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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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Taden Gushri Kunga Nyima (ta bden gu shri kun dga' nyi ma): 1309-1322 (First son of Sangpo Pal's 6th spouse) [MR]

Tai Situ Changchup Gyaltsen, the first of the seven Phagdru kings (t'ai si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan): 1302-1371 [MR]

Taking Refuge (skyabs 'gro). Placing one's trust in the Three Jewels. [RY]

Taklung Dratsang. [RY]

Taklung Kagyu. [RY]

Taklung Matrul. [RY]

Taklung Thangpa, Tashi Pal; 1142-1210: (stag lung thang pa bkra shis dpal). Disciple of Phagmo Drupa (1110-1170). Founded Taklung Monastery (around 1180-1185) and the Taklung tradition. [MR]

Takmen Sordongma (stag sman zor gdong ma). [ZL] [RY]

Takse Richö (stag rtse ri chos): Ri chos zab mo grub pa'i bcud len sprang rtsi'i snying po, by stag rtse bya bral ba mi pham phun tshogs shes rab. 28 folios [MR]

Taksham Nüden Dorje (stag sham nus ldan rdo rje) [LW1] [RY]

Taksham Nuden Dorje (stag sham nus ldan rdo rje, born in 1682), also known as Samten Lingpa (bsam gtan gling pa), was a great tertön and an emanation of Atsara Sale, Yeshe Tsogyal's Nepalese consort. See ND, pp. 301-2 [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Taksham Nuden Dorje. [RY]

Taksham: 17th cent. [MR]

Taktsang (stag tshang). [ZL] [RY]

Taktsang Phurba (stag tshang phur ba, See RT vol.31, Ki) is the cycle of teachings focused on Vajra Kilaya rediscovered by Ratön Tertön (rwa ston gter ston, see Translator's Introduction, note 41) at Onphu Taktsang ('on phu stag tshang) near Samye in central Tibet. Onphu Taktsang is the cave where Guru Padmasambhava gave the Vajra Kilaya initiation to Tashi Kyidren (bkra shis khyi 'dren) and Yeshe Tsogyal (ye shes mtsho rgyal). It is also one of the thirteen "Tiger Dens" (stag tshang) of Tibet and Bhutan. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Taktsang Phurba, see chap.1, note 54. The rediscovered treasures mentioned here are likely to be the mind termas (dgongs gter) of Kunzang Dechen Gyalpo (see Appendix 4). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Talgyur Root Tantra (sgra thal 'gyur rtsa ba'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tamarisk Forest at Red Rock. [Daki] [RY]

Tamer of All Haughty Spirits (dregs pa kun 'dul). The chief figure in the mandala of Mundane Worship. [ZL] [RY]

Tamer of Mara. [Daki] [RY]

Tanagana (sbyor sgrol). The Vajrayana practice of 'union and liberation:' liberating ignorance and disturbing emotions by uniting with the wisdom of the enlightened state. [ZL] [RY]

Tanglha (thang lha). See Nyenchen Tanglha. [ZL] [RY]

Tangyur (bstan 'gyur); often pron. 'tanjur'. 'The Translated Treatises', the collection of Tib. translations of the Indian Buddhist literature other than the actual Buddha-word-commentaries, treatises, hymns, rituals, dictionaries, medical texts, etc - amounting to over two hundred volumes, or about twice the length of the Kangyur. [RY]

Tangyur / bsTan 'gyur - The collection of commentaries on the Buddha's teachings: the second part of the Tibetan Canon [RY]

Tangyur; expl.; [LWx] [RY]

Tantra - The teachings that form the basis for the Mantrayana. In rNying ma, there are three outer and three inner Tantras. [RY]

Tantra (rgyud) advanced teachings which offer many skillful means for obtaining liberation rapidly. Although in some systems the Tantras are considered to fall into only four categories, the Kriya, Charya, Yoga, and Anuttarayoga, the rNying mas accept three outer and three inner Tantras. [RY]

Tantra (rgyud). A canonical scripture of the esoteric class; the whole set of practices taught in such scriptures and their commentaries, involving identification of oneself with a fully Enlightened deity, the Vajrayana; a subset of such Tantric teachings, centered on a particular deity (e.g. 'the T. of Heruka) or of a particular level (Kriya tantra, Carya tantra, Yoga tantra, Anuttara yoga tantra). [RY]

Tantra (rgyud). Continuity is the ground tantra of the inseparable two truths. [RY]

tantra (rgyud). See also continuity. See also Sutra and Mantra, Mantrayana, Vajrayana [LW1] [RY]


Tantra (rgyud). The Vajrayana teachings given by the Buddha in his sambhogakaya form. The real sense of tantra is 'continuity,' the innate buddha nature, which is known as the 'tantra of the expressed meaning.' The general sense of tantra is the extraordinary tantric scriptures also known as the 'tantra of the expressing words.' Can also refer to all the resultant teachings of Vajrayana as a whole. [Bardo Guide 91][ZL] [RY]

TANTRA (rgyud). The Vajrayana teachings given by the Buddha in his sambhogakaya form. The real sense of tantra is 'continuity,' the innate buddha nature, which is known as the 'tantra of the expressed meaning.' The general sense of tantra is the extraordinary tantric scriptures also known as the 'tantra of the expressing words.' Can also refer to all the resultant teachings of Vajrayana as a whole. [AL] [RY]

Tantra acarya. Professor of Tantric studies. [RY]

Tantra Adorned with Thousandfold Knowledge (shes pa stong gis brgyan pa'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra and Sadhana Section (rgyud sde dang sgrub sde). The two aspects of Mahayoga. [RY]

Tantra Mahamudra (sngags kyi phyag chen). Same as Mantra Mahamudra. [RY]

Tantra manifest as sound (sgrar snang ba'i rgyud) is is mind transmission or both the transmission of mind and symbol. [RY]

Tantra of Amending Incompleteness (ma tshang ba kha skong ba'i rgyud). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Vol. OM of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Confession. (bshags pa thams chad kyi rgyud dri ma med pa'i rgyal po). Sanskrit: Samaya sarva viti anu sarva sanitantra vimala raja."The Stainless King, the Tantra of all Confessions". The copy in my possession is 88 folios and it is therefore quite substantial. It was translated by Vimalamitra and Nyak Jnana Kumara, but does not appear in the Kangyur index, either under its title or as one of the two translators' works. [Peter Roberts]

Tantra of Equalizing All Buddhas. See Samayoga Tantra [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Excellent Accomplishment (legs par grub pa'i rgyud), Skt. Susiddhikara. A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Fulfilling All Needs (rgyud 'dod pa kun 'byung). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Graceful Auspiciousness (bkra shis mdzes ldan gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how to establish the nature of awareness, and how to identify the basis of confusion and the unmistaken wisdom. [RY]

Tantra of Immaculate Fruition ('bras bu dri ma med pa'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of Indestructible Blissful Wrath (rdo rje bde khros kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

tantra of meaning (don rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of meaning (don rgyud) is ground, path and fruition. [RY]

Tantra of No Letters (yi ge med pa'i rgyud). This tantra desribes the actual means of practice, how to abadon acitivites and live in places free from defects, the four ways of 'freely resting,' sustaining naturalness as well as the undefiled method of the main part of practice. [RY]

Tantra of Pacifying (zhi byed kyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of Piled Gems (rin chen spungs pa'i rgyud). This scripture explains how all the qualities manifest are all the essence of space and awareness. [RY]

Tantra of Pointing-out Instructions (ngo sprod sprad pa'i rgyud). This scripture describes apply the essence of awareness in one's practice through various indications. [RY]

Tantra of Powerful Liberation (stobs po che yongs sgrol gyi rgyud). A scripture belonging to Mahayoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Secrets (gsang rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Self-Arising Awareness (rang shar) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Self-arising Awareness (rig pa rang shar gyi rgyud); expl. [LWx] [RY]

Tantra of Self-existing Perfection (rdzogs pa rang byung). This scripture teaches how to prepared to be a suitable recepient of the teachings by means of the four empowerments. [RY]

Tantra of Self-liberated Awareness (rig pa rang grol gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how awareness is uncreated but is liberated by itself, how to control appearances, to grow familiar with the vajra chain, and to naturally free all of samsara and nirvana. [RY]

Tantra of Self-manifest Awareness (rig pa rang shar gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how to resolve the view, meditation and action. [RY]

Tantra of Shining Relics (sku gdung 'bar ba'i rgyud). This tantra describes the outer and inner signs of awareness reaching maturity which are manifest before and after the time of death in order to inspire and instill confidence in other persons. [RY]

Tantra of Studded Jewels (nor by bkra bkod). This tantra shows how to eliminate the defects and sidetracks connected to the view and the practice of meditation, conduct and fruition. [RY]

Tantra of Taming Haughty Spirits (dregs pa 'dul ba'i rgyud). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga; focused on the section of Mundane Worship. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Taming the Elemental Forces ('byung po 'dul byed kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Black Wrathful Shri Ekajati (dpal e ka dza ti nag mo khros ma'i rgyud). This tantra describes how to protect the practitioner against harms inflicted by others. [RY]

Tantra of the Blazing Mass of Fire that Consumes the Kleshas (me dpung 'bar ba nyon mongs sreg pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Upa Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Blazing Vajra Mountain (rdo rje me ri'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Brilliant Expanse (klong gsal). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Enlightenment of Mahavairocana (Skt. Mahavairocanabhisambodhi-vikurvitadhisthana-vaipulya-sutranta-raja, Tib. rnam par snang mdzad chen po mngon par rdzogs par byang chub rnam par sprul pa byin gyis rlob pa shin tu rgyas pa mdo sde'i dbang po'i rgyal po, T 494). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tantra of the Flawless Essence (dri ma med pa snying po'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Four Vajra Thrones (rdo rje gdan bzhi'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. Possibly identical with the Catuhpitha (gdan bzhi) which is included among the tantras in the Tripitaka. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Full Enlightenment of Vairochana (rnam snang mngon par byang chub pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Upa Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the General Accomplishment of Knowledge Mantras (rig sngags spyi'i sgrub lugs kyi rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. Also named Galpo Düpa (gal po bsdus pa). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Glorious Assemblage of Herukas (dpal heruka 'dus pa'i rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Great Graceful Auspiciousness (bkra shis mdzes ldan chen po'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY] Tantra of the Great Perfection that is Equal to Space (rdzogs pa chen po nam mkha' dang mnyam pa). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Heart Mirror of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po thugs kyi me long). This tantra shows how to identify and cut through pitfalls and errors and how to establish what is innate. [RY]

Tantra of the Heart of Vajrasattva (rdo sems snying gi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Immaculate Essence (dri ma med snying po'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

TANTRA OF THE IMMACULATE KING OF CONFESSION (dri med bshags rgyud kyi rgyal po).[AL] [RY]

Tantra of the Inconceivable Secret (gsang ba bsam gyis mi khyab pa'i rgyud). A tantra of the New schools which sets forth the system of Mahamudra. [RY]

Tantra of the Indestructible Secret Teaching (rdo rje gsang ba bstan pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Lamp of the Three Realms (khams gsum sgron ma'i rgyud). One of the Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. A text with similar title is found in Vol. KA of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Liberation of the Ten Objects (zhing bcu sgrol ba'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Lotus Mound Mantra (padma brtsegs pa sngags kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Magical Net (Skt. mayajala-mahatantraraja, Tib. rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po sgyu 'phrul drwa ba, T 466). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tantra of the Magical Net of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' sgyu 'phrul dra ba'i rgyud). Same as Essence of Secrets, Guhyagarbha. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Major and Minor Casket Array (za ma tog che chung bkod pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Mind Mirror of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' snying gi me long). This tantra teaches how the lamps are the self-display of awareness. By means of 21 pointing-out instructions, the different types of people recognize wisdom. It further teaches the four key points and how to practice. [RY]

Tantra of the Mind Mirror of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' snying gi me long gi rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of the Mirror of the Heart (snying gi me long). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Ocean of Ferocious Activity (gtum po las rgya mtsho'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Perfect Embodiment of the Unexcelled Nature (bla med don rdzogs 'dus pa'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Perfected Lion (seng ge rtsal rdzogs kyi rgyud). The scripture explains the degrees of progres and the signs that occur, how to stabilize awareness and increase the level of experience. [RY]

Tantra of the Precious Gathering of All into One (kun 'dus rin po che'i rgyud). A tantra of this name or even containing this name does not appear to be listed in the Derge Kangyur. [Peter Roberts]

Tantra of the Profound Mantra Ritual (cho ga zab mo sngags kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Six Spheres of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud). This tantra teaches how to prevent rebirth in and purify the six realms, and manifest the pure realms of self-display. [RY]

Tantra of the Six Spheres of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of the Sphere of Awakened Mind (byang chub sems kyi thig le'i rgyud). One of the Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud). This tantra shows which experience a person undergoes in the intermediate state, the bardo, after passing away. It teaches how to resolve one's master's oral instructions during the bardo of this life, how to stabilize awareness during the bardo of dying, how to attain enlightenment through recognizing awareness during the bardo of dharmata, and, if necessary, how to be assured a rebirth in a natural nirmanakaya realm during the bardo of becoming and there attain buddhahood without further rebirths. [RY]

Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Union (kha sbyor gyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of Victory Over the Three Realms (khams gsum rnam par rgyal ba'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

tantra of words (tshig rgyud), three types of [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of words (tshig rgyud). Sound, words and symbols in scriptures. [RY]

Tantra Section (rgyud sde). One of the two divisions of Mahayana. The Mahayoga tantras appeared in this world when revealed by Vajrasattva and the Lord of Secrets to King Jah, the ruler of Zahor, who was born 112 years after Buddha's nirvana. Some of the contemporary lineage holders were Uparaja, Kukuraja, Vimalakirti, and Jnanamitra. Subsequent masters were Shakputri, the regent and son of King Jah, King Jah's daughter Gomadevi, Singaraja, Lilavajra, Buddhaguhya and Vajrahasya. The following generation of lineage holders were Bhashita, Prabhahasti, and Padmasambhava, the latter of whom also received the tantras directly from King Jah. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra Section (rgyud sde); of Mahayoga [LW1] [RY]

Tantra system (rgyud lugs). See Mantrayana [LW1] [RY]

Tantra that Embodies the Four Rivers of Empowerment (dbang gi chu bo bzhi 'dus kyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra That Prophesies Realization (dgongs pa lung ston) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud) is the letter characters of the scriptures. [RY]

Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud). The letter characters of the scriptures. [RY]

Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud) is oral transmission of great masters. [RY]

Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud). Oral transmission. [RY]

Tantra, statement, and instruction (rgyud lung man ngag). a) Tantras (rgyud) b) statements (lung) and c) instructions (man ngag). Usually equated with the three inner tantras of maha, anu and ati, it is also taught that each of the three inner tantras has the three aspects of rgyud, lung and man ngag. [RY]

tantra; of meaning (don rgyud); of words (tshig rgyud), three types of [LWx] [RY]

Tantra; six sections of Tantra (rgyud sde drug) [LW1] [RY]

tantras (rgyud). See tantras, statements, and instructions [LW1] [RY]

Tantras of Mantra (sngags rgyud) are the extraordinary scripture exalted above the sutras. [RY]

tantras of Mantrayana (sngags rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantras, scriptures and instructions (rgyud lung man ngag). The teachings of Mahayoga, Anu Yoga, and Ati Yoga respectively. [ZL] [RY]

tantras, statements, and instructions (rgyud lung man ngag) [LW1] [RY]

Tantric (rgyud kyi), (sngags kyi). Of or pertaining to Vajrayana. [ZL] [RY]

Tantric layman. [RY]

Tantric Practice in the Nyingma, Ketsün Sangpo Rinpoche and Geoffrey Hopkins; Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca. [ZL] [RY]

Tantric practitioners (sngags pa). A person who has received empowerment, continues the sadhana practice and keeps the commitments. [RY]

Tantric samayas of the vidyadharas (rig 'dzin sngags kyi dam tshig). The commitments of a Vajrayana practitioner. [RY]

Tantric sections (rgyud sde). The four or six sections of tantras. [RY]

Tantric Tradition of the Nyingmapa by Tulku Thondup, Buddhayana, Marion, Massachusetts. [ZL] [RY]

Tantric vows, mantra samvara, (sngags kyi sdom pa). Set of twenty-two prohibitions that anyone receiving an empowerment of Yoga tantra or Anuttara yoga tantra must undertake to observe. [RY]

Tantrika (sngags pa). See 'tantric practitioner.' [RY]

Tantrika (sngags pa). 'Tantric practitioner,' ngakpa. A person who has received empowerment, continues sadhana practice and keeps the sacred commitments. In particular, an adept follower of Mahayoga Tantra. [ZL] [RY]

Tantrika Dorje Dudjom (sngags pa rdo rje bdud 'joms). See Dorje Dujom. [RY]

Tao-an - Fourth century author of catalogue of Chinese Sutra translations [RY]

Tara (sgrol ma) the *redemptress venerated as a great Bodhisattva of Compassion. King srong btsan sgam po's two Buddhist queens were considered to be emanations of Tara. [RY]

Tara (sgrol ma). The Savioress, She who Takes (beings) Across (the Ocean of Samsara); also means 'Star'. [RY]

Tara Goddess (sgrol ma lha mo). 'Divine Savioress.' A important female bodhisattva of compassion, the one who takes beings across the ocean of samsara. There are twenty-one forms of Tara while the most popular are the white and green Taras. [ZL] [RY]

Tara Lugong (ta ra klu gong). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]

Tara Temple of Nyethang (snye thang sgrol ma lha khang), south of Lhasa, was the main residence of Jowo Atisha (see Translator's Introduction, note 12) in Tibet and the place where he died in 1054. Some of Atisha's bones, his Dharma robes, and a statue said to be a true likeness of him are still kept in this temple, along with many other precious relics. [MR-ShabkarNotes] Taraka. 'Star, meteor'. A type of demon, presumably the followers of the daitya (or asura) Taraka. [RY]

Taranatha - Tibetan historian and Jo nang pa master of the early seventeenth century [RY]

TARPALING IN BUMTANG ('bum thang thar pa gling). Temple in eastern Bhutan founded by Longchen Rabjam.[AL] [RY]

Tashi Chime Drubpey Gatsal. [RY]

Tashi Gomang Stupa of Chung Riwoche (gcung, or cung, ri bo che'i bra shis sgo mang). The building of the gigantic nine-storey stupa with many chapels, which lasted from 1449 to 1456, is described in Thangtong Gyalpo's biography. See Vitali (1990), Stearns (1980), and Gyatso (1981). The stupa is being renovated after the damage caused during the Cultural Revolution. The Bright Mirror Record (dkar chags gsal ba'i me long), the detailed list and description of the restoration work of the Stupa of Chung Riwoche written by Shabkar. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashi Lhunpo (bkra shis lhun po) was founded in 1447 by Gedun Drup (dge 'dun grub, 1391-1475), Tsongkhapa's nephew and disciple. He was retroactively designated as the first Dalai Lama and his relics were preserved in a stupa at Tashi Lhunpo. Tashi Lhunpo, which housed upto four thousand monks, is the seat of the Panchen Lamas (see chap.2, note 30). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashi Özer (bkra shis 'od zer). 1836-1910. An abbot of Paljor monastery and a student of Jamgön Kongtrül the First. [RY]

Tashi Tsekpa (bkra shis brtsegs pa), a sutra recited to bring auspiciousness. It is found in the gzungs 'dus (a collection of dharanis and short sutras used to perform ceremonies). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashi Tseringma (bkra shis tshe ring ma). A female Dharma protector of Tibet. [RY]

Tashikhyil hermitage (dben pa'i bkra shis 'khyil), where Shabkar spent most of the latter part of his life, is not to be confused with the great monastery of Labrang Tashikhyil (bla brang bkra shis 'khyil). This retreat place, also known as Yama Tashikhyil (g.ya' ma bkra shis 'khyil, see RO, p.644), was founded by Gyal Khenchen Gedun Tenpai Nyima (rgyal mkhan chen dge 'dun bstan pa'i nyi ma). Shabkar built new temples and hermitages; since then, the place has been taken care of by Shabkar's successive reembodiments and disciples. The Dewachen Temple was recently restored under the guidance of Alak Sherap (d. 1992). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashilhunpo was founded in 1447 by Gedun Drup (1391-1475) Tsongkhapa' nephew and disciple, who was retrospectively designated as the first Dalai Lama, and whose relics where preserved in a stupa at Tashilhunpo. It became the seat of the Panchen Lama, who are said to be incarnation of Buddha Amitabha. The first Panchen Lama who holded such a title was Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen (1570-1662), who was declared by the 5th Dalai Lama (1617-1682), his disciple, to be the 4th Tulku of Khedrup Je (1385-1438), on the two chief disciples of Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). Tashilhunpo used to house upto four thousand monks. [MR]

T continued


The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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--Richard 13:16, 12 August 2008 (EDT)