangs pa bka' brgyud), Sakya (sa skya), Chö and Shiche (gcod dang zhi byed), Kalachakra (dus 'khor spyor drug), Orgyen Nyendrub (o rgyan bsnyen sgrub), and Geluk (dge lugs) schools.