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'''[[The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity]]''' (Front Cover)
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Taden Gushri Kunga Nyima (ta bden gu shri kun dga' nyi ma): 1309-1322 (First son of Sangpo Pal's 6th spouse) [MR]
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Tai Situ Changchup Gyaltsen, the first of the seven Phagdru kings (t'ai si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan): 1302-1371 [MR]
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Taking Refuge (skyabs 'gro). Placing one's trust in the Three Jewels. [RY]
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Taklung Dratsang. [RY]
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Taklung Kagyu. [RY]
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Taklung Matrul. [RY]
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Taklung Thangpa, Tashi Pal; 1142-1210: (stag lung thang pa bkra shis dpal). Disciple of Phagmo Drupa (1110-1170). Founded Taklung Monastery (around 1180-1185) and the Taklung tradition. [MR]
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Takmen Sordongma (stag sman zor gdong ma). [ZL] [RY]
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Takse Richö (stag rtse ri chos): Ri chos zab mo grub pa'i bcud len sprang rtsi'i snying po, by stag rtse bya bral ba mi pham phun tshogs shes rab. 28 folios [MR]
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Taksham Nüden Dorje (stag sham nus ldan rdo rje) [LW1] [RY]
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Taksham Nuden Dorje (stag sham nus ldan rdo rje, born in 1682), also known as Samten Lingpa (bsam gtan gling pa), was a great tertön and an emanation of Atsara Sale, Yeshe Tsogyal's Nepalese consort. See ND, pp. 301-2 [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Taksham Nuden Dorje. [RY]
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Taksham: 17th cent. [MR]
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Taktsang (stag tshang). [ZL] [RY]
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Taktsang Phurba (stag tshang phur ba, See RT vol.31, Ki) is the cycle of teachings focused on Vajra Kilaya rediscovered by Ratön Tertön (rwa ston gter ston, see Translator's Introduction, note 41) at Onphu Taktsang ('on phu stag tshang) near Samye in central Tibet. Onphu Taktsang is the cave where Guru Padmasambhava gave the Vajra Kilaya initiation to Tashi Kyidren (bkra shis khyi 'dren) and Yeshe Tsogyal (ye shes mtsho rgyal). It is also one of the thirteen "Tiger Dens" (stag tshang) of Tibet and Bhutan. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Taktsang Phurba, see chap.1, note 54. The rediscovered treasures mentioned here are likely to be the mind termas (dgongs gter) of Kunzang Dechen Gyalpo (see Appendix 4). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Talgyur Root Tantra (sgra thal 'gyur rtsa ba'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tamarisk Forest at Red Rock. [Daki] [RY]
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Tamer of All Haughty Spirits (dregs pa kun 'dul). The chief figure in the mandala of Mundane Worship. [ZL] [RY]
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Tamer of Mara. [Daki] [RY]
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Tanagana (sbyor sgrol). The Vajrayana practice of 'union and liberation:' liberating ignorance and disturbing emotions by uniting with the wisdom of the enlightened state. [ZL] [RY]
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Tanglha (thang lha). See Nyenchen Tanglha. [ZL] [RY]
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Tangyur (bstan 'gyur); often pron. 'tanjur'. 'The Translated Treatises', the collection of Tib. translations of the Indian Buddhist literature other than the actual Buddha-word-commentaries, treatises, hymns, rituals, dictionaries, medical texts, etc - amounting to over two hundred volumes, or about twice the length of the Kangyur. [RY]
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Tangyur / bsTan 'gyur - The collection of commentaries on the Buddha's teachings: the second part of the Tibetan Canon [RY]
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Tangyur; expl.; [LWx] [RY]
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Tantra - The teachings that form the basis for the Mantrayana. In rNying ma, there are three outer and three inner Tantras. [RY]
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Tantra (rgyud) advanced teachings which offer many skillful means for obtaining liberation rapidly. Although in some systems the Tantras are considered to fall into only four categories, the Kriya, Charya, Yoga, and Anuttarayoga, the rNying mas accept three outer and three inner Tantras. [RY]
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Tantra (rgyud). A canonical scripture of the esoteric class; the whole set of practices taught in such scriptures and their commentaries, involving identification of oneself with a fully Enlightened deity, the Vajrayana; a subset of such Tantric teachings, centered on a particular deity (e.g. 'the T. of Heruka) or of a particular level (Kriya tantra, Carya tantra, Yoga tantra, Anuttara yoga tantra). [RY]
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Tantra (rgyud). Continuity is the ground tantra of the inseparable two truths. [RY]
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tantra (rgyud). See also continuity. See also Sutra and Mantra, Mantrayana, Vajrayana [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra (rgyud). The Vajrayana teachings given by the Buddha in his sambhogakaya form. The real sense of tantra is 'continuity,' the innate buddha nature, which is known as the 'tantra of the expressed meaning.' The general sense of tantra is the extraordinary tantric scriptures also known as the 'tantra of the expressing words.' Can also refer to all the resultant teachings of Vajrayana as a whole. [Bardo Guide 91][ZL] [RY]
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TANTRA (rgyud). The Vajrayana teachings given by the Buddha in his sambhogakaya form. The real sense of tantra is 'continuity,' the innate buddha nature, which is known as the 'tantra of the expressed meaning.' The general sense of tantra is the extraordinary tantric scriptures also known as the 'tantra of the expressing words.' Can also refer to all the resultant teachings of Vajrayana as a whole. [AL] [RY]
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Tantra acarya. Professor of Tantric studies. [RY]
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Tantra Adorned with Thousandfold Knowledge (shes pa stong gis brgyan pa'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra and Sadhana Section (rgyud sde dang sgrub sde). The two aspects of Mahayoga. [RY]
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Tantra Mahamudra (sngags kyi phyag chen). Same as Mantra Mahamudra. [RY]
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Tantra manifest as sound (sgrar snang ba'i rgyud) is is mind transmission or both the transmission of mind and symbol. [RY]
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Tantra of Amending Incompleteness (ma tshang ba kha skong ba'i rgyud). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Vol. OM of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of Confession. (bshags pa thams chad kyi rgyud dri ma med pa'i rgyal po). Sanskrit: Samaya sarva viti anu sarva sanitantra vimala raja."The Stainless King, the Tantra of all Confessions". The copy in my possession is 88 folios and it is therefore quite substantial. It was translated by Vimalamitra and Nyak Jnana Kumara, but does not appear in the Kangyur index, either under its title or as one of the two translators' works. [Peter Roberts]
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Tantra of Equalizing All Buddhas. See Samayoga Tantra [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of Excellent Accomplishment (legs par grub pa'i rgyud), Skt. Susiddhikara. A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of Fulfilling All Needs (rgyud 'dod pa kun 'byung). [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of Graceful Auspiciousness (bkra shis mdzes ldan gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how to establish the nature of awareness, and how to identify the basis of confusion and the unmistaken wisdom. [RY]
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Tantra of Immaculate Fruition ('bras bu dri ma med pa'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra of Indestructible Blissful Wrath (rdo rje bde khros kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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tantra of meaning (don rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of meaning (don rgyud) is ground, path and fruition. [RY]
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Tantra of No Letters (yi ge med pa'i rgyud). This tantra desribes the actual means of practice, how to abadon acitivites and live in places free from defects, the four ways of 'freely resting,' sustaining naturalness as well as the undefiled method of the main part of practice. [RY]
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Tantra of Pacifying (zhi byed kyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra of Piled Gems (rin chen spungs pa'i rgyud). This scripture explains how all the qualities manifest are all the essence of space and awareness. [RY]
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Tantra of Pointing-out Instructions (ngo sprod sprad pa'i rgyud). This scripture describes apply the essence of awareness in one's practice through various indications. [RY]
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Tantra of Powerful Liberation (stobs po che yongs sgrol gyi rgyud). A scripture belonging to Mahayoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of Secrets (gsang rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of Self-Arising Awareness (rang shar) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of Self-arising Awareness (rig pa rang shar gyi rgyud); expl. [LWx] [RY]
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Tantra of Self-existing Perfection (rdzogs pa rang byung). This scripture teaches how to prepared to be a suitable recepient of the teachings by means of the four empowerments. [RY]
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Tantra of Self-liberated Awareness (rig pa rang grol gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how awareness is uncreated but is liberated by itself, how to control appearances, to grow familiar with the vajra chain, and to naturally free all of samsara and nirvana. [RY]
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Tantra of Self-manifest Awareness (rig pa rang shar gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how to resolve the view, meditation and action. [RY]
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Tantra of Shining Relics (sku gdung 'bar ba'i rgyud). This tantra describes the outer and inner signs of awareness reaching maturity which are manifest before and after the time of death in order to inspire and instill confidence in other persons. [RY]
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Tantra of Studded Jewels (nor by bkra bkod). This tantra shows how to eliminate the defects and sidetracks connected to the view and the practice of meditation, conduct and fruition. [RY]
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Tantra of Taming Haughty Spirits (dregs pa 'dul ba'i rgyud). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga; focused on the section of Mundane Worship. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of Taming the Elemental Forces ('byung po 'dul byed kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Black Wrathful Shri Ekajati (dpal e ka dza ti nag mo khros ma'i rgyud). This tantra describes how to protect the practitioner against harms inflicted by others. [RY]
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Tantra of the Blazing Mass of Fire that Consumes the Kleshas (me dpung 'bar ba nyon mongs sreg pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Upa Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Blazing Vajra Mountain (rdo rje me ri'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Brilliant Expanse (klong gsal). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra of the Enlightenment of Mahavairocana (Skt. Mahavairocanabhisambodhi-vikurvitadhisthana-vaipulya-sutranta-raja, Tib. rnam par snang mdzad chen po mngon par rdzogs par byang chub rnam par sprul pa byin gyis rlob pa shin tu rgyas pa mdo sde'i dbang po'i rgyal po, T 494). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tantra of the Flawless Essence (dri ma med pa snying po'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra of the Four Vajra Thrones (rdo rje gdan bzhi'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. Possibly identical with the Catuhpitha (gdan bzhi) which is included among the tantras in the Tripitaka. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Full Enlightenment of Vairochana (rnam snang mngon par byang chub pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Upa Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the General Accomplishment of Knowledge Mantras (rig sngags spyi'i sgrub lugs kyi rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. Also named Galpo Düpa (gal po bsdus pa). [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Glorious Assemblage of Herukas (dpal heruka 'dus pa'i rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Great Graceful Auspiciousness (bkra shis mdzes ldan chen po'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of the Great Perfection that is Equal to Space (rdzogs pa chen po nam mkha' dang mnyam pa). [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Heart Mirror of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po thugs kyi me long). This tantra shows how to identify and cut through pitfalls and errors and how to establish what is innate. [RY]
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Tantra of the Heart of Vajrasattva (rdo sems snying gi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra of the Immaculate Essence (dri ma med snying po'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]
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TANTRA OF THE IMMACULATE KING OF CONFESSION (dri med bshags rgyud kyi rgyal po).[AL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Inconceivable Secret (gsang ba bsam gyis mi khyab pa'i rgyud). A tantra of the New schools which sets forth the system of Mahamudra. [RY]
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Tantra of the Indestructible Secret Teaching (rdo rje gsang ba bstan pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Lamp of the Three Realms (khams gsum sgron ma'i rgyud). One of the Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. A text with similar title is found in Vol. KA of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Liberation of the Ten Objects (zhing bcu sgrol ba'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Lotus Mound Mantra (padma brtsegs pa sngags kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Magical Net (Skt. mayajala-mahatantraraja, Tib. rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po sgyu 'phrul drwa ba, T 466). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tantra of the Magical Net of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' sgyu 'phrul dra ba'i rgyud). Same as Essence of Secrets, Guhyagarbha. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Major and Minor Casket Array (za ma tog che chung bkod pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Mind Mirror of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' snying gi me long). This tantra teaches how the lamps are the self-display of awareness. By means of 21 pointing-out instructions, the different types of people recognize wisdom. It further teaches the four key points and how to practice. [RY]
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Tantra of the Mind Mirror of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' snying gi me long gi rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of the Mirror of the Heart (snying gi me long). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra of the Ocean of Ferocious Activity (gtum po las rgya mtsho'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Perfect Embodiment of the Unexcelled Nature (bla med don rdzogs 'dus pa'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Perfected Lion (seng ge rtsal rdzogs kyi rgyud). The scripture explains the degrees of progres and the signs that occur, how to stabilize awareness and increase the level of experience. [RY]
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Tantra of the Precious Gathering of All into One (kun 'dus rin po che'i rgyud). A tantra of this name or even containing this name does not appear to be listed in the Derge Kangyur. [Peter Roberts]
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Tantra of the Profound Mantra Ritual (cho ga zab mo sngags kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Six Spheres of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud). This tantra teaches how to prevent rebirth in and purify the six realms, and manifest the pure realms of self-display. [RY]
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Tantra of the Six Spheres of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of the Sphere of Awakened Mind (byang chub sems kyi thig le'i rgyud). One of the Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud). This tantra shows which experience a person undergoes in the intermediate state, the bardo, after passing away. It teaches how to resolve one's master's oral instructions during the bardo of this life, how to stabilize awareness during the bardo of dying, how to attain enlightenment through recognizing awareness during the bardo of dharmata, and, if necessary, how to be assured a rebirth in a natural nirmanakaya realm during the bardo of becoming and there attain buddhahood without further rebirths. [RY]
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Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of Union (kha sbyor gyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra of Victory Over the Three Realms (khams gsum rnam par rgyal ba'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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tantra of words (tshig rgyud), three types of [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra of words (tshig rgyud). Sound, words and symbols in scriptures. [RY]
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Tantra Section (rgyud sde). One of the two divisions of Mahayana. The Mahayoga tantras appeared in this world when revealed by Vajrasattva and the Lord of Secrets to King Jah, the ruler of Zahor, who was born 112 years after Buddha's nirvana. Some of the contemporary lineage holders were Uparaja, Kukuraja, Vimalakirti, and Jnanamitra. Subsequent masters were Shakputri, the regent and son of King Jah, King Jah's daughter Gomadevi, Singaraja, Lilavajra, Buddhaguhya and Vajrahasya. The following generation of lineage holders were Bhashita, Prabhahasti, and Padmasambhava, the latter of whom also received the tantras directly from King Jah. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantra Section (rgyud sde); of Mahayoga [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra system (rgyud lugs). See Mantrayana [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra that Embodies the Four Rivers of Empowerment (dbang gi chu bo bzhi 'dus kyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]
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Tantra That Prophesies Realization (dgongs pa lung ston) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud) is the letter characters of the scriptures. [RY]
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Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud). The letter characters of the scriptures. [RY]
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Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud) is oral transmission of great masters. [RY]
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Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud). Oral transmission. [RY]
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Tantra, statement, and instruction (rgyud lung man ngag). a) Tantras (rgyud) b) statements (lung) and c) instructions (man ngag). Usually equated with the three inner tantras of maha, anu and ati, it is also taught that each of the three inner tantras has the three aspects of rgyud, lung and man ngag. [RY]
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tantra; of meaning (don rgyud); of words (tshig rgyud), three types of [LWx] [RY]
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Tantra; six sections of Tantra (rgyud sde drug) [LW1] [RY]
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tantras (rgyud). See tantras, statements, and instructions [LW1] [RY]
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Tantras of Mantra (sngags rgyud) are the extraordinary scripture exalted above the sutras. [RY]
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tantras of Mantrayana (sngags rgyud) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantras, scriptures and instructions (rgyud lung man ngag). The teachings of Mahayoga, Anu Yoga, and Ati Yoga respectively. [ZL] [RY]
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tantras, statements, and instructions (rgyud lung man ngag) [LW1] [RY]
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Tantric (rgyud kyi), (sngags kyi). Of or pertaining to Vajrayana. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantric layman. [RY]
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Tantric Practice in the Nyingma, Ketsün Sangpo Rinpoche and Geoffrey Hopkins; Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantric practitioners (sngags pa). A person who has received empowerment, continues the sadhana practice and keeps the commitments. [RY]
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Tantric samayas of the vidyadharas (rig 'dzin sngags kyi dam tshig). The commitments of a Vajrayana practitioner. [RY]
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Tantric sections (rgyud sde). The four or six sections of tantras. [RY]
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Tantric Tradition of the Nyingmapa by Tulku Thondup, Buddhayana, Marion, Massachusetts. [ZL] [RY]
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Tantric vows, mantra samvara, (sngags kyi sdom pa). Set of twenty-two prohibitions that anyone receiving an empowerment of Yoga tantra or Anuttara yoga tantra must undertake to observe. [RY]
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Tantrika (sngags pa). See 'tantric practitioner.' [RY]
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Tantrika (sngags pa). 'Tantric practitioner,' ngakpa. A person who has received empowerment, continues sadhana practice and keeps the sacred commitments. In particular, an adept follower of Mahayoga Tantra. [ZL] [RY]
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[[Tantrika Dorje Dudjom]] ([[sngags pa rdo rje bdud 'joms]]). See [[Dorje Dujom]]. [RY]
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Tao-an - Fourth century author of catalogue of Chinese Sutra translations [RY]
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[[Tara]] ([[sgrol ma]]) the *redemptress venerated as a great Bodhisattva of Compassion. [[King srong btsan sgam po]]'s two Buddhist queens were considered to be emanations of Tara. [RY]
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[[Tara]] ([[sgrol ma]]). The Savioress, She who Takes (beings) Across (the Ocean of Samsara); also means 'Star'. [RY]
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[[Tara Goddess]] ([[sgrol ma lha mo]]). 'Divine Savioress.' A important [[female bodhisattva]] of compassion, the one who takes beings across the ocean of samsara. There are [[twenty-one forms of Tara]] while the most popular are the white and green Taras. [ZL] [RY]
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Tara Lugong (ta ra klu gong). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]
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Tara Temple of Nyethang (snye thang sgrol ma lha khang), south of Lhasa, was the main residence of Jowo Atisha (see Translator's Introduction, note 12) in Tibet and the place where he died in 1054. Some of Atisha's bones, his Dharma robes, and a statue said to be a true likeness of him are still kept in this temple, along with many other precious relics. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Taraka. 'Star, meteor'. A type of demon, presumably the followers of the daitya (or asura) Taraka. [RY]
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Taranatha - Tibetan historian and Jo nang pa master of the early seventeenth century [RY]
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TARPALING IN BUMTANG ('bum thang thar pa gling). Temple in eastern Bhutan founded by Longchen Rabjam.[AL] [RY]
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Tashi Chime Drubpey Gatsal. [RY]
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Tashi Gomang Stupa of Chung Riwoche (gcung, or cung, ri bo che'i bra shis sgo mang). The building of the gigantic nine-storey stupa with many chapels, which lasted from 1449 to 1456, is described in Thangtong Gyalpo's biography. See Vitali (1990), Stearns (1980), and Gyatso (1981). The stupa is being renovated after the damage caused during the Cultural Revolution. The Bright Mirror Record (dkar chags gsal ba'i me long), the detailed list and description of the restoration work of the Stupa of Chung Riwoche written by Shabkar. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tashi Lhunpo (bkra shis lhun po) was founded in 1447 by Gedun Drup (dge 'dun grub, 1391-1475), Tsongkhapa's nephew and disciple. He was retroactively designated as the first Dalai Lama and his relics were preserved in a stupa at Tashi Lhunpo. Tashi Lhunpo, which housed upto four thousand monks, is the seat of the Panchen Lamas (see chap.2, note 30). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tashi Özer (bkra shis 'od zer). 1836-1910. An abbot of Paljor monastery and a student of Jamgön Kongtrül the First. [RY]
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Tashi Tsekpa (bkra shis brtsegs pa), a sutra recited to bring auspiciousness. It is found in the gzungs 'dus (a collection of dharanis and short sutras used to perform ceremonies). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tashi Tseringma (bkra shis tshe ring ma). A female Dharma protector of Tibet. [RY]
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Tashikhyil hermitage (dben pa'i bkra shis 'khyil), where Shabkar spent most of the latter part of his life, is not to be confused with the great monastery of Labrang Tashikhyil (bla brang bkra shis 'khyil). This retreat place, also known as Yama Tashikhyil (g.ya' ma bkra shis 'khyil, see RO, p.644), was founded by Gyal Khenchen Gedun Tenpai Nyima (rgyal mkhan chen dge 'dun bstan pa'i nyi ma). Shabkar built new temples and hermitages; since then, the place has been taken care of by Shabkar's successive reembodiments and disciples. The Dewachen Temple was recently restored under the guidance of Alak Sherap (d. 1992). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tashilhunpo was founded in 1447 by Gedun Drup (1391-1475) Tsongkhapa' nephew and disciple, who was retrospectively designated as the first Dalai Lama, and whose relics where preserved in a stupa at Tashilhunpo. It became the seat of the Panchen Lama, who are said to be incarnation of Buddha Amitabha. The first Panchen Lama who holded such a title was Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen (1570-1662), who was declared by the 5th Dalai Lama (1617-1682), his disciple, to be the 4th Tulku of Khedrup Je (1385-1438), on the two chief disciples of Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). Tashilhunpo used to house upto four thousand monks. [MR]
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Tathagata - The perfectly realized being: an epithet for the Buddha [RY]
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Tathagata (De bzhin gshegs pa) lit. 'Thugs gone' or 'Thus come'; one of the titles of the Buddha. [RY]
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Tathagata (de bzhin gshegs pa). A buddha who has gone (gata) to the state of dharmata suchness (tatha). [RY]
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tathagata (de bzhin gshegs pa). Same as buddhas [LW1] [RY]
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Tathagata (de bzhin gshegs pa). 'Thus-gone.' Same as a fully enlightened buddha. [Bardo Guide 91] [ZL] [RY]
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Tathagata {bde bzhin gsheg pa}. Another name for the Buddha. [RY]
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[[tathagata essence]]; [LWx] [RY]
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[[tathagata]]; expl. [LWx] [RY]
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[[Tathagatagarbha]] ([[de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po]]). Same as 'buddha nature' and sugatagarbha. [RY]
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tathagata-garbha (de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po). See sugata essence [LW1] [RY]
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Tathagatagarbha {bde bar gshegs pa'i snying po}. The essence of Buddhahood which pervades all sentient beings. [RY]
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Tathagatas and their sons (de gshegs sras bcas). The buddhas who have gone (gata) to the state of dharmata suchness (tatha). Their sons are the bodhisattvas on the ten bhumis. [RY]
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Tatvasamgraha Root Tantra (rtsa ba'i rgyud de kho na nyid bsdus pa). One the Four Major Sections of Yoga Tantra. [ZL] [RY]
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Tavi Hricha. [Daki] [RY]
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TAWA LONG-YANG (lta ba klong yangs). A treasure cycle of the Father Tantra aspect of the Great Perfection revealed by Dorje Lingpa (1346-1405). Tawa Long-yang means 'Vast Expanse of the View.'[AL] [RY]
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Taxila - Early Indian university and center of Buddhist studies in the northwest; meeting place for ideas; also known as Taksashila [RY]
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Teacher {bla ma}. Spiritual master. [RY]
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teaching centers for the Tripitaka (sde snod gsum gyi bshad grva) [LW1] [RY]
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Teaching Cycle of Dorje Drakpo Tsal (rdo rje drag po rtsal kyi chos skor) [LW1] [RY]
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Teaching, study, meditation and practice. To teach ('chad) means to explain to other fortunate persons. To study (nyan) means to receive oneself from a qualified master. To meditate (sgom) means to contemplate the meaning and meditate upon it correctly. To practice (sgrub) means to apply oneself to the practice within the state of development, recitation and completion. [RY]
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teachings (chos). See also Dharma, vehicle; according to the three kayas [LW1] [RY]
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Teachings centers for the tripitaka (sde snod gsum gyi bshad grva) [RY]
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Teachings of Maitreya (byams chos). [EMP] [RY]
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Teachings of the Kadampas, Father and Son; (bka' gdams pha chos bu chos), the teachings on mind training of the father, Lord Atisha, and his sons, Drom Tonpa and the other spiritual heirs of the Kadam lineage. [MR]
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Teachings of the Kadampas, Father and Sons (bka' gdams glegs bam pha chos bu chos) is a collection of instructions, questions and answers, stories, songs, and prophecies given by Atisha (982-1054) to his main spiritual son Drom Tönpa Gyalwai Jungne ('brom ston pa rgyal ba'i 'byung gnas, 1004-64) and to other subsequent Kadampa masters. These teachings were collected by Lekpai Sherap (legs pa'i shes rab) in two volumes. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Teachings of the three kayas. The dharmakaya teaching is Dzogchen Atiyoga. The sambhogakaya teachings are the three outer tantras of Secret Mantra as well as the the inner of Maha and Anu. The nirmanakaya teachings are the three causal vehicles of the shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas. [RY]
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teachings; according to the three kayas [LWx] [RY]
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Tekchok Dorje. See Karmapa [LW1] [RY]
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Tekchok Tenphel; expl. of his lineage for Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo [LW1] [RY]
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Temple (gtsug lag). The outer temple is a palace and the inner temple is the excellent teachings. [RY]
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Temple of Purification (khrus khang gling). A temple at Samye. [ZL] [RY]
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Temporary experiences (nyams). See 'experience.' [RY]
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Temporary stains (glo bur gyi dri ma). The obscurations that are not intrinsic to the sugatagarbha, like clouds are not inherent in the sky. [RY]
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Temporary straying from the essence (gshis kyi 'phral shor). [RY]
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Temporary straying from the path (lam gyi 'phral shor). [RY]
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Temporary straying from the remedy (gnyen po 'phral shor). [RY]
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Temporary straying into generalizing (rgyas 'debs 'phral shor). [RY]
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ten benefits of living in isolated places, according to the King of Samadhi Sutra. 1) One's activities will be fewer and fewer, 2) one will be far removed from noise and distractions, 3) one will be free from quarrels, 4) one will also be free from harm, 5) one will not let obscuring emotions increase, 6) one will not create causes for discord, 7) one will always enjoy perfect tranquility, 8) one will keep one's body, speech, and mind under control, 9) one will live in a way that is conducive to liberation, and 10) one will quickly reach complete freedom. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Ten bhumis (sa bcu). The ten levels of a noble bodhisattva's development into a fully enlightened buddha. On each stage more subtle defilements are purified and a further degree of enlightened qualities is manifested: The Joyous, the Stainless, the Radiant, the Brilliant, the Hard to Conquer, the Realized, the Reaching Far, the Unshakable, the Good Intelligence, and the Cloud of Dharma. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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ten bhumis (sa bcu); listing of; lords of [LW1] [RY]
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Ten bodhisattva stages (byang chub sems dpa'i sa bcu). The ten levels of a noble bodhisattva's development into a fully enlightened buddha. On each stage more subtle defilements are purified and a further degree of enlightened qualities is manifested. For their names see 'ten bhumis.' [RY]
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ten coarse winds (rags pa'i rlung bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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ten dharma activities (chos spyod bcu). 1) Writing commentaries and spiritual instructions, if one is qualified to do so, 2) making offerings (of the mandala, the seven branches, etc.) 3) giving to the needy, (4) listening to the teachings, 5) reading the holy scriptures, 6) committing their meaning to memory, 7) explaining this meaning to others, 8) reciting one's daily prayers, 9) pondering over the teachings one has received, 10) assimilating them through contemplation and meditation. See Kongtrul's rgya chen bka'i mdzod, vol 12, p.238. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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ten directions. The ten directions are the four principal directions: north, east, south, west; the four intermediate directions: north-east, south-east, south-west and north-west; and finally the two directions of above and below. In fact it is an expression meaning every direction. [Peter Roberts]
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Ten glorious ornaments (dpal gyi chas bcu). Ornaments worn by a wrathful buddha. [RY]
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ten guardians of the directions (phyogs skyong bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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Ten guardians of the directions (phyogs skyong bcu) such as King Vajra Bearer (dbang po rdo rje 'chang ba). [RY]
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ten masteries (dbang bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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ten nonvirtues (mi dge ba bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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Ten nonvirtues (mi dge ba bcu). The physical misdeeds are killing, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct. The verbal misdeeds are lying, uttering divisive talk, harsh words, and gossiping. The mental misdeeds are harboring covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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TEN NONVIRTUES (mi dge ba bcu). The physical misdeeds are killing, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct. The verbal misdeeds are lying, uttering divisive talk, harsh words, and gossiping. The mental misdeeds are harboring covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. [AL] [RY]
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ten nonvirtuous actions (mi dge ba bcu). Killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct; telling lies, slandering, gossiping and speaking harsh words; envy, ill will, and erroneous views. These three groupings comprise the wrongdoings, respectively, of body, speech and mind. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Ten nonvirtuous actions (mi dge ba bcu). The physical misdeeds are killing, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct. The verbal misdeeds are lying, uttering divisive talk, harsh words, and gossiping. The mental misdeeds are harboring covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. These actions have the four factors of object, intent, engagement, and completion. In the instance of killing, the object is to be unmistaken about that someone is a human being for example, the intent is the desire to kill, the engagement is take a weapon for example, and the completion is that the life-faculty is interrupted. The other misdeeds are shown through this example. [RY]
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ten paramitas (pha rol du phyin pa bcu). 1) Generosity (sbyin pa), 2) ethical discipline (tshul khrims), 3) patience (bzod pa), 4) effort (brtson 'grus), 5) concentration (bsam gtan), 6) insight (shes rab), 7) means (thabs), 8) aspiration-prayer (smon lam), 9) strength (stobs), and 10) primordial wisdom (ye shes) [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Ten paramitas (phar phyin bcu). The six paramitas in addition to means, strength, aspiration and wisdom. [RY]
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ten qualities of the stage beyond training (mi slob pa'i chos bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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Ten riches ('byor ba bcu). The five riches from others are: a buddha appears, teaches the Dharma, the teachings remain, there are followers, and there are teachers with the kindness to teach. The five riches from oneself are: Being a human, born in a central country, having the physical and mental faculties intact, not having a perverted livelihood, and having trust in the Three Jewels. [RY]
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TEN SPIRITUAL ACTIVITIES (chos spyod bcu). Copying scriptures, making offerings, giving alms, listening to discourses, memorizing, reading, expounding, reciting, reflecting upon and training in the meaning of the Dharma.[AL] [RY]
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Ten Spiritual Levels - see Bodhisattva. [RY]
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ten spiritual or Dharma activities (chos spyod bcu): 1) Writing commentaries and spiritual instructions, if one is qualified to do so; 2) making offerings (of the mandala, the seven branches, etc..); 3) giving to the needy; 4) listening to the teachings; 5) reading the holy scriptures; 6) committing their meaning to memory; 7) explaining this meaning to others; 8) reciting one's daily prayers; 9) pondering over the teachings one has received; 10) assimilating them through meditation. See Kongtrul's rgya chen bka'i mdzod, vol. 12, p.10. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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ten spiritual stages or bhumis (sa bcu). The stages through which a Bodhisattva passes before attaining full Buddhahood, the eleventh bhumi. These are 1) Perfect Joy (rab tu dga' ba), 2) Immaculate (dri ma med pa), 3) Illuminating ('od byed pa), 4) Brilliant ('od 'phro ba), 5) Hard to Conquer (sbyang dka' ba), 6) Manifest (mngon du gyur pa), 7) Far-reaching (ring du song ba), 8) Immutable (mi g.yo ba), 9) Excellent Intelligence (legs pa'i blo gros), and 10) Cloud of the Dharma (chos kyi sprin). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Ten things that hold the name of the Dharma {chos kyi sgra thog pa'i sa bcu}, which are: 1) what is to be known {shes bya}, 2) the path {lam}, 3) nirvana {mya ngan 'das}, 4) mental objects {yid kyi yul}, 5) merit bsod nams}, 6) lifespan {tshe}, 7) the scriptures {gsung rab}, 8) future {'byung 'gyur}, 9) certainty {nges pa}, and 10) religion {chos lugs}. (acc.to the Yontendzod). [RY]
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ten topics of knowledge (rig pa'i gnas bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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Ten topics of tantra (rgyud kyi dngos po bcu). View, conduct, mandala, empowerment, samaya, activity, accomplishment, samadhi, offering puja, mantra and mudra. These are the ten aspects of the path of a tantric practitioner, as well as the ten primary topics to be explained. [RY]
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TEN TOPICS OF TANTRA (rgyud kyi dngos po bcu). View, conduct, mandala, empowerment, samaya, activity, accomplishment, samadhi, offering puja, mantra and mudra. These are the ten aspects of the path of a tantric practitioner, as well as the ten primary topics to be explained.[AL] [RY]
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ten totalities (zad par bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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Ten unvirtuous actions (mi dge ba bcu). Killing, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive talk, harsh words, idle gossip, covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. [RY]
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Ten unvirtuous actions;: (mi dge ba bcu) Three by body - to kill, to steal, and to have an improper sexual conduct; four by the speech - to lie, to slander, to chatter uselessly, and to say harsh words; and three by the mind - to wish to harm, to envy, and to hold false views. The ten virtuous actions are to avoid the ten unvirtuous ones and practice their opposite. [MR]
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Ten virtues (dge ba bcu). Generally, to refrain from the above ten nonvirtues. In particular, to engage in their opposites; for example, to save life, be generous, etc. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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TEN VIRTUES (dge ba bcu). Generally, to refrain from the above ten nonvirtues. In particular, to engage in their opposites; for example, to save life, be generous, etc. [AL] [RY]
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Ten Virtues to abstain from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, slander, abusive speech, senseless speech, coveting, ill will, and wrong views. [RY]
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ten virtuous actions (dge ba bcu) [LW1] [RY]
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Ten virtuous actions (dge ba bcu). Generally, to refrain from the above ten unvirtuous actions. In particular, to engage in their opposites; for example, to save life, be generous, etc. [RY]
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Ten virtuous actions (dge ba bcu). The opposites of the above ten nonvirtuous actions. [RY]
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ten virtuous deeds (dge ba'i las bcu). Three of the body: 1) To protect life, 2) to be honest, 3) to maintain proper sexual conduct. Four of speech: 1) to tell the truth, 2) to avoid gossip 3) to avoid slander, 4) to speak gentle words that bring happiness to others. Three of the mind: 1) to rejoice in the good fortune of others, 2) to have only thoughts that are beneficial to others, 3) to have correct views. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Ten virtuous deeds:  Three of the body: (1) To protect life, (2) to be honest, and (3) to maintain proper sexual conduct. Four of speech: (1) to tell the truth, (2) to avoid gossip, (3) to avoid slander, and (4) to speak gentle words that bring happiness to others.  Three of the mind: (1) to rejoice in the good fortune of others, (2) to have only thoughts that are beneficial to others, and (3) to have correct views. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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ten winds (rlung bcu); listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Tenchok Gyurme Ling. [RY]
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Tenchok Gyurmey Ling [LW1] [RY]
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Tendai - Japanese Tien-t'ai school; its center on Mt. hiei played a vital role in Japanese Buddhist history [RY]
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tendencies for the three experiences of transference(snang gsum 'pho ba'i bag chags); as synonym for the all-ground, expl. [LW1] [RY]
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Tendzin Chögyal [LW1] [RY]
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Tendzin Tulku - Karma Gelek Nyima. Contemporary of Chokgyur Lingpa, and regarded by him as reincarnation of Dhanasamskrita and Drogmi Palgyi Yeshe. [epk] [RY]
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Tenga Rinpoche - Ven. Tenga Rinpoche was born in 1931 in the province of Kham/Nangchen in eastern Tibet. At the age of seven he was taken to Benchen monastery, where he received most of his education from the former Sangye Nyenpa Rinpoche, the abbot of the monastery, and others.
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After having left Tibet, due to the Chinese invasion, he first settled in Rumtek monastery, where he served as the Vajra-master of His Holiness the 16th Karmapa for 17 years. Eventually he went to Nepal, where he established his own monastery, which houses about 200 monks at present. Tenga Rinpoche is well known for his comprehensive, as well as humorous, style of teachings and is well-loved by thousands of students all over the world. [RY]
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Tenga Rinpoche, Surmang [LW1] [RY]
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TENGAM (rten gam). Room of sacred objects.[AL] [RY]
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Tengyur - bsTan-'gyur - The collection of commentaries on the Buddha's teachings: the second part of the Tibetan Canon. [Tarthang]
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Tengyur (bstan 'gyur) [LW1] [RY]
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Tengyur (bstan 'gyur). The Translated Treatises. A collection of several hundred volumes of scriptures explaining the Kangyur, the Translated Words of the Buddha. [RY]
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Tenma Goddesses (brtan ma). See Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]
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TENMA GODDESSES or Twelve Tenma Goddesses (brtan ma bcu gnyis). Important female protectors of the Nyingma lineage, semi-mundane semi-wisdom protectors. [AL] [RY]
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Tennyi Yungdrung Lingpa (bstan gnyis g.yung drung gling pa). The tertön name of Jamgön Kongtrül the first. [RY]
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Tennyi Yungdrung Lingpa. See Jamgön Kongtrül [LW1] [RY]
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Tenpa Rabgye. [RY]
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Tenpa Tsering [LW1] [RY]
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Tenth Dalai Lama, Tsultrim Gyatso (tshul khrims rgya mtsho, 1816-1837). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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tenth day of the waxing moon. The tenth day of the lunar month would be auspicious as this is the date specified by Padmakara to be a time when he will have a very strong connection with his followers. [Peter Roberts]
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TENTH DAY PRACTICE IN EIGHT CHAPTERS (tshe bcu le'u brgyad pa).[AL] [RY]
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tenth level of enlightenment. Dharma-mega (chos kyi sprin) "The Cloud of Dharma". [Peter Roberts]
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Ter (gter). see terma [RY]
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Ter. [RY]
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Terchen Chogyur Dechen Lingpa: 1829-1870 [MR]
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Terchen Chokgyur Lingpa 1829-1870 (gter chen mchog gyur gling pa). The great treasure revealer Chokgyur Lingpa. See Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche's The Life and Teaching of Chokgyur Lingpa, Rangjung Yeshe Publications. [RY]
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Terchen Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
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Terchen Dudjom Lingpa : 1835-1903 [MR]
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Terchen Sherab Özer (gter chen shes rab 'od zer): 1516- [MR] Prajnarasmi, Trangpo Tertön [RY]
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Terdag Lingpa Gyurme Dorje (1646-1714) Built Mindrol Ling in central Tibet, one of the most important Nyingma monasteries. This verse was the last he uttered just before passing away. [RY]
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Terdag Lingpa, the king of Dharma, sun of the teachings of the Early Translations; a reincarnation of the great translator Vairochana. One of his well known termas is the Minling Dorsem,[see itself] [RY]
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Terdak Lingpa (gter bdag gling pa) [LW1] [RY]
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Terdak Lingpa, Gyurme Dorje - The great tertön is the Minling Terchen, Terdak Lingpa, Gyurme Dorje (See chap.1, note 38) who in 1670 founded Mindroling, the main seat of the Nyingma tradition in central Tibet. Gdung ba refers to gdung sras, the descendant of the Minling Terchen, who holds the throne of Mindroling. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Terdhe. [RY]
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Terjang / gTer byang - see gTer ma. [RY]
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terma (gter ma). See also Kama, Terma, and Pure Vision; details of; Dharma treasures; lineage; listing of different types; meaning of terma sign; sign; three special qualities of revelation; treasures [LW1] [RY]
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Terma (gter ma). 'Treasure.' 1) The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer, for the benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions of the Nyingma School, the other being 'Kama.' This tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the Buddha has disappeared. 2) Concealed treasures of many different kinds, including texts, ritual objects, relics, and natural objects. [Bardo Guide 91] [ZL] [RY]
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TERMA (gter ma). 'Treasure.' 1) The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer, for the benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions of the Nyingma School, the other being 'Kama.' This tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the Buddha has disappeared. 2) Concealed treasures of many different kinds, including texts, ritual objects, relics, and natural objects. [AL] [RY]
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Terma (gter ma). 'Treasure.' The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be revealed at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer for the benefit of future disciples. [RY]
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Terma / gTer ma - Concealed treasures of many different kinds, including texts, ritual objects, relics, and natural objects. gTer ma convey essential teachings suited for the time and place in which they are discovered. Through the blessings of Padmasambhava, the discoverer, or gter ston, can locate and decipher the gter. The gter ston receives various aides to help in his discovery. These include the kha byang, the gter byang, the yang byang, the snying byang and the lung byang. These are lists of books to be found in certain locations, precise descriptions of places where the gter will be found, lists of gter which have been hidden twice, and various other predictions concerning the hidden treasures. Padmasambhava predicted three grand gter stons, eight great gter stons, twenty one powerful gter stons, one hundred and eight intermediate gter stons, and one thousand lesser gter stons. The gter ma lineage preserves very pure and undistorted teachings especially necessary in the present era, the Kali Yuga. [RY]
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Terma / gTer ma - Texts hidden by Padmasambhava or sometimes other masters for recovery by gter stons at a later time [RY]
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Terma box. [RY]
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Terma practice. [RY]
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terma revelation; three special qualities of; [LWx] [RY]
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Terma root text Sheldam Nyingjang Yishin Norbu (gter gzhung zhal gdams snying byang yid bzhin nor bu). See Sheldam Nyingjang Yishin Norbu [RY]
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Terma sign (gter tsheg), according to the vision of Taksham Dorje, it is said that the two circles symbolize means and knowledge and the crescent moon their indivisible unity. This is, however, not totally fixed since the wood blocks at Mindrol Ling have only two circles without a crescent moon. [RY]
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terma sign; meaning of [LWx] [RY]
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terma teaching; expl. [LWx] [RY]
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Terma teachings. [RY]
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Terma treasures (gter ma). See Terma. [ZL] [RY]
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terma treasures; details of; expl.; three special qualities of [LWx] [RY]
 +
 +
Terma, See Kama and Terma [LW1] [RY]
 +
 +
Termas are very often discovered in the form of a yellow scroll (shog ser) on which are written a few syllables in symbolic dakini script (mkha' 'gro brda yig). These letters can only be deciphered by the tertön to whom the legacy of the spiritual treasure belongs, and are unintelligible to anyone else. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 +
 +
Tersar (gter gsar). Recent /new treasures. Ex: Chokling Tersar, Dudjom Tersar. [RY]
 +
 +
Tersar. [RY]
 +
 +
Tersey Choktrul Rinpoche (gter sras mchog sprul rin po che). A great lama and brother of Samten Gyatso. [RY]
 +
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Tersey Rinpoche (gter sras rin po che). A great lama and brother of Samten Gyatso. For details, see The Life and Teaching of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
 +
 +
Tertön (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal. [RY]
 +
 +
Tertön (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal. [ZL] [RY]
 +
 +
TERTÖN (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal.[AL] [RY]
 +
 +
Tertön (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal.[Primer] [RY]
 +
 +
tertön (gter ston); expl. of treasure master [LW1] [RY]
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Tertön Dechen Barwai Dorje: 1836-1920 [MR]
 +
 +
Tertön Dechen Barwai Dorje: 1836-1920. [RY]
 +
 +
Tertön Dudul Dorje (bdud 'dul rdo rje): 1615-1672 [MR]
 +
 +
tertön kings, five (gter ston rgyal po lnga), listing of [LW1] [RY]
 +
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Tertön Mingyur Dorje (gter ston mi 'gyur rdo rje): 1645-1667 [MR]
 +
 +
Tertön Nyida Özer, Legden Dorje (nyi zla od zer legs ldan rdo rje): 1512-1625 [MR]
 +
 +
Tertön Nyima Trakpa: 17th century [MR]
 +
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Tertön Sangye Lama (sangs rgyas bla ma): 1000-1080 [MR]
 +
 +
Tertön Sogyal, Lerablingpa: 1856- [MR]
 +
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TESTAMENT OF PADMA (padma'i bka' chems). Revealed by the great tertön Nyang Ral, and presumably identical with the medium-length version of the Sanglingma biography of Padmasambhava, an English translation of which is published as The Lotus-Born (Shambhala Publications, 1993).[AL] [RY]
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Thabshe Drubpa. (thabs shes grub pa) Composed by the Indian siddha Yanlag Mepey Dorje, (yan lag med pa'i rdo rje), himself a disciple of Mahasukhanatha (dgon po bde ba chen po). [RY]
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thag rgyang gang do, lit, "the distance of two rope lengths," corresponding to approximately ten arm spans, or 150 feet. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 +
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Thalgyur (thal 'gyur). An important maha ati tantra. [RY]
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Thalgyur Root Tantra (thal 'gyur rtsa ba'i rgyud). The chief Dzogchen tantra of the Instruction Section (man ngag sde). [RY]
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Thamal gyi shepa (tha mal gyi shes pa). The Tibetan for 'ordinary mind.' [RY]
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Thangka (thang ka) Skt pata. A painting on cloth. [RY]
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Thangtong Gyalpo's Oral Transmission (thang ston snyan rgyud), see Translator's Introduction, p.xxi.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 +
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Thantong Gyalpo: 1385-1510, or 1361-1485 (in namthar), or 1385-1464 /or 1384-1501 [MR]
 +
Thar Drupche. [RY]
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 +
Thatness (de nyid). The nature of phenomena and mind. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 +
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thatness of deity (lha'i de kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]
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thatness of emanation and absorption ('phro 'du'i kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]
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thatness of guhyamantra (gsang sngags kyi kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]
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thatness of recitation (bzlas brjod kyi kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]
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thatness of self (bdag gi kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]
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Thaton - Capital city of southern Burma; early Theravadin center [RY]
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Thayenchi (known as rtse gzhung in Tibetan) is a mountain retreat in Bakhog area (ba khog), near Chuzang Monastery (chu bzang dgon). One speaks of the big and the small Thayenchi (tha yan chi che chung, see AC vol.1, p.48). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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The Biography of Namkha Jigme (grub pa'i dbang phyug dam pa dpal chen nam mkha' 'jigs med mchog gi rnam par thar pa snying por dril ba skal bzang thar pa 'khrid pa'i ded dpon), The Torch That Illuminates the Graded Path (lam rim gsal ba'i sgron me), A Treatise on the View (legs bshad nyi ma rang shar), The Many-stringed Lute (springs yig pi wang rgyud mangs), Opening the Door of Compassion (snying rje sgo 'byed), Opening the Door of Faith (dad pa'i sgo 'byed), The Song to Rejoice Lobzang (blo bzang dgyes pa'i glu dbyangs), (grangs 'drin me tog phreng ba blo gsal gzhon nu'i mgul rgyan), The Song of Remembering My Mother (a ma dran pa'i mgur), The Spontaneously Arising Sun of Happiness (bde skyid nyi ma rang shar), The Instruction That Alone Frees All (gdams pa gcig shes kun grol), Commentary upon the Three Sentences that Strike to the Vital Point (tshig gsum gnad rdegs kyi 'grel ba), Advice to My Disciples (bu slob zhal gdams), and Advice to My Benefactors (yon bdag zhal gdams). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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The Clear Mirror which is found in the second volume of Kagye Desheg Dupa. [Daki] [RY]
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The Easy Path (bde lam), see chap.2, note 30. The Swift Path (myur lam), another of the Eight Great Scriptures on the Graded Path, was written by the second Panchen Lama, Lobzang Yeshe (blo bzang ye shes, 1663-1737). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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The Eight Commands, Union of the Sugatas (bka' brgyad bde gshegs 'dus pa), rediscovered by Nyang Ral Nyima Öser (nyang ral nyi ma 'od zer, 1136-1204). This is the first and most important of the terma cycles based on the Eight Commands (sgrub pa bka' brgyad). On the life-story of Nyang Ral, see NS, pp. 755-9. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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The Marvelous Emanated Scriptures (ngo mtshar sprul pa'i glegs bam), see Appendix 5. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 +
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The Paramita vehicle (phar phyin gyi theg pa) is the Mahayana system of the gradual path through the five paths and ten bhumis according to the Prajnaparamita scriptures. See also 'six paramitas.'[AL] [RY]
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the prince dies. elder brother tho gan the mur brings to sman rtse [RY]
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The Sublime Continuum; Uttaratantra-shastra; (rgyud bla ma); Maitreya-Asanga, 4th century. [PK] [RY]
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The Swift Fulfillment of Wishes (bsam pa myur 'grub ma). Unidentified. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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The Three Lands of Ngari in Tö (stod mnga ri skor gsum):. These are 1) Gugey Ya'i Kor (gu ge gya' yi sKor), the Slate Land of Gugey; 2) Puhrang Khang gi Kor (spu rang gangs kyi sKor), the Snow Land of Puhrang; 3) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thop chab kyi sKor), the Water Land of Ruthop. According to The Ocean-like Annals (deb ther rgya mtsho), History of Amdo by Konchog Rabgye: 1) Purang, Mang Yul, and Sangkar (spu rang, mang yul, zang dkar), making the first land; 2) Li, Drusha, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second land; and 3) Shang Shung, Triteh and T"meh (zhang zhung, khri te, stod smad), making the third land. [MR]
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The Three Ridges /Heights of Dokham (smad mdo kham sgang gsum): are 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham, Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad); and 3) Gyi Thang in Tshongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha) [MR]
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The very top of a stupa consists of thirteen Dharma wheels of decreasing diameters, finally surmounted by a moon crescent and a sun. These thirteen "wheels" are sometimes thirteen squares, as in the case of Bodhnath stupa. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Thekchen Lingpa Karma Drodön Tarchin (thek chen gling pa karma 'gro don mthar phyin, 1700-75/6 see GC, vol. Ga, p. 218), also known as Tertön Drime Lingpa (gter ston dri med gling pa), born in Zurkar (zur mkhar) as a descendant of Tertön Dechen Lingpa (bde chen gling pa). He was the incarnation of Guru Padmasambhava's disciple Gyalwa Chöyang (rgyal ba mchog dbyangs) and the immediate incarnation of Rongpa Tertön Dudul Lingpa (rong pa gter ston bdud 'dul gling pa). He became a disciple of Rigdzin Thukchog Dorje (rig 'dzin thugs mchog rdo rje) from whom he received the transmission of the Kunzang Nyingthig (kun bzang snying thig) of Tennyi Lingpa (bstan gnyis gling pa, 1480-1535). He was gifted with clairvoyance and had visions in which he remembered his former births as Melong Dorje (me long rdo rje, 1243-1303), Dechen Lingpa (bde chen gling pa), Dudul Lingpa (bdud 'dul gling pa) and others. He lived a contemplative life in solitary places and revealed several termas in Trak Yangdzong (sgrags yang rdzong) and other places. His main disciples were Jigme Lingpa (rig 'dzin 'jigs med gling pa), Kunzang Dechen Gyalpo (kun bzang bde chen rgyal po), Trati Ngakchang (bkra ti sngags 'chang), Chaksampa Tendzin Yeshe Lhundrup (lcags zam pa bstan 'dzin ye shes lhun grub) and the Seventh Dalai Lama (skal bzang rgya mtsho). His descendants are still found at Zurkar Lhadeng (zur mkhar lha sdeng). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Thekchog Dorje The fourteenth Karmapa,(theg mchog rdo rje, 1798-1868). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Thekchog Dorje, (theg mchog rdo rje), Karmapa XIV: 1798-1868 [MR]
 +
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Theravada - The school of Buddhism that predominates in Southeast Asia, tracing its lineage to the early Sthaviras [RY]
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Theu-rang (the'u rang). A type of spirits who ride goats and as patrons of blacksmiths carry a bellows and hammer. [ZL] [RY]
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Thien - Vietnamese form of Ch'an teachings, introduced in the sixth century; together with Pure land became dominant form of Buddhism [RY]
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Thinking and stillness (gnas 'gyu). Presence and absence of thought activity. [RY]
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Third Council (bsdu ba gsum pa) - Council convened at time of Kaniska to authenticate the teachings; in the Theravada the Third Council was convened at Pataliputra under Ashoka [RY]
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Third Dhyana Realm. See Dhyana Realms [LW1] [RY]
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Third empowerment (dbang gsum pa). The third of the four empowerments in the Anuttara Yoga system to introduce the unity of bliss and emptiness. [RY]
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Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (chos 'khor gsum pa). The last teachings of the Buddha including the sutras on the definitive meaning placing emphasis on buddha nature, the unity of luminosity and emptiness devoid of constructs..[Primer] [RY]
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Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (chos 'khor gsum pa). The last teachings of the Buddha including the sutras on the definitive meaning. [RY]
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Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (chos 'khor gsum pa). The teachings by the Buddha placing emphasis on buddha nature, the unity of luminosity and emptiness devoid of constructs. [RY]
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Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma. See Dharma Wheels [LW1] [RY]
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Thirteen bhumis (sa bcu gsum). According to the New Schools there are an additional three stages which are actually degrees of manifesting complete enlightenment. See Tsele Natsok Rangdrol's The Lamp of Mahamudra, Shambhala Publications, 1989. [RY]
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Thirteen great root texts of philosophy (gzhung chen bcu gsum). [RY]
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Thirteen major philosophical texts (gzhung chen bcu gsum). The fundamental treatises on Buddhist philosophy covering the topics of Vinaya, the bodhisattva trainings, Maitreya's five treatises covering Prajnaparamita etc., as well as Abhidharma, and [[Madhyamaka]]. [RY]
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Thirteen Tantras of the Goddess (lha mo'i rgyud lung bcu gsum). [ZL] [RY]
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Thirty Seven-fold Practice of a Bodhisattva, see Translator's Introduction, p.xxi. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 +
thirty-seven aspect offering. The thirty-seven aspect offering is not included within either the original sadhana or the edition that Kongtrül later compiled. It is however within the preliminary text made by Kongtrül, though in the Tibetan edition only the beginning is given as it is assumed that practitioners would know it by heart. It can be found within, for example,the Mahamudra preliminary practices. [Peter Roberts]
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thirty-seven factors conducive to enlightenment (byang phyogs kyi chos so bdun); summary of [LW1] [RY]
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thirty-two major countries (yul chen so gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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Thirty-two major marks (mtshan gsum bcu so gnyis). The perfect marks of a buddha. [RY]
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Thirty-two thought states resulting from anger (zhe sdang las byung ba'i rtog pa so gsum). See list under the 'eighty innate thought states.' [RY]
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Thoding / (mtho lding) - Monastery in Gu ge in western Tibet where Rin chen bzang po and Atisha both worked. [RY]
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Thögal (thod rgal), the most advanced practice of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen, see Appendix 1). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Thomi Sambhota to India: 632 ?? [MR]
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Thöngwa Donden, Karmapa VI: 1416-1453. [RY]
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Thon-mi sambhota - Minister sent to India or Kashmir bv Tibetan king Srong-btsan sgam-po to study Sanskrit and devise written Tibetan language. [Tarthang]
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Thonmi Sambhota / (thon mi sam bho ta) - Minister sent to India or Kashmir by Tibetan king Srong btsan sgam po to study Sanskrit and devise written Tibetan language [RY]
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Thought arising as meditation (rnam rtog bsgom du 'char ba). [RY]
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Thousand buddhas of this aeon. [RY]
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Thrangu Monastery. [RY]
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Thrangu Rinpoche, quotation by [LW1] [RY]
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Thrangu Rinpoche. [RY]
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Thread-cross (mdos). A tantric ritual involving structures of sticks with colored yarn used to appease mundane spirits. [ZL] [RY]
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Thread-cross talisman (mdos): an elaborate structure made of threads of various colors arranged as a three-dimensional device, it represents the body and its various elements (earth, water, fire, wind, and space). The mdos, accompanied by various other objects symbolizing great riches, is offered as a substitute for a person and his or her possessions in a special ritual, the aim of which is to satisfy harmful spirits intent on stealing the person's life or prosperity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Thread-crosses (mdos). A tantric ritual involving structures of sticks with colored yarn used to appease mundane spirits. [EMP] [RY]
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Threatening forefinger, tarjani, (sdigs mdzub). A gesture of threat, point the forefinger. [RY]
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Three Abodes of Goodness (dge gnas gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three Abodes of Radiance ('od gsal gyi gnas gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three abodes. Under, upon and above the ground. [Peter Roberts]
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three activities connected with spreading the Dharma (chos kyi las gsum). Exposition ('chad), debate (rtsod), and composition (rtsom). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three adoptions (khyer so gsum). The three adoptions are the transmutation of all form, sound and mind into the path. [Peter Roberts]
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three ancestral Dharma kings (chos rgyal mes dbon rnam gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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three baskets (Skt. Tripitaka, Tib. sde snod gsum). Vinaya ('dul ba), sutra (mdo) and abhidharma (mngon pa). They are included in the Tibetan canonical collection called Kangyur. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three bindus of the Mahasandhi. Mahasandhi. Tibetan: rdzogs chen. "The Great Completion". The highest teaching within the Nyingma tradition, it was introduced into Tibet primarily by Vimalamitra and Vairochana in the eighth century. Its three "bindus", which means vital drops or essences, are the three sections of its teachings, at one time existing in Tibet as separate lineages: The sems sde "Mind Section", the klong sde "Expanse Section" and the man ngag sde "Instructions section". [Peter Roberts]
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three bodies or kayas (sku gsum). The dharmakaya (Tib. chos kyi sku), or absolute body; the sambhogakaya (Tib. longs spyod rdzogs pa'i sku), or body of enjoyment; and the nirmanakaya (sprul pa'i sku), or manifested body. They correspond to the empty nature of mind and of all phenomena; the luminous clarity of wisdom; and the unobstructed manifestation of compassion. These are known as the three bodies (trikaya) of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Brahma Abodes (tshangs gnas gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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three causal vehicles (rgyu'i theg pa gsum); listing of [LW1] [RY]
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three classes within atiyoga (rdzogs chen sde gsum). 1) the mind class (sems sde), 2) the space class (klong sde), and 3) the class of pith or extraordinary instructions (man ngag sde). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Collections (sde snod gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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three conditions for the purity of meat (gnas gsum dag pa'i sha). There are three conditions that make the eating of meat less evil 1) that one has not oneself killed an animal for meat, 2) or asked someone to kill it, 3) or taken the meat of an animal that has been killed specifically for oneself, even though one did not ask for it to be slaughtered. These are defined according to Hinayana sutras. According to Mahayana sutras the eating of meat, at the cost of animals' suffering, is unacceptable (see Appendix 5, note 6, and Emanated Scriptures of Compassion). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Confidences (yid ches gsum) - According to H.H. Khyentse Rinpoche, the three confidences are 1) the confidence that the goal of the practice resides in oneself (bsgrub bya rang la bzhugs pa yid ches), 2) the confidence in the extraordinary instructions which allow one to attain this goal (sgrub byed kyi man ngag la yid ches), and 3) the confidence in the spiritual master (bla ma la yid ches). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three confidences (yid ches gsum). 1) the confidence that the goal of the practice resides in oneself (bsgrub bya rang la bzhugs pa yid ches), 2) the confidence in the extraordinary instructions which allow one to attain this goal (sgrub byed kyi man ngag la yid ches), and 3) the confidence in the spiritual master (bla ma la yid ches). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Cycles of Dohas (do ha skor gsum, T 2263) comprises the three main "songs of realization" of the great siddha Saraha. They are the Doha for the King, the Doha for the Queen, and the Doha for the Subjects. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Cycles of Oral Lineage;, (snyan brgyud skor gsum), are the three main lineages of the Oral or Whispered Transmission of the Chakrasamvara teachings of the Kagyu Tradition. The three are: 1) The Dagpo Nyengyu (dwags po snyan brgyud), the Oral Lineage of Dagpo Lharje, Gampopa, the most extensive form; 2) The Rechung Nyengyu (ras chung snyan brgyud), the Oral Transmission of Rechungpa, the middle form; and 3) The Ngamdzong Nyengyu (ngam rgzong snyan brgyud), the condensed form. [MR]
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Three Defects (skyon gsum). When listening to a Dharma talk: Not paying attention, not remembering, being mixed with impure motivation. [RY]
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Three defects of the vessel (snod kyi skyon gsum). When listening to a Dharma talk: Not paying attention, not remembering, being mixed with impure motivation. [RY]
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Three Dharma robes (chos gos gsum). [RY]
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three Dharma Wheels of the causal teachings of the Philosophical Vehicles. See Dharma Wheels [LW1] [RY]
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three diamond-hard, or vajra-like, resolutions (rdo rje gsum). 1) The vajra of unswerving determination: no matter what our parents, friends, or anyone else may think or say, no matter what adverse conditions there may be, nothing can deter us from our resolve to practice the Dharma. 2) The vajra of indifference to what others may think of us: Once we have achieved our goal--to practice Dharma--even if people have a poor opinion of us, criticize us for "wasting our time," or slander us, we should not care about it in the least. 3) The vajra of wisdom: awareness of the ultimate truth, which should accompany us at all times. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Districts of Ngari [LW1] [RY]
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three divisions of ngari in tö (stod mnga' ris skor gsum). According to CN, they are: 1) The Dharma Land of Mang Yul (mang yul chos kyi skor); 2) The Auspicious Bönpo Land of Guge (gu ge g.yung drung bon gi skor); and 3) The Snow Land of Purang (pu rang /spu hreng gangs kyi skor). Alternately, these three have been defined as 1) Guge Ya'i Kor (gu ge g.ya' yi skor), the Slate Land of Guge; 2) Purang Khang gi Kor (spu hreng gangs kyi skor), the Snow Land of Purang; 3) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thob chab kyi skor) the Water Land of Ruthop. According to AC, vol.1, p.3, the three divisions are 1) Purang, Mang Yul, and Zanskar (spu hreng, mang yul, zangs dkar), making the first division; 2) Li, Gilgit, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second division; and 3) Shang Shung, Triteh and Lower Tö (zhang zhung, khri te /bri ste, stod smad), making the third division.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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THREE DOORS (sgo gsum). Body, speech and mind; thought, word and deed.[AL] [RY]
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three doors (sgo gsum). Body, speech, and mind. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three doors; [LWx] [RY]
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Three excellencies (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhicitta, the excellent main part of nonconceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedicating the merit. [RY]
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Three excellencies {dam pa gsum}. The beginning, bodhicitta; the main part, meditation free of conceptualization; and the conclusion, dedication. [RY]
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Three existences: The world beneath the ground, e.g nagas. The world upon the ground, e.g. humans. The world above the ground, e.g. the devas of the paradises. [Peter Roberts]
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three experiences (snang gsum). See also tendencies for [LW1] [RY]
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three experiences of transference (pho ba) [LW1] [RY]
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Three extensive and medium length versions of the Prajnaparamita teachings (bka' shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa rgyas 'bring rnam gsum). [ZL] [RY]
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Three families (rigs gsum). The vajra, padma and sugata families. [RY]
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Three families (rigs gsum). Vajra, padma, and tathagata. When referring to the 'lords of the three families' they are Manjushri, Avalokiteshvara, and Vajrapani. [RY]
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three families, lords of the (rigs gsum mgon po). The Buddhas Manjusri, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani, the respective manifestations of wisdom, compassion, and power. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Family Lords (rigs gsum mgon po). Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani. [RY]
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Three fields of objects (yul gsum). (snang yul, dbang yul, yid kyi yul). The form of the deity appearing as either a perceptual object, in the experience of the senses by someone else, or as a mental object. [RY]
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Three Forefather Dharma Kings (chos rgyal mes dbon rnam gsum) [LWx] [RY]
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Three Forefather Dharma Kings (chos rgyal mes dpon rnam gsum). [RY]
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three fundamental aspects of the buddhist teachings. 1) Renunciation (nges byung), the root of the Hinayana and therefore the foundation of all subsequent vehicles, 2) compassion (snying rje), the driving force of the Mahayana, and 3) pure vision (dag snang), the extraordinary outlook of the Vajrayana. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three gates (sgo gsum) are the body, the speech, and the mind. All these enumerations (the three gazes, the three postures, the four lamps, the four visions and the three crucial points) refer to the esoteric practice of Thögal (thod rgal). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three gates of emancipation (rnam thar sgo gsum). Emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness. [RY]
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three gates of emancipation. See emancipations [LW1] [RY]
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three Great Stupas in Kathmandu Valley - Bodhnath stupa or Jarung Khashor (bya rung kha shor, see note 28) and Svayambunath Stupa or Phagpa Shinkun ('phags pa shing kun) are two of the three Great Stupas in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The third one is the Takmo Lujin (stag mo lus sbyin, locally known as "Namobuddha"), erected near the place where the Buddha Sakyamuni, when he was born as a prince in one of his former lives, gave his body to feed a starving tigress. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Great Temples - lHa sa, Khra 'brug, and Ra mo che built by Srong btsan sgam po. [RY]
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Three Great Tertöns (gter chen gsum). Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Jamgön Kongtrül and Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
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Three great tertöns (gter stons chen po gsum) are Nyi ma 'od zer, chos kyi dbang phyug, and Rig 'dzin rgod ldem 'phru can. Nyang ral Nyi ma 'od zer (12th century) and Guru Chos kyi dbang phyug (13th century) are known as the Sun and Moon. gTer ma they discovered are called Upper and Lower treasures, or gter kha gong 'og. Rig 'dzin rgod ldem 'phru can (14th century) was editor and compiler of gter known as the Northern Treasures. [RY]
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three great transmissions (brgyud pa chen po gsum); of the Nyingma School [LW1] [RY]
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Three hidden valleys. [Daki] [RY]
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Three higher realms (mtho ris gsum). The worlds of human beings, demigods or asuras, and gods or devas. These realms are more pleasant than the lower realms of animals, hungry ghosts and hell beings, but are not places of lasting happiness since even the highest realms of the gods are still within samsara. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Three Hundred and Sixty Sacred Incantations (gzungs sum brgya drug cu). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]
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[[Three incalculable aeons]] ([[bskal pa grangs med gsum]]). Incalculable refers to the number ten followed by 52 zeros. [RY]
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[[Three Inner Tantras]] ([[nang rgyud sde gsum]]). Maha, Anu, and Ati Yoga. [RY]
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[[Three Inner Tantras]] ([[nang rgyud sde gsum]]). [[Mahayoga]], [[Anu Yoga]], and [[Ati Yoga]]. These three sections of tantra are the special characteristics of the [[Nyingma School]] of the Early Translations. According to [[Jamgön Kongtrül]] the First, "The [[Three Inner Tantras]] are also known as the '[[Vehicles of the Methods of Mastery]]' because they establish the way to experience that the world and beings are the nature of mind manifest as kayas and wisdoms, that everything is the 'indivisibility of the superior two truths,' and hereby ensuring that the practitioner will become adept in the method of gaining mastery over all phenomena as being great equality." The [[Three Inner Tantras]] are, respectively, also renowned as '[[development, completion, and great perfection]]' or as '[[tantras, scriptures, and instructions]].' According to Mipham Rinpoche, the Three Inner Tantras reached Tibet through six different lines of transmission: 1) As perceived by ordinary people in Tibet, Padmakara, the Second Buddha, taught only the Instruction on the [[Garland of Views]] but bestowed both the profound and extensive empowerments and instructions of all of the [[Three Inner Tantras]] to his exceptional disciples including Sangye Yeshe, Rinchen Chok, Lui Wangpo of Khön, and many others, the oral lineages of which have continued unbroken until this very day. Moreover, the major part of his teachings were sealed as terma treasures for the benefit of followers in future generations. 2) When the great translator Vairochana extensively had received the profound teachings of the Great Perfection from the Twenty-five Panditas, especially from Shri Singha, he returned to Tibet and imparted the Mind Section five times, as well as the oral lineage of the Space Section, both of which are continued uninterruptedly. 3) The great pandita Vimalamitra arrived in Tibet and taught the Instruction Section chiefly to Tingdzin Sangpo of Nyang. This lineage was transmitted both orally and through terma treasures. 4) Sangye Yeshe of Nub received from four masters in India, Nepal and Drusha innumerable teachings headed by the important scriptures of Anu Yoga and Yamantaka. His lineage of the Scripture of the Embodiment of the Realization of All Buddhas is still unbroken. 5) Namkhai Nyingpo received the transmission of the teachings of Vishuddha from the Indian master Hungkara which he then spread in Tibet. 6) During following generations, incarnations of the king and the close disciples of Padmasambhava have, and still continue to do so, successively appeared, as great masters who at opportune times reveal the profound teachings that had been concealed as terma treasures, in order to ensure the supreme welfare of people in Tibet and all other countries, both temporarily and ultimately. [ZL] [RY]
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Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). See also tantras, statements, and instructions; definition of sugata essence; listing of [LW1] [RY]
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three inner tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). The tantras of Mahayoga, Anuyoga, and Atiyoga. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum); definition of sugata essence; listing of [LWx] [RY]
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Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, the Precious Dharma and the Precious Sangha. [ZL] [RY]
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THREE JEWELS (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, the Precious Dharma and the Precious Sangha. In The Light of Wisdom (Shambhala Publ.), Jamgön Kongtrül explains: "The Buddha is the nature of the four kayas and five wisdoms endowed with the twofold purity and the perfection of the twofold welfare. The Dharma is what is expressed, the unconditioned truth of total purification comprised of cessation and path, and that which expresses, the two aspects of statement and realization appearing as the names, words and letters of the teachings. The Sangha consists of the actual Sangha, the sons of the victorious ones abiding on the noble bhumis who are endowed with the qualities of wisdom and liberation, and the resembling Sangha who are on the paths of accumulation and joining as well as the noble shravakas and pratyekabuddhas."[AL] [RY]
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Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum); expl. of qualities; in the context of the lesser vehicles; objects of refuge; Precious Ones of Vajrayana [LW1] [RY]
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Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum); guru as theThree Precious Ones [LW1] [RY]
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Three Jewels {dkon mchog gsum}. The Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. [RY]
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three Jewels and three Roots. The Three Roots: The Tantric equivalent, or essence of the Three Jewels. They are the Guru, the Yidam Deity and thirdly, the Dakas, Dakinis and Dharma-Protectors. [Peter Roberts]
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Three Kayas - The Mahayana recognizes the three aspects (Trikaya) of the Buddha: Dharmakaya (Chos kyi sku), lit. 'Dharma body'; Sambhogakaya (Longs spyod kyi sku), lit. 'Enjoyment body'; and Nirmanakaya (sPrul sku), lit. 'Representation body'. Dharmakaya is voidness and its realization, beyond time and space, and is pure transcending awareness. The Sambhogakaya, the pure enjoyment aspect of the Dhyanibuddhas, also represents the aspect of communication. The Nirmanakaya forms are embodiments taken by Buddhas among earthly beings in order to clarify the way to enlightenment. Rupakaya - The Sambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya are sometimes known together as the Rupakaya (gZugs sku), lit. 'Form body'; all three kayas are sometimes considered aspects of a fourth body, called the Svabhavikakaya (Ngo bo nyid sku). [RY]
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three kayas (sku gsum) are the dharmakaya (chos kyi sku), or absolute body; the sambhogakaya (longs spyod kyi sku), or body of enjoyment; and the nirmanakaya (sprul sku), or manifested body. They correspond respectively to the void, the luminous, and the compassionate aspects of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya (chos sku) is the first of the three kayas, which is devoid of constructs, like space. The 'body' of enlightened qualities. Should be understood in three different senses, according to ground, path and fruition. Sambhogakaya (longs spyod rdzogs pa'i sku) means the 'body of perfect enjoyment.' In the context of the 'five kayas of fruition,' sambhogakaya is the semi-manifest form of the buddhas endowed with the 'five perfections' of perfect teacher, retinue, place, teaching and time which is perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the ten levels. Nirmanakaya (sprul sku) means 'emanation body' or 'form of magical apparition' and is the third of the three kayas. This aspect of enlightenment that can be perceived by ordinary beings. [Primer] [RY]
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Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. [RY]
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Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' [RY]
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Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the levels; and the nirmanakaya which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. In the context of this book, the three kayas are sometimes Buddha Amitabha, Avalokiteshvara, and Padmasambhava. [ZL] [RY]
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Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and capacity'; as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya, which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya, which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas; and the nirmanakaya, which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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THREE KAYAS (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the levels; and the nirmanakaya which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [AL] [RY]
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three kayas (sku gsum); of buddhahood; expl.; threefold wisdom [LW1] [RY]
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Three kayas of buddhahood (sangs rgyas sku gsum). The dharmakaya is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the '21 sets of enlightened qualities.' Sambhogakaya is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the bhumis. The nirmanakaya manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [RY]
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Three kayas of fruition ('bras bu'i sku gsum). The dharmakaya is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the '21 sets of enlightened qualities.' Sambhogakaya is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the bhumis. The nirmanakaya manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [RY]
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three kindnesses (bka' drin gsum) according to the Mantrayana, of a spiritual master are as follows: to mature the disciple with an empowerment (dbang bskur), to expound the tantras (rgyud bshad), and to bestow pith instructions (man ngag ston).  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three kindnesses of a spiritual master (bka' drin gsum). To mature the disciple with an empowerment (dbang bskur), to expound the tantras (rgyud bshad), and to bestow pith instructions (man ngag ston). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three kinds of celestial beings (lha gsum). The gods of the realms of desire, form, and no-form. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three kinds of ignorance (ma rig pa rnam gsum). Single identity ignorance, coemergent ignorance and conceptual ignorance. [RY]
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three kinds of knowledge (shes rab rnam gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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three kinds of mental nonvirtues. See ten nonvirtues [LW1] [RY]
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Three kinds of miraculous powers (cho 'phrul gsum). The perfect deeds of a nirmanakaya buddha enacted through his body, speech and mind. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Three kinds of obscurations (sgrib pa gsum). The obscuration of disturbing emotions, the obscuration of dualistic knowledge, and the obscuration of tendencies or habitual patterns. [RY]
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three kinds of physical nonvirtues. See ten nonvirtues [LW1] [RY]
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Three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum) are to please by means of material things, service, and practice. The last is the most eminent of the three. The two first perfect the accumulation of merit and the latter the accumulation of wisdom. [RY]
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Three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum). To please one's teacher by means of material things, service, and practice. [RY]
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three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum); expl. [LWx] [RY]
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Three levels of enlightenment (byang chub gsum). The attainment of the nirvana of an arhant, pratyekabuddha, and of a fully perfected buddha. [RY]
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three levels of enlightenment (byang chub gsum); listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Three levels of existence (srid pa gsum). Usually the same as the 'three realms.' [RY]
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three levels of impure existence [LWx] [RY]
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Three levels of wisdom; (shes rab gsum): 1) Conventional, worldly wisdom: Is basically the four traditional sciences, which are healing, logic, languages and crafts. 2) Ultimate, transworldly wisdom: Is the inner science based on the teachings of the sravakas and the pratyekabuddhas, and leads to recognition that physical aggregates are unclean, necessarily involve suffering, are impermanent and devoid of inherent existence. 3) The wisdom of realization: Is based upon the Mahayana teachings and leads to the thorough experiential understanding of the empty nature of phenomena, which are unoriginated, baseless and rootless. There are three other aspects to wisdom: the wisdom that realizes relative truth, and that is perfect knowledge of the whole phenomenal world and the way it manifests; the wisdom that realizes absolute truth, and that knows the empty nature of all phenomena; and the wisdom that unerringly accomplishes the welfare of beings. [MR]
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three lineages (brgyud pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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three lower realms (ngan song gsum). The realms of the denizens of the hells, of the tormented spirits, and of the animals. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three lower realms (ngan song gsum). The worlds of hell beings, hungry ghosts, and animals. [RY]
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Three Main Points of the Path (lam gyi gtso bo rnam gsum), a short text by Tsongkhapa, belonging to the pith instruction section of the Kadampa teachings. The three main points are, as Jamgön Kongtrul says in his commentary, "The gold foundation of renunciation, on which rises the fabulously arranged Mount Meru and continents of Bodhicitta, upon which shines the brilliant sun of the wisdom of the perfect view." (See DZ, Vol. 4., pp. 435-88). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three mind poisons (dug gsum). Attachment, anger, and delusion. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Three mudras (phyag rgya gsum) are karma mudra (las kyi phyag rgya), samaya mudra (dam tshig gi phyag rgya) and jnana mudra (ye shes kyi phyag rgya), a mental consort. [RY]
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Three mysteries (gsang ba gsum). The Vajra Body, Speech and Mind. [RY]
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Three natures (rang bzhin gsum) (mtshan nyid gsum). The aspects of phenomena as set forth by the Cittamatra and Yogachara schools: the 'imagined,' the 'dependent,' and the 'absolute.' The imagined (kun brtags) is the two kinds of self-entity. The dependent (gzhan dbang) is the eight collections of consciousness. The absolute (yongs grub) is the empty nature of things, suchness. [RY]
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three natures (rang bzhin gsum); among the Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma [LW1] [RY]
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three notions ('du shes gsum); in regards to a master [LW1] [RY]
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Three outer tantras (phyi rgyud gsum). Kriya, Upa, and Yoga. [RY]
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Three Outer Tantras (phyi rgyud sde gsum); definition of sugata essence; listing of; of Mantrayana [LW1] [RY]
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Three outer Tantras are the Kriya, Charya, and the Yoga Tantras. () The Kriya Tantras emphasize purification of body and speech through ritual and cleansing activities, establishing a relationship between the deity and the practitioner similar to the relationship of master and servant. Realization can be gained within sixteen human lifetimes. [RY]
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three permissive conditions," see Appendix 5, note 6, and Shabkar's Emanated Scriptures of Compassion (snying rje sprul pa'i glegs bam). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three places (sa gsum) are the realms of celestial beings above the earth, of human beings upon the earth, and of the nagas below the earth. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three places (sa gsum). The realms of the celestial beings above the earth; of human beings upon the earth and of the nagas below the earth. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three planes; (sa gsum) : The realms of celestial beings above the earth, of human beings upon the earth, and of the nagas below the earth. [MR]
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Three poisonous emotions (nyon mongs pa dug gsum). Attachment, anger, and delusion. [RY]
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Three poisons (dug gsum). Desire, anger, and delusion. [RY]
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three poisons or klesas (dug gsum). Desire, hatred, and confusion. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Precious Ones (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. [RY]
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Three Precious Ones. See Three Jewels [LW1] [RY]
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Three profound empowerments (zab mo'i dbang gsum). They are also called "the three supreme empowerments" (mchog dbang gsum) and are the secret empowerment (gsang dbang), the wisdom empowerment (sher dbang) and the word empowerment (tshig dbang). [RY]
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Three Protectors (rigs gsum mgon po) Avalokiteshvara, Vajrapani, and Manjushri. [RY]
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three pure bhumis; bodhichitta; summary of path [LW1] [RY]
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Three pure conditions for eating meat;: That one does not kill an animal for meat, or ask someone to kill it, or take the meat of an animal that has been killed for oneself even though one did not ask for it. [MR]
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three ranges of dokham (smad mdo khams sgang gsum). 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham, Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad); and 3) Gyi Thang in Tsongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Ranges of Dokham (smad mdo khams sgang gsum): are 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham; Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad) Domey; and 3) Gyi Thang in Tsongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three realms (khams gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three realms (khams gsum). The samsaric realms of Desire, Form and Formlessness. [RY]
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Three realms (khams gsum). The samsaric realms of Desire, Form and Formlessness. [ZL] [RY]
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Three rituals (cho ga gsum). Three steps in visualization of a deity: seat with seed syllable, attribute, and deity. [RY]
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Three Roots - lama, yidam, dakini. The guru is the root of all blessing, the yidam is the root of all siddhi, and the dakini is the root of Buddha activity. [RY]
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Three roots (rtsa ba gsum). Guru, Yidam and Dakini. The Guru is the root of blessings, the Yidam of accomplishment, and the Dakini of activity. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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THREE ROOTS (rtsa ba gsum). Guru, Yidam and Dakini. The Guru is the root of blessings, the Yidam of accomplishment, and the Dakini of activity. [AL] [RY]
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three roots (rtsa ba gsum). The guru (bla ma); deva, or meditational deity (yi dam); and the dakini (mkha' 'gro). They are the roots, respectively, of blessings, of spiritual accomplishment, and of enlightened activity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Roots (rtsa ba gsum); expl. the special Precious Ones; listing of; objects of refuge [LW1] [RY]
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three Roots. The Peaceful Guru (Padmabhasajvala), the Wrathful Guru (Guru Drakpo) and Singhamukha, as the Guru, Yidam and Dakini, who are the roots of blessing, siddhi and activity. [Peter Roberts]
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Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. [RY]
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Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. The samadhi of suchness is to rest in the composure of the innate emptiness of all phenomena, as pointed out by one's root master, or simply to imagine that all things are empty like space. The samadhi of illumination is let natural compassion manifest like sunlight illuminating the sky, or simply to generate compassion for all the beings who fail to realize the nature of things. The samadhi of the seed-syllable is the innate unity of emptiness and compassion manifesting in the form of a syllable that is the 'seed' or source from which the deity and the entire mandala will appear during the practice. These three samadhis are the indispensible framework for the development stage of Vajrayana practice. In his Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo, Padmasambhava says, "The main part begins with the profound and vast samadhis Which purify the manner of death, bardo, and rebirth: The great emptiness space of suchness is pure like the sky. Rest evenly in this space of the undivided two truths. Emanate the magic of compassion, an all-illuminating cloud of awareness, filling the space, radiant yet without fixation. The single mudra in the manner of a subtle syllable Is the causal seed which produces everything. Keep this changeless wisdom essence, manifests in space, one-pointedly in mind and bring its vivid presence to perfection. [RY]
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Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. They form the framework for the development stage. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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three samadhis. The Thatness samadhi, the Manifestation samadhi and the Causal samadhi. They are represented by the syllables Om Ah and Hum. They are essentially emptiness and the Dharmakaya; compassion and the Sambhogakaya; the deity's symbolic form and the Nirmanakaya. They are also described, within this text, in the instructions on the outer practice, just before the description of Padmakara. [Peter Roberts]
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three samadhis. These are described in detail in the longer commentary. In brief, they are the "thatness-samadhi" of great emptiness. The "Total-manifestation samdhi" of compassion and illusion, and the "Causual samadhi" of the mudra, the deity's body. They are represented respectively by the three syllables "Om ah hum"recited in the sadhana before the description of the empty nature of phenomena. Hrih is then recited before the description of the appearance of the deity. Some western editions of the sadhana have mistakenly taken the Hrih to be the last syllable of the preceding mantra of the emptiness of phenomena: dharmadhatu svabhava ah hum. [Peter Roberts]
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Three seats of completeness (gdan gsum tshang ba'i dkyil 'khor). The three seats (gdan gsum) are the aggregates and elements as the seat of male and female tathagatas, the sense-bases as the seat of the male and female bodhisattvas, and the actions and faculties as the seat of the male and female wrathful ones. [RY]
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three secrets (gsang ba gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three secrets (gsang ba gsum). Same as the three mysteries. [RY]
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three secrets (gsang ba gsum). The vajra body, vajra speech and vajra mind of an enlightened being. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three secrets (gsang gsum) [LWx] [RY]
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three secrets. The three secrets: The body, speech and mind of the Gurus, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. They are called secret because they are inconceivable to ordinary beings. [Peter Roberts]
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Three sections (sde gsum) The three divisions of Dzogchen: Mind Section, Space Section and Instruction Section. Also the name of an important terma of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
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Three Sections of Dzogchen (rdzogs chen sde gsum). After Garab Dorje established the six million four hundred thousand tantras of Dzogchen in the human world, his chief disciple, Manjushrimitra, arranged these tantras into three categories: the Mind Section emphasizing luminosity, the Space Section emphasizing emptiness, and the Instruction Section emphasizing their inseparability. [ZL] [RY]
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Three Sections of Dzogchen. Garab Dorje entrusted these teachings to his main disciple, Manjushrimitra, who then classified them into the Three Sections of Dzogchen: Mind Section, Space Section, and Instruction Section. [RY]
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three sets of precepts (sdom gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three sets of precepts (sdom gsum). See three vows. [RY]
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three sets of vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara, a tantric practitioner. [AL] [RY]
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three solitudes of body, speech, and mind (lus ngag yid kyi dben gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three sorts of laziness; (le lo gsum): Indolence, which is to be prone to sleep and idleness. Faint-heartedness, which is to be discouraged before even beginning to strive, thinking, "Someone like me will never reach enlightenment, however much I may try." Laziness of neglecting true priorities, which is to be stuck in non-virtuous ways of acting and be only concerned only with affairs limited to this life. [MR]
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three special qualities of the terma treasures; listing of [LW1] [RY]
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three special qualities of transmission; of the Nyingma School, listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Three special trainings {lhag pa'i bslab pa gsum}. The training of moral discipline, the training of contemplation and the training of discriminative awareness. [RY]
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Three spheres ('khor gsum). The three 'spheres' or concepts of subject, object and action. [RY]
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three spheres ('khor gsum); conceptualizing [LW1] [RY]
 +
 +
Three spheres {'khor gsum}. Subject, object and their interaction. [RY]
 +
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Three spheres of concepts ('khor gsum gyi dmigs pa). Subject, object and action. [RY]
 +
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Three Stages (rim gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 +
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three strengths of the lion (seng ge'i rtsal gsum). Miraculous transformations (rdzu 'phrul), swiftness (myur mgyogs), and the possession of wings made of wind (rlung gshog). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 +
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three strengths or faculties of the lion (seng ge'i rtsal gsum). These three have been suggested: miraculous transformations (rdzu 'phrul), swiftness (myur mgyogs), and the possession of wings made of wind (rlung gshog). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three successive Dharma Wheels of the causal teachings of the philosophical vehicles [LWx] [RY]
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Three sufferings (sdug bsngal gsum). The suffering upon suffering, the suffering of change, and the all-pervasive suffering of formations. [RY]
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three sufferings (sdug bsngal rnam pa gsum). The suffering upon suffering (as when losing one's parents and then falling very sick); the suffering of change (as when going to a happy picnic and being bitten by a snake); and the all-pervading, latent suffering inherent in all forms of conditioned existence. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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 +
three sufferings (sdug bsngal rnam pa gsum): the suffering upon suffering (e.g. losing one's parents and then falling very sick); the suffering of change (e.g. going to a pleasant picnic and being bitten by a snake); and the all-pervading, latent suffering inherent in all forms of conditioned existence. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three supreme image mandalas (lhag pa gzugs brnyan gyi dkyil 'khor gsum) are made of colored powder (rdul tshon), painted cloth (ras bris) and heaps (tshom bu). [RY]
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three sweets (mngar gsum). Sugar, honey and molasses. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three things to carry (khyer so gsum). Regarding sights, sounds, and thoughts as being deity, mantra, and wisdom. [RY]
 +
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Three thousand fold universe. [RY]
 +
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Three Trainings (bslab pa gsum), in regard to the six paramitas; under the ten bhumis [LW1] [RY]
 +
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three trainings (bslab pa gsum). Ethical discipline (tshul khrims), contemplation (ting nge 'dzin), and wisdom (shes rab). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three trainings (bslab pa gsum). The trainings of discipline, concentration, and discriminating knowledge. [ZL] [RY]
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Three trainings (bslab pa gsum): discipline, contemplation and wisdom. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three transmissions of the teachings (bka'i brgyud pa gsum). Buddhas' Mind Transmission, Vidyadharas' Sign Transmission and Great Masters' Oral Transmission. [RY]
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three transmutations. The three transmutations are form into the deity or guru, sound into the mantra, and the automatic liberation of thought. [Peter Roberts]
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Three Turnings - Aspects of the Buddha's teachings (Turnings of the Wheel of the Dharma), presented at different times and in different locations [RY]
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Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma. See Dharma Wheels [LW1] [RY]
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Three types of "tantra of words" (tshig rgyud gsum): a] Tantra manifest as sound (sgrar snang ba'i rgyud) is is mind transmission or both the transmission of mind and symbol. b] Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud) is oral transmission of great masters. c] Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud) is the letter characters of the scriptures. For example, the terma teachings belong to the category of the three types of tantra of words; the mind transmission is to keep in mind what he initially have heard, the oral transmission he uttered it to the King and the subjects as the spontaneous sound of dharmata, and the Word Transmission of Yellow Parchment (shog ser tshig brgyud) is the teaching written down on the yellow parchment. [RY]
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three types of emancipation. See emancipation [LW1] [RY]
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Three types of ignorance (ma rig pa gsum). The ignorance of single identity, coemergent ignorance, and conceptual ignorance. [RY]
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three types of individuals (skyes bu gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three types of knowledge (shes rab gsum). The understanding and insight resulting from learning, reflection and meditation practice. [RY]
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Three types of liberation (thar pa gsum). The three types of emancipation of the shravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva. [RY]
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three types of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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three types of pure nirvana. See also three levels of enlightenment [LW1] [RY]
 +
 +
three vajras - Our essence, nature and capacity are the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. They are also the three vajras — the vajra body, speech and mind of all the buddhas — which we are supposed to achieve. This real and authentic state is, in itself, empty, which is dharmakaya. Its cognizant quality, isn't that sambhogakaya? Its unconfined unity, isn't that nirmanakaya? This indivisible identity of the three kayas is called the 'essence body,' svabhavikakaya. when we have cut through karma and obscurations and habitual patterns, then the nature of the three vajras is primordially and spontaneously present already within us. Unless we had these how could we produce the three vajras. Its because the three vajras are present within the ground as the vajra body, vajra speech and vajra mind and which is primordially present in all sentient beings as well. [Primer] [RY]
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three vajras (rdo rje gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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three vajras (rdo rje gsum). The three Vajras: The vajra (i.e. indestructible) body, speech and mind of Buddhahood. [Peter Roberts]
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three valleys (ljong gsum), listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Three vehicles (theg pa gsum). Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana. [RY]
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three vows (sdom gsum). The pratimoksa vows of the Hinayana, which concern all the lay and monastic precepts of conduct taught by Lord Buddha in the Vinaya, the Bodhisattva vows of the Mahayana, which are embodied in the generation, cultivation and preservation of the twofold thought of enlightenment, or Bodhicitta, and the samayas, which are the precepts and commitments of the Vajrayana. Samayas formalize and acknowledge the all-important bonds with one's guru, one's fellow disciples and one's practice. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Vows (sdom pa gsum) are the Pratimoksha vows, the Bodhisattva precepts, and the Vajrayana samayas. See Appendix 1. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara. [RY]
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Three vows;, (sdom gsum). The pratimoksa vows concern all the lay and monastic precepts of conduct taught by Lord Buddha in the Vinaya. The bodhisattva vows are in essence the wish to generate, cultivate and preserve the vow to dedicate all one's thoughts, words and actions solely to the benefit of others. Relatively, this means the exercise of loving kindness, compassion, and the six paramitas, ultimately leading all beings to complete enlightenment. The samaya vows are the sacramental links created when a disciple attends a spiritual master and receives from him an initiation. Although it is said that there are one hundred thousand samayas in the Mantrayana, they can be condensed into the samayas related to the body, speech and mind of the guru. [MR]
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Three ways of pleasing the spiritual master {nyes pa gsum}, by making substantial offerings, offerings of service and offering of one's spiritual practice. [RY]
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three wheels or activities of a buddha ('khor lo rnam gsum). The wheel of study and reflection (thos bsam); the wheel of meditation (sgom pa); and the wheel of activity (phrin las). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three wheels or activities of a Buddha ('khor lo rnams gsum): the wheel of study and reflection (thos bsam), the wheel of meditation (sgom pa), and the wheel of activity (phrin las). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three whites (dkar gsum). Milk, curd, and butter. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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three whites and the three sweets. The three whites are butter, curd and milk. The three sweets are honey, molasses and sugar. [Peter Roberts]
 +
 +
three whites are milk, curd, and butter; the three sweets are sugar, honey and molasses. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three worlds - Meaning above the earth, on the earth, and below the earth, respectively the realms of the gods, human beings, and nagas. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three worlds ('jig rten gsum). The three spheres of gods, humans, and nagas. [RY]
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three worlds (khams gsum). The world of desire ('dod pa'i khams), the world of form (gzugs kyi khams), and the world of no-form (gzugs med kyi khams). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Three Yanas (theg pa gsum). The three levels of Buddhist teaching; Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana. [RY]
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Three Yogas (rnal 'byor gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Three Yogas of Continual Practice (khyer so gsum gyi rnal 'byor). Perceiving appearances as deities and pure lands, sounds as mantra and thoughts as wisdom. [RY]
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Three Yogas. See also Three Inner Tantras [LW1] [RY]
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three Yogas: the utpatti (generation phase), the sampanna (completion phase) and the mahasandhi (the great completion). Also known as the Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga, the names that will shortly be used for them. [Peter Roberts]
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three Zurpa masters [LW1] [RY]
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three-cornered, red "glorious-food" torma, encircled by a retinue of five tormas the same as itself and by dough triangles. dpal-bshos, more commonly known as a "Paltor" ("Glorious Torma"), this one being described as red with a lotus-petal base but with a projecting sharp-edged "waist" that forms points at three corners, unlike the rounded form of the guru-torma. The Karseh Kongtrül tradition follows Tsewang Norbu's use of eight surrounding lesser tormas instead of the five in this text [Peter Roberts]
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Threefold Confidence (yid ches gsum ldan), a life story of Padmasambhava by Taranatha according to Indian sources. Tibetan title: slob dpon pad-ma'i rnam thar rgya gar lugs yid ches gsum ldan. Included by Jamgön Kongtrül in the Rinchen Terdzö, Vol. KA. [ZL] [RY]
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Threefold Division of Ngari in Tö (stod mnga' ris skor gsum): According to CN, they are: 1) The Dharma Land of Mang Yul (mang yul chos kyi skor); 2) The Auspicious Bönpo Land of Guge (gu ge g.yung drung bon gi skor); and 3) The Snow Land of Purang (pu rang /spu hreng gangs kyi skor). Alternately, these three have been defined as 1) Guge Ya'i Kor (gu ge g.ya' yi skor), the Slate Land of Guge; 2) Purang Khang gi Kor (pu hrang gangs kyi skor), the Snow Land of Purang; 3) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thob chab kyi skor) the Water Land of Ruthop. According to AC, Vol I, p.3, the three divisions are: 1) Purang, Mang Yul, and Zanskar (spu hreng, mang yul, zangs dkar), making the first division; 2) Li, Gilgit, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second division; and 3) Shang Shung, Triteh and Lower Tö (zhang zhung, khri te /bri ste, stod smad), making the third division. Tö (stod) and Latö (la stod) are sometimes confused. Tö refers traditionally to the western part of Tibet at large, as opposed to U-Tsang (dbu gtsang) and Domey (mdo smad), and is the same as Ngari. Latö is the western part of Tsang and includes the districts of Nyanang (gnya' nang), Tingri (ding ri), Pungrong (spung rong), and Shelkar (shel dkar). People from Latö call themselves Töpas (stod pa), "people of Tö", which adds to the confusion, but they are not considered as such by inhabitants of Ngari. One also distinguishes North Latö (byang la stod) and South Latö (lho la stod, see TC, p. 2745), which were two of the thirteen divisions of Tibet (bod khri skor gcu sum). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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threefold equality (mnyam pa nyid gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Threefold equality, (mnyam pa nyid gsum), means being equal to all the buddhas 1) in having perfected the accumulations, 2) in being enlightened, and 3) in accomplishing the welfare of beings. [RY]
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Threefold Excellence (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhicitta, the excellent main part of nonconceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedication. Also called the three excellencies. [RY]
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THREEFOLD EXCELLENCE (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhichitta, the excellent main part without conceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedication. Also called the three excellencies. For a detailed explanation, see Repeating the Words of the Buddha (Rangjung Yeshe Publ.).[AL] [RY]
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Threefold faith (dad pa gsum). Admiring, yearning and trusting faith. [RY]
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Threefold Knowledge (rig gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Threefold miraculous actions (cho 'phrul rnam gsum). [RY]
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Threefold Praise (skabs gsum pa) is a ritual text of praise in use in the Geluk tradition. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Threefold Purity ('khor gsum rnam dag). Absence of fixation on subject, object, and action. [RY]
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threefold purity; expl. [LWx] [RY]
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threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum) is the ripening of nature, faculty, and thought (khams dbang po bsam pa) or strong ripening: The nature is ripened through having trained in the Dharma and the path during many former lives. By the power of that, the faculties are ripened since the five faculties of perfection (rnam byang) have become extremely sharp. By the power of that, discriminating knowledge (shes rab) has ripened from the present intelligence (shes rab) obtained at birth. [RY]
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Threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum). The ripening of nature, faculty, and thought (khams dbang po bsam pa). [RY]
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Threefold vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara. [RY]
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threefold wisdom (ye shes rnam gsum), of Ati Yoga; expl. [LW1] [RY]
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Three-pronged vajra mudra {rdo rje rtse gsum kyi phyag rgya}. Mudra where the fingers are arranged in the form of a three-pronged vajra. This mudra is used while throwing out the stale breath at the beginning of the preliminary practice before each session. [RY]
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Three-storied Three Crescents (zla gam gsum pa bang rim gsum pa). [ZL] [RY]
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Three-thousandfold universe (stong gsum gyi 'jig rten gyi khams). The world system of Mount Sumeru and the four continents multiplied a thousand times a thousand times a thousand, adding up to one billion. [RY]
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Thub pa'i dbang po'i bstod pa leags bshad snying po, more well knows as rten 'brel bstod pa;, Praise to the Interdependent Links, in 58 stanzas, composed by Tsongkhapa while doing a solitary retreat at Olkha, in Central Tibet, following a dream in which he meet, Nagarjuna, Shantideva, Chandrakirti, Aryadeva and other great Indian panditas, the chief expounders of the [[Madhyamaka]] philisophy. At the end of the dream [[Buddhapalita]] stood up and blessed Tsongkhapa with a volume of his commentary on [[Madhyamakalankara]]. Following this dream Tsongkhapa achieved a high degree of understanding of the ultimate reality while reading a verse of Bhudhapalita which says that, "the self is neither different nor identical to the aggregates." The same day, Tsongkhapa wrote this praise to Lord Buddha, the Awakened One who first realized this truth. [MR]
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Thubten Chökyi Dorje, the 5th Dzogchen Rinpoche: 1872- [MR]
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Thukje Chenpo Gyutrul Drawa. [RY]
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Thunder of the Drum of Brahma (tshangs pa'i rnga sgra); sambhogakaya realm of [LW1] [RY]
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Thunder of the Drum of Perfection. [Daki] [RY]
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Tibet and Kham [LW1] [RY]
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Tibet Guide, The, by Stephen Bachelor, published by Wisdom Publications, London, 1987, pp. 466 [MR]
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Tibet is often called the "Land to the North," referring to the prediction of Buddha Sakyamuni that his teachings would spread to the north. When passing into Parinirvana, the Buddha laid his head toward the north. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tibet, a Political History, by Tsepon, W.D. Shakabpa, Potala Publications, New York, 1984, pp.369 Potala Publications, Rm. 703, 801 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10017 USA [MR]
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Tibet; explanation of the spiritual quality of the place [LW1] [RY]
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Tibetan army defeat the Chinese Emperor, and invades China upto Thranhen: 763 [MR]
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Tibetan army defeat the Chinese Emperor, and invades China upto Thranhen: 763. [RY]
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Tibetan Book of the Dead, The: The Great Liberation Through Hearing in the Bardo. Trns. by Franscesca Fremantle and Chögyam Trungpa, Shambhala Publications, Boston. [ZL] [RY]
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Tibetan calendar is based on a sixty year cycle, based on twelve different animal signs combined with five elements. In addition, each year of this cycle also has a specific name of its own.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tibetan coins and measures. These measures correspond to quantities of silver and gold since banknotes were issued only at the beginning of the twentieth century. In Shabkar's times one sho (zho) was the equivalent of 3.7 g. of silver and nine sho were roughly equivalent to one sang (srang). Various Nepalese coins (called tamka, Tib. tangka, from a Muslim name) equivalent to one-and-half sho circulated in Tibet at the same value, although some were made of pure silver and some of 50 percent alloy. The issue of debased coins caused repeated conflicts with Nepal (see chap. 13, note 46). Chinese coins of fine silver equivalent to one sho were also common. The karma (skar ma) is the smallest monetary unit and is roughly equivalent to one-tenth of a sho. A che-gye (phyed brgyad) is half of a cut tanka. A dotse (rdo tshad = stone-size) is the weight, or collection of fifty sangs. A Chinese tamik (rta rmig = horse hoof) is a silver ingot cast in the shape of a horse's hoof. There are two sizes: a large one weighing 165 tolas of silver (that is, about 2 kg.) and a small one weighing about 500 gms. On the development of currency in Tibet, see Rhodes (1990). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tibetan History (bod kyi srid don rgyal rabs), by Tsepon, W.D. Shakabpa, published by Shakabpa House, Kalimpong, Indian, 1976, Vol. I and II. [MR]
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Tibetan Schools of Buddhism - these come under the two general headings of rNying ma (the ancient ones) and gSar ma (the new ones). [RY]
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TIDRO CAVE AT SHOTÖ (sho stod sti sgro). Sacred place of Padmasambhava and Yeshe Tsogyal near Drigung Til in Central Tibet. Opened by Padmasambhava for future practitioners, this important pilgrimage site also has hot springs with healing properties. [AL] [RY]
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Tidro Gang (ti sgro gangs) [LW1] [RY]
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Tidro. [Daki] [RY]
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Tiger's Nest. [Daki] [RY]
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Tika (thig le). Essence; sphere. [ZL] [RY]
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Tika. A commentary (esp. on another commentary). [RY]
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Tilaka (thig le). Essence; sphere. [ZL] [RY]
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Tilopa (10th-11th century) Naropa (active in the middle of the 11th century), Marpa (mar pa chos kyi blo gros, 1012-97) and Rechung Dorje Drakpa (ras chung rdo rje grags pa, 1084-1161) are the first patriarchs of the Kagyu Lineage. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tilopa (Skt.). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa, and father of the Kagyu lineage. [RY]
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Tilopa (til li pa). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa and father of the Kagyü lineage. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Tilopa. (988-1069). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa and father of the Kagyü lineage.[Primer] [RY]
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Tilopa: 988-1069 [MR]
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Tilopa: 988-1069. [RY]
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Times of decline. =Degenerate age. [RY]
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Times, the three (dus gsum). Past, present, future. [RY]
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Ting Od Barma (mthing 'od 'bar ma). The consort of Raksha Tötreng. [RY]
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Tingri Langkhor (ding ri glang 'khor), which lies west of Tingri Dzong, was established in 1097 by the Indian yogin Padampa Sangye (d. 1117). See Aziz (1980). The relics and belongings of the saint were preserved there. Most of these were saved from the devastation brought on by the Cultural Revolution and are presently preserved by Dza Trulshik Rinpoche in Nepal. The Langkhor monastery, now in process of restoration, was built above the cave where Padampa meditated. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tingri Langkhor; (ding ri glang 'khor) Tingri Langkhor, which lies West of Tingri Dzong, was established in 1097 by the Indian yogin Padampa Sangye (-1117). The Langkor monastery, now in process of restoration, was built above the cave where Padampa meditated. [MR]
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Tingshag (ting shags), tiny, thick cymbals with a high-pitched sound. They are often made of bell-metal and are mostly used in Kriya Tantra rites, water torma offering (chu gtor), and burnt offerings (gsur) made to the starving spirits. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tingting Tinglomen (ting ting ting lo sman). [ZL] [RY]
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Tiny pearl-like relics (ring bsrel). See chap.6, note 11. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tipitaka - Pali term for the Tripitaka: Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma, with Tantra sometimes regarded as a fourth pitaka [RY]
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Tirahuti. [Daki] [RY]
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Tirthapuri; A sacred place with a cave blessed by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, where one can see granite rock with their embedded foot-prints. One also finds hot springs and a geyser. [MR]
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Tirthika (mu stegs pa) [LW1] [RY]
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Tirthika (mu stegs pa). Non-Buddhist teachers of philosophy adhering to the extreme views of eternalism or nihilism. [RY]
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Tirthika (mu stegs). An adherent of a non-buddhist religion, esp. a Hindu, Jain or Lokyata (materialist) [RY]
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Tirthikas (mu stegs pa). Non-Buddhist teachers of philosophy adhering to the extreme views of eternalism or nihilism.[Primer] [RY]
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Ti-se - Sacred mountain in western Tibet; also known as Kailasa. [Tarthang]
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Tisey / (ti se) - Sacred mountain in western Tibet; also known as Kailash [RY]
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Tishi Repa (ti shi ras pa). One of the masters in the Barom Kagyu lineage. [RY]
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Tobden. [Daki] [RY]
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Tob-yig (thob yig) [LW1] [RY]
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Tögal (thod rgal) [LW1] [RY]
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Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing.' Dzogchen has two main sections: Trekchö and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub).[Primer] [RY]
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Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing' or 'passing above.' Dzogchen, mahasandhi, has two main sections: trekcho and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub). [RY]
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Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing.' Dzogchen has two main sections: Trekchö and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub). [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Tögal vision (thod rgal gyi snang ba). The four 'visions' or stages of experience on the path of Tögal are 'manifest dharmata,' 'increased experience,' 'awareness reaching fullness,' and 'exhaustion of dharmas beyond concepts.' [RY]
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Tokharia? - Central Asia Dharma language associated with the areas of Kucha and Turfan; usually divided into two branches [RY]
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tol bu, pronounced "tolhu;" is the calf born from a dzomo (the hybrid offspring of a bull and dri, the female of the yak). The tolhu is a feeble animal, useless for domestic purposes, and is often killed or left to starve to death. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tolung Tsurphu. [RY]
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Tölung Valley (stod lung). [ZL] [RY]
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Tölung Valley [LW1] [RY]
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Tong-len (gtong len). See 'giving and taking.' [RY]
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Torch of the Three Ways (tshul gsum sgron me) [LW1] [RY]
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Torch That Illuminates the Graded Path (lam rim gsal ba'i sgron me); see Appendix 5. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tori Nyenshel [LW1] [RY]
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Torma (gtor ma) is a symbolic ritual object often made of flour, wood, or precious metal, which, depending on circumstances, can be visualized as an offering, as the deity, as a blessing, or as a weapon hurled against negative forces. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Torma (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits. [ZL] [RY]
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TORMA (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits. [AL] [RY]
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Torma (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits.[Primer] [RY]
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Torma {gtor ma}. Ritual objects in different shapes made of flour or clay which symbolize deities or offerings. [RY]
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Torma. "continuous tormas", the "temporary tormas" and the "fixed-duration tormas". The three kinds of torma: The "continuous torma" is one that remains upon the shrine throughout the practice, either as offerings or as representations of the deity. [Peter Roberts]
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tormas for the obstacle-makers. In this practice the torma offered in the preliminary practice for pacifying obstacle makers is called sha-gzugs-ma "the flesh-shape torma", which represents a bent leg, the thigh upon the ground and the foot in the air against the sole of which a butter disc is pressed. This is said to represent the leg that Padmakara manifested, while in meditation, and hurled to obstacle-makers to pacify them. [Peter Roberts]
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Tossing the flower - This refers to the section of the empowerment ceremony in which one throws a flower onto the mandala to determine the meditation deity with which one has the closest karmic links or affinity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Total purity of the three concepts ('khor gsum rnam dag). Absence of fixation on subject, object and action. [RY]
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totalities, ten (zad par bcu). See ten totalities [LW1] [RY]
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Tötreng Tsal (thod phreng rtsal). The secret name of Guru Rinpoche and also the long Guru Rinpoche mantra in the context of Trinley Nyingpo. [RY]
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To-yor Nagpo (tho yor nag po). [ZL] [RY]
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Tra Düntse (pra dun rtse). [ZL] [RY]
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Traditions of the Two Chariots (shing rta gnyis). See Two Chariots [LW1] [RY]
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Training, threefold, tri-shiksa, (bslab pa gsum). The trainings relating to Morality, to Concentration, and to Wisdom. [RY]
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Trainings (bslab pa). See Three Trainings [LW1] [RY]
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Trak Yerpa 1.;, (brag yer pa) Drak Yerpa (brag yer pa) is the holy place of Guru Padmasambhava related to the speech aspect. In this place of great scenic beauty there are over 80 caves where many great beings from all lineages meditated. On the top are the caves of Guru Padmasambhava (brag gi yang bgrod dka') and of Yeshe Tsogyal (gsang phug). Below is Drubthop Phug (grub thob phug) the great cave where the 80 siddhas of Yerpa (Guru Padmasambhava's disciples) meditated together. There is also Lord Atisha's cave (rten 'brel phug, or Atisa'i gzim phug). There is also Dawa Phug (zla ba phug), a cave blessed by Guru Padmasambhava who left an imprint of his foot in the rock). Padampa Sangye, too, meditated in this cave. Nyima Phug (nyi ma phug) is another cave, uphill, blessed by Guru Rinpoche. Dorje Phug (rdo rje phug) is the cave where Lhalung Palkyi Dorje is said to have hid himself after assassinating King Langdarma in 842. Chögyal Phug (chos rgyal phug) is the cave where King Songtsen Gampo meditated. [RY]
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Trak Yerpa 2. Chanag Dorje Phug (Phyag na rdo rje'i phug) comprise a serie of four south-facing caves. At the invitation of Ngok Changchup Dorje, Jowo Atisha, accompanied by Drom Tönpa, came in 1047 and taught extensively at Yerpa, and established there the second Kadampa Monastery, Yerpa Drubde (yer pa sgrub sde). At the very top of the cliff are Utse Phug (dbu rtse phug) and Pukar Rabsel (phug dkar rab gsal). [MR]
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Trakar Taso (brag dkar rta so) between Kyirong and Dzongka (see MI) is one of the most important meditation places of Milarepa. There he spent nine, or according to others twelve, years in continuous meditation, beginning in 1083. At that location is Milarepa's cave known as the Central Citadel (dbu ma rdzong). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Trakar Taso Tulku Chökyi Wangchuk (brag dkar rta so sprul sku chos kyi dbang phyug, 1775-1837) was an influential master in the areas along the Nepal-Tibet border. He was a disciple of Trinley Dudjom Gön Nang Chöje (phrin las bdud 'joms mgon gnang chos rje, 1726-89), himself a disciple of Kathog Rigdzin Tsewang Norbu (kah thog rig 'dzin tshe dbang nor bu, 1698-1755). His reply to Shabkar's letter, as well as a reply to a second letter from Shabkar is found in Vol. Tha of Trakar Taso Tulku's Collected Writings, pp. 749-54. (Communicated by Franz-Karl Ehrhard). Shabkar's second letter, as well the letters mentioned above, is found in DOL 3, folio 88b and in TS 4, p.694. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Trakpa Choyang, Gyaltsap V: 1617-1658 [MR]
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Traktung Pawo (khrag 'thung dpa' bo). The name of Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje. [RY]
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Tralep Kyamgon. [RY]
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Trambu Forest (gram bu'i tshal). [ZL] [RY]
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Tramdruk. [Daki] [RY]
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Tramen (phra men). Goddesses with human bodies and animal heads. 'Tramen' means 'hybrid' or
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'alloy.' [ZL] [RY]
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tramen (phra men); eight goddesses [LW1] [RY]
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Tranh-nhan Ton - Vietnamese king who founded a school that sought to integrate Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian ideals [RY]
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Tranpo Tertön Sherab Özer *(?? po gter ston shes rab 'od zer). The heart disciple of ?? [RY]
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Transcendent Knowledge (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa), prajnaparamita. Intelligence that transcends conceptual thinking. 'Transcendent' literally means 'gone to the other shore' in the sense of having departed from 'this shore' of dualistic concepts. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Transcendent Knowledge (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa, prajnaparamita). Intelligence that transcends conceptual thinking. [RY]
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Transcendent Knowledge. See Prajnaparamita, knowledge [LW1] [RY]
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Transcendental actions (pha rol tu phyin pa'i spyod pa). See 'paramita.' [RY]
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transference (pho ba); about ignorance; habitual tendency of; level of subtlety; obscuration of; tendencies for the three experiences of; three experiences of [LW1] [RY]
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Transference. [RY]
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transference; about ignorance; habitual tendency of; level of subtlety; obscuration of; obscuration of ('pho sgrib); obscuration of ('pho sgrib), expl.; tendencies for the three experiences of (snang gsum 'pho ba'i bags chags); tendencies of the three experiences of (snang gsum 'pho ba'i bag chags), expl.; three experiences of [LWx] [RY]
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Transformation (sprul bsgyur): a meditation practice in which a practitioner visualizes himself or herself going through all possible transformations. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Transitory collection ('jig tshogs). Refers to the continuity of the five aggregates. [RY]
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Translated Treatises. See Tengyur [LW1] [RY]
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Translated Words. See Kangyur [LW1] [RY]
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Translation Temple (sgra sgyur gling). A temple at Samye. [ZL] [RY]
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Translator ('jig rten mig gcig). The Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word Locava [lotsawa]. [RY]
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Translator from Langdro (lang gro lo tsa ba). One of the 25 disciples of Guru Rinpoche. [RY]
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Transmission (dbang lung),/ (ngo sprod). 1) A name covering both empowerment and reading transmission. 2) Same as the 'pointing-out instruction.' [RY]
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Transmission Lineages - After the Great Dharma King Ral pa can was killed by anti-Buddhist factions of the government, his brother, Glang dar ma, took the throne. During his reign, traditional studies were halted, monks forced to return to lay life, and monasteries closed. Esoteric practitioners continued secretly, and all lineages were preserved. The Vinaya transmission was maintained in the East through gYo, Rab, and dMar, Bla chen, and Klu mes, who returned to Central Tibet; the Abhidharma transmission was maintained in the East through lHa lung dPal gyi rdo rje and his disciples; the Prajnaparamita transmission was maintained through sKu ba dPal brtsegs, Cog ro Klu'i rgyal mtshan, and Ye shes sde; the Tantra transmission was maintained through gNyags Jnanakumara, gNubs chen Sangs rgyas ye shes, and the Three Zur. [RY]
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Transmission of the Earthen Pot {rdza ma'i lung}. Name of a transmission from the Dharma of transmission. [RY]
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Transmission of the four rivers of Secret Mantra (gsang sngags chu bo bzhi'i bka' babs) Tantra, vajra master, life and awareness. [RY]
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Transmission of the Leather Bag {sgro ba'i lung}. Name of a transmission from the Dharma of transmission. [RY]
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transmission, four special (bka' babs bzhi) The transmissions that Tilopa received from his four main teachers. These four transmissions were passed from Tilopa to Naropa and then to Marpa. They are the yogas of the illusory body, dream, luminosity, and candali. [Rain of Wisdom]
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Travels of Fa-Hsien: 399-414 [MR]
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Treasure letters (gter yig) possessing physical form are nirmanakayas. They are also speech for u [RY]
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treasure letters (gter yig). See also dakini script [LW1] [RY]
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Treasure lineages (gter brgyud). The transmission of teachings, hidden as treasures, to be revealed in the future to destined students by a tertön, treasure-revealer. [RY]
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Treasure lords (gter bdag). The guardians of the terma teachings. [RY]
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treasure master; expl.; [LWx] [RY]
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Treasure of Abhidharma; Abhidharmakosha; (mngon pa mdzod) - Vasubandhu, 4th or 5th century. [PK] [RY]
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Treasure revealer (gter ston). The master who reveals a terma teaching. [RY]
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treasure. See terma [LW1] [RY]
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treasure. Terma. The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer, for the benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions of the Nyingma School, the other being 'Kama.' This tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the Buddha has disappeared.[Primer] [RY]
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treasures; listing of different types [LWx] [RY]
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Treasury Commentary (mdzod tik) [LW1] [RY]
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Treasury of Abhidharma (chos mngon pa mdzod) [LW1] [RY]
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Treasury of Mahayana Sutras [LW1] [RY]
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TREASURY OF PRECIOUS TERMAS (rin chen gter mdzod). See under 'Rinchen Terdzö.'[AL] [RY]
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Treasury of the Nonarising Jewel (skye med rin po che'i mdzod) [LW1] [RY]
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Treatises (bstan bcos), shastra. Scriptures composed by accomplished or learned masters. [RY]
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treatises (shastra) [LW1] [RY]
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Tregu Cave of Chimphu (mchims phu bre gu dge'u). A cave at Samye Chimphu. [ZL] [RY]
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Trekchö (khregs chod) [LW1] [RY]
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Trekcho (khregs chod) See 'Cutting Through.' One of the two main aspects of Dzogchen practice, the other being Tögal. [RY]
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Trekchö (khregs chod). 'Cutting through' the stream of delusion, the thoughts of the three times, by revealing naked awareness devoid of dualistic fixation. To recognize this view through the oral instructions of one's master and to sustain it uninterruptedly throughout all aspects of life is the very essence of Dzogchen practice.[Primer] [RY]
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Trekchö (khregs chod). 'Cutting through' the stream of delusion, the thoughts of the three times, by revealing naked awareness devoid of dualistic fixation. To recognize this view through the oral instructions of one's master and to sustain it uninterruptedly throughout all aspects of life is the very essence of Dzogchen practice. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Trekchö; and Thögal;, (khregs chod; and thod rgal). The practices of cutting through the solidity of clinging and of direct vision, these two relating respectively to primordial purity (ka dag) and spontaneous accomplishment (lhun grup). [MR]
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Tri Changchup Chöpel Rinpoche (khri byang chub chos 'phel, 1756-1838), the first Trijang Rinpoche, and the sixty-ninth holder of the throne of Ganden. He became tutor of the ninth Dalai Lama. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tri Gya, the Hundred Instructions; (khrid brgya), one hundred meditative instructions from all traditions collected and arranged by Jonang Jetsün Kunga Drolchog, 1507-1566. (Can be found in the gdams ngag mdzod, vol.18) [MR]
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Tri Ralpachen (khri ral pa can). See Ralpachen. [ZL] [RY]
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triangular "red-torma" as a basis for the visualisation of Singhamukha, encircled by four tormas the same as itself and by dough triangles. This red torma, which is traingular and comes to a point at the tip, like an elongated pyramid, and is known as a "sharp-pointed red torma" (dmar-gtor rtse-rno), and is also known as a "Tun-tor" (thun-gtor "magic-weapon torma") as opposed to the "blunt-ended" red tormas. [Peter Roberts]
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Trichiliocosm {stong gsum gyi stong chen po 'jig rten gyi 'khams}. Three-thousandfold universe. [RY]
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Trident. [Daki] [RY]
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Tridey Tsugten (khri lde gtsug rten). [ZL] [RY]
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trikaya (sku gsum; three bodies) The three bodies of buddhahood. The dharmakaya (chos kyi sku; [RY]
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Trikaya Guru (sku gsum bla ma). Literally, the master of the three bodies; the master who is the embodiment of dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya. In the context Lamey Tukdrub Barchey Kunsel, it can also refer to the gurus of the three kayas, i.e. Amitabha as the dharmakaya, Avalokiteshvara as the sambhogakaya, and Padmakara as the nirmanakaya. [RY]
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Trilogy of Commentaries by Bodhisattvas (sems 'grel skor gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Trinley Drodul Tsal (phrin las 'gro 'dul rtsal). Another name of Chokgyur Lingpa [RY]
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Trinley Nyingpo (phrin las snying po). The Essence Practice. The short version of the guru sadhana of Barchey Kunsel. [RY]
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Tripitaka - The three collections of the Buddha's tea [RY]
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Tripitaka - The three collections of the Buddha's teachings: Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma, with Tantra sometimes regarded as a fourth pitaka. [Tarthang]
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Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of teachings; vinaya, sutra, and abhidharma. [RY]
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Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni: Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma. Their purpose is the development of the three trainings of discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge while their function is to remedy the three poisons of desire, anger and delusion. The Tibetan version of the Tripitaka fills more than one hundred large volumes, each with more than 600 pages. [ZL] [RY]
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Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni: Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma. Their purpose is the development of the three trainings of discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge while their function is to remedy the three poisons of desire, anger and delusion. The Tibetan version of the Tripitaka fills more than one hundred large volumes, each with more than 600 large pages. In a wider sense all of the Dharma, both Sutra and Tantra, is contained within the three collections and three trainings. To paraphrase Khenpo Ngakchung in his Notes to the Preliminary Practices for Longchen Nyingtig: "The three collections of Hinayana scriptures, namely Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma, respectively express the meaning of the training in discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge. The teachings describing the details of precepts for the bodhisattva path belong to the Vinaya collection while the meaning expressed by these scriptures are the training in discipline. The sutras expressing the gateways to samadhi are the Sutra collection while their expressed meaning, reflections on precious human body and so forth, are the training in concentration. The scriptures on the sixteen or twenty types of emptiness are the Abhidharma collection while their expressed meaning is the training in discriminating knowledge. Scriptures expounding the details of the samayas of Vajrayana are the Vinaya collection while their expressed meaning is the training in discipline. The scriptures teaching the general points of development and completion belong to the Sutra collection, while their expressed meaning is the training in samadhi. All the scriptures expressing the Great Perfection belong to the Abhidharma collection, while their expressed meaning is the training in discriminating knowledge."[AL] [RY]
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Tripitaka (Three Collections) (sde snod gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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Tripitaka {sde snod gsum}. The three collections of the Buddhist teachings, Vinaya {'dul ba}, Sutra {mdo}, and Abhidharma {mngon pa}. [RY]
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Tripitaka. [Daki] [RY]
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Tripitaka: the three baskets of Vinaya, Sutra and Abhidharma. The are all included in the Tibetan canonical collection called Kangyur (bka' 'gyur). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tripitaka; expl.; see also 'Three Collections'; [LWx] [RY]
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Triple Gem - the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. [RY]
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Triple Gem (tri ratna, dkon mchog gsum). The Buddha, Dharma and Sangha Refuges. [RY]
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Triple Refuge (skyabs gnas gsum). Same as the Three Jewels. [RY]
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triple sangha [LWx] [RY]
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Triple-storied Central Temple (dbu rtse rigs gsum) / (rim gsum). The central structure at the temple complex of Samye. [ZL] [RY]
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Triple-vow vajra-holder (sdom gsum rdo rje 'dzin pa). A master who can keep the vows of each of the three vehicles simultaneously and without conflict. [RY]
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triplistic conceptualisation. The conceptualisation of subject, action and object. Dualistic conceptualisation being that of subject and object, or self and other. [Peter Roberts]
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Trisang Lhalö (khri bzang lha lod). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]
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Trisang Yablhag (khri bzang yab lhag). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]
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Trishö Gyalmo (khri shod rgyal mo) [LW1] [RY]
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Trishok Gyalmo - The Mother is the Blue Lake, Trishok Gyalmo, and her mantle is the ice that covers the lake during the winter and allows one to cross from the mainland to the islands. The holy place and the palace mentioned below refer to Tsonying Island. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Trisong Detsen: 790-844 /or 718 (Buton) or 730 (in Bee kar) [MR]
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Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche. [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. Panditas and lotsawas translated many texts, and large numbers of practice centers were established. [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. In The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, Jamgön Kongtrül date Trisong Deutsen as being born on the eighth day of the third month of spring in the year of the Male Water Horse (802). Other sources state that year as his enthronement upon the death of his father. Until the age of seventeen he was chiefly engaged in ruling the kingdom. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. He arranged for panditas and lotsawas to translate innumerable sacred texts, and he established a large number of centers for teaching and practice. [ZL] [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. In The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, Jamgön Kongtrül dates Trisong Deutsen as being born on the eighth day of the third month of spring in the year of the Male Water Horse (802). Other sources state that year as his enthronement upon the death of his father. Until the age of seventeen he was chiefly engaged in ruling the kingdom. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. He arranged for panditas and lotsawas to translate innumerable sacred texts, and he established a large number of centers for teaching and practice. Among his later incarnations are Nyang Ral Nyima Özer (1124-1192), Guru Chöwang (1212-1270), Jigmey Lingpa (1729-1798), and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820-1892).[AL] [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen (khri srong lde'u btsan); details of [LWx] [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen / Khri srong lde btsan - Tibetan Dharma king regarded as an incarnation of Manjushri; invited Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita to Tibet [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen / Khri srong lde'u btsan (8th century) second great Dharma King, who invited to Tibet Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. With the aid of Shantarakshita and Padmasambhava, he built bsam yas, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri. he proclaimed Buddhism the religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. Panditas and lotsawas translated many texts, and large numbers of practice centers were established. He was succeeded by: Mu ne and Khri lde srong btsan (Sad na legs) [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen. See King Trisong Deutsen [LW1] [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen: 790- 844 /or 718 (Buton) or 730 (in Bee kar). [RY]
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Trisong Deutsen; (790-844), (Khri srong ldeu btsan), The great dharma king who invited from India the abbot Santarakshita (tib. Shiwatso) - also known as Khanchen Bodhisatto - and Guru Padmasambhava, to build the monastery of Samye, and establish Buddhism in Tibet. He then invited one hundred and eight great Indian panditas, led by Vimalamitra, to translate all the Buddhist scriptures into Tibetan, together with the same number of Tibetan panditas led by Vairotsana. With the other of the twenty five main disciples of Guru Rinpoche he received the first empowerment given by Guru Rinpoche in Tibet, at Samye Chimphu. Later, he took successive rebirths as many great saints and tertöns, among them Rigdzin Jigme Lingpa himself, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. [MR]
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Trisong Deutsen; initiation name [LWx] [RY]
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Trodrel (spros bral). The second stage in the practice of Mahamudra. [RY]
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TRÖMA NAGMO (khros ma nag mo). A wrathful black form of the female buddha Vajra Yogini. Tröma Nagmo means 'Black Lady of Wrath.'[AL] [RY]
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True all-ground of application (sbyor ba don gyi kun gzhi). [RY]
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True Dharma, sad-dharma, (dam chos). The Law of the Buddhas. [RY]
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True Goal, bhuta-koti, (yang dag pa'i mtha'). Ultimate Truth, Emptiness. [RY]
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True Image Mind-Only School (sems tsam rnam bden pa). [RY]
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True Image Mind-Only School of Equal Number Perceiver and Perceived (bzung 'dzin grangs mnyam sems tsam rnam bden pa). [RY]
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True Joy (mngon par dga' ba). The pure realm of Buddha Akshobhya. [RY]
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True luminosity (don gyi 'od gsal). Same as empty luminosity. [RY]
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True meaning (nges don). The definitive meaning as opposed to the expedient or relative meaning. The teachings of Prajnaparamita and the Middle Way. [RY]
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True meaning (nges don). The definitive meaning as opposed to the expedient or relative meaning. The teachings of Prajnaparamita and the Middle Way. In his Treasury of Knowledge, Jamgön Kongtrül the Great defines the true /definitive meaning in the following way: The topics taught to exceptional disciples that the nature of all phenomena is profound emptiness devoid of constructs such as arising and ceasing, and, that the innate real condition of things is by nature luminos wakefulness and lies beyond words, thoughts and description. Moreover, it is the words of the Buddha expounding this meaning as well as the commentaries upon them. [RY]
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[[True Nature]] ([[dharmata]], [[chos nyid]]; also [[gnas lugs]]). ditto. [RY]
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[[True wisdom]] ([[don gyi ye shes]]). The [[wisdom]] which is the [[unity of awareness and emptiness]] introduced through the fourth empowerment. [RY]
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Trülnang ('phrul snang). One of two important temples in Lhasa built by King Songtsen Gampo and housing a statue of Buddha Shakyamuni. [ZL] [RY]
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Trulshig Senge Gyabpa:1243-1303 [MR]
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Trülshik Rinpoche [LW1] [RY]
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Truly high (mngon mtho) The three higher realms of humans, demigods and gods. [RY]
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Truly High (mngon mtho). Refers to a rebirth in the three higher realms within samsara: humans, demigods and gods. [RY]
 +
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truth (bden pa); of cessation; four aspects of; of origin; four aspects of; of suffering; four aspects of; of the path; four aspects of [LW1] [RY]
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truth of cessation [LW1] [RY]
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truth of cessation; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
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truth of origin; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
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truth of suffering; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
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truth of the path; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
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Truths, the two (satya, bden). Ultimate and conventional. [RY]
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Tsagong of Tsari (tsa ri tsa gong). [ZL] [RY]
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Tsa-lung (rtsa rlung). Nadi and prana, the channels and energies. [RY]
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Tsamchok. [RY]
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Tsami Lotsawa Sangye Trak (tsa mi lo tsa ba sangs rgyas grags). Born in the eastern Tibetan province of Minyak, he travelled to India and studied with the famous pandita Abhayakara. He was acclaimed throughout India as the most learned of panditas and a fully realized mahasiddha, and was the only Tibetan ever to hold the thrones of Vajrasana and Nalanda. (See BD, IV, p.280). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsampa (rtsam pa) is a flour made of roasted barley. It is the staple food among Tibetans. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsandra Rinchen Drak (tsa 'dra rin chen brag) [LW1] [RY]
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Tsandraghirti (Chandrakirti) [LW1] [RY]
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Tsang (gtsang). See also Ü and Tsang; clan; province [LW1] [RY]
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Tsang Khenchen (gtang mkhan chen 'jam dbyangs dpal ldan rgya mtsho): 1610-1684 [MR]
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Tsang Nyön Heruka (gtsang smyon he ru ka rus pa'i rgyan can): 1452-1507 [MR]
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Tsangma Shangton (founder of Sagpa line of Shangpa Kagyu): 1234-1309 [MR]
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Tsangpa Gyare (gtsang pa rgya ras ye shes rdo rje): 1161-1211 [MR]
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Tsangpa Gyarey (gtsang pa rgya ras) (1161-1211). Early master in the Drukpa Kagyü lineage, also known as Yeshe Dorje (ye shes rdo rje). Chief disciple of Lingje Repa and founder of Druk Gönpa after which Drukpa Kagyü got its name. It was during his time that a saying appeared, "Half the people are Drukpas, half the Drukpas are mendicant beggars, and half the mendicants are siddhas."[EMP] [RY]
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Tsangpa Lhai Metok, 'divine flower of Brahma.' (tshangs pa lha'i me tog). Name of King Trisong Deutsen [Daki] [RY]
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Tsangpa Lhayi Metok. See King Trisong Deutsen [LW1] [RY]
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Tsangpo (gtsang po), Skt. Brahmaputra. The river flowing by Samye. [ZL] [RY]
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Tsangsar Chimey Dorje (tshang gsar 'chi med rdo rje). The father of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche and brother of Samten Gyatso. For details, see The Life and Teachings of Chokgyur Lingpa, Rangjung Yeshe Publications. [RY]
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Tsangsar family. [RY]
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Tsangsar Lhai Dung-gyu (tshang gsar lha'i gdung rgyud). The 'divine blood-line of the Tsangsar family which is said to originate from a deva descending on earth. [RY]
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Tsangsar Lumey Dorje (tshang gsar lus med rdo rje). One of the masters in the Barom Kagyu lineage. [RY]
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Tsangsar Nargon. [RY]
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Tsangsar Ngaktrin Lama (gtsang gsar ngag phrin bla ma). Son of the daughter of Chokgyur Lingpa and root guru of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, also known as Samten Gyamtso. [RY]
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Tsangsar Ngaktrin. [RY]
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Tsangsar Sönam Yeshe. [RY]
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Tsangtsen Dorje Lekpa (gtsang btsan rdo rje legs pa). [ZL] [RY]
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Tsa-nyag Lama Sherab [LW1] [RY]
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Tsarchen Losal Gyatso: 1502- 1565 [MR]
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Tsari - The two thousand and eight hundred deities who dwell on the central mountain of Tsari, which resembles a large crystal "Stupa with Many Doors of Auspiciousness" (bkra shis sgo mang mchod rten). An explanation on how to calculate that number is given in Pema Karpo's description of Tsari.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsari - There are three levels at which one can circumambulate the holy mountain of Tsari: upper, intermediate and lower. The last one, known as Tsari Rong Khor, the Circumambulation of the Ravines of Tsari (tsari rong bskor), is exceedingly difficult and was done only once every twelve years, in the Monkey Year. Because of its blessing and rarity, this event attracted tens of thousands of pilgrims. These were confronted by many difficulties. The southern part of the pilgrimage led through low altitudes and the pilgrims had to travel under the cover of tropical forests so thick that the sky could not be seen for hours on end. The humidity, moreover, was so intense that their woollen and felt clothing, suited to the dry, cold climate of the highlands, would rot. Sometimes the pilgrims had to walk along dangerous cliffs and cross turbulent rivers on vertiginous ladders or on bridges made from the slippery trunks of trees. Another danger came from the savage Lhopa tribes scattered throughout the forest, who would attack unaccompanied travelers with poisoned arrows, and often kill them. In an attempt to prevent such incidents, every twelve years, the Tibetan government would send up to a hundred loads of gifts and offer incentives to the Lhopas to pacify them while the pilgrimage was taking place. After an agreement had been reached, a swearing ceremony was held (See House of the Turquoise Roof, pp.90-91, summarized below). A gate made of bamboo was erected and the meat of two freshly killed yaks was tied to the post on each side. The Lhopas' representatives would show their good faith by passing under the gate. In passing, each Lhopa would cut a small piece of raw meat from one the carcasses and eat it. But even then they could not be trusted completely, and the government had to send soldiers to protect the pilgrims and guides to lead them on their hazardous journey. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsari Dakpa Shelri. [RY]
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Tsari is a mountain in southern Tibet sacred to the deity Chakrasamvara (see chap.10). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsari is identified as both Caritra and Devikota, two of the twenty-four great sacred places described in the tantras. For an analysis of the identification of Tsari as these two sacred places, see Huber (1992, vol.2). For a summary of the guidebook to Tsari by the eight Drukchen, Chökyi Nangwa, see Filibeck (1988). There are four main gateways to the [[Pure Crystal Mountain of Tsari]] ([[dag pa shel ri]]): the eastern one is that of [[Manjusri]]; the southern, of [[Vajrapani]]; the western, of [[Tara]]; and the northern, of [[Avalokitesvara]]. According to Kunkhyen Pema Karpo (see Bibliography), the general sequence of human entry into the Tsari mandala is as follows: Guru Padmasambhava entered through the southern door and remained seven years in the [[Magnificent Secret Cave]] ([[zil chen gsang phug]], see JK, vol. Da, p.104). [[Vimalamitra]], too, traveled miraculously to Tsari. [[Lawapa]] ([[la ba pa]], or Kambalapada, tenth century), a teacher of [[Atisha]], entered through the eastern door with his disciple Bhusuku, and later departed to the [[Buddhafield of Khechara]] ([[mkha' spyod]]), without leaving his physical body behind. [[Kyebu Yeshe Dorje]] ([[skyes bu]], also spelled [[skye bo]], [[ye shes rdo rje]], twelfth century, an incarnation of [[Nyang Ben Tingdzin Zangpo]] (see TN p.515), tried thrice to enter Tsari according to the prediction of [[Gampopa]], his teacher (see JK, vol. Da, p.104). The third time, Yeshe Dorje was able to enter through the western door and reached the [[Turquoise Lake]] ([[g.yu mtsho]]). He also opened the door to the [[Lake of the Black Mandala]] ([[mtsho mandal nag po]]), in Dagpo; there, together with [[Gampopa]], he concealed as [[terma]] the [[Teaching on Mind, the Wish-fulfilling Gem]] ([[sems khrid yid bzhin nor bu]]). [[Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje]] ([[gtsang pa rgya ras ye shes rdo rje]], 1161-1211, not to be confused with [[Kyebu Yeshe Dorje]]) went to Tsari, following a prediction given to him in a vision by [[Gyalwa Lorepa]] ([[rgyal ba lo ras pa]], 1187-1250). After Tsangpa Gyare had opened the door of the sacred place he had a vision at the [[Turquoise Lake Palace]], in which [[Chakrasamvara]] told him, "You will become the Buddha known as [[The Young Aspirant]] ([[chung mos pa]]), the youngest of the 1002 Buddhas of this kalpa, and your teachings will spread far and wide from here, to the distance of eighteen days of an vulture's flight." [[Drigung Jigten Gonpo]] ([['jig rten mgon po]], 1143-1217) sent to Tsari first three of his main disciples, headed by [[Nyö Gyalwa Lhanangpa]] ([[gnyos rgyal ba lha nang pa]]), and then a great number of hermits (see chap. 11, note 10). Finally [[Sonam Gyaltsen]] ([[bsod nams rgyal mtshan]]), from Ralung, entered through the northern door. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsari-like Jewel Rock. [RY]
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Tsarong (tsha rong): this noble family, whose estate was near Sakya, descends from the famous Tibetan physician, Yuthok Yontan Gonpo. (See Petech, 1973, pp.134-8) [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsasum Drildrub (rtsa gsum sgril sgrub) [LW1] [RY]
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Tsa-tsa (tshva tshva). A small clay image of a buddha stamped from a mold. [RY]
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tsa-tsa [LW1] [RY]
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Tsa-tsas are small stupas molded in clay or other material. When made for the sake of a dead person, funeral ashes are mixed with the clay, and later the tsa-tsas are deposited in holy places or in a clean natural environment. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsawa Ridge [LW1] [RY]
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Tsechik (rtse gcig). The first stage in the practice of Mahamudra. [RY]
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Tsechok Ling Yongdzin Pandita Kachen Yeshe Gyaltsen (tshe mchog gling yong 'dzin bka' chen ye shes rgyal mtshan, 1713-1793), a learned and accomplished sage who lived most of his life as a renunciate and was the founder of Samten Ling Monastery in Kyirong. he was, as well, the tutor of the eighth Dalai Lama, Jampel Gyatso ('jam dpal rgya mtsho, 1758-1804). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsechu Cham. [RY]
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Tsedrub Dorje Trengwa. [RY]
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Tsegyal. [RY]
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Tsegyeh Gonpa (rtse brgyad dgon pa), the only monastery on the banks of Rakkas Tal Lake. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsele Natsog Rangdrol (1608-?) [MR]
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Tsele Natsok Rangdröl (rtse le sna tshogs rang grol). (b. 1608) Important master of the Kagyü and Nyingma schools. He is also the author of Mirror of Mindfulness and Lamp of Mahamudra, both Shambhala Publications. [ZL] [RY]
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Tseleh Rinpoche. Tseleh Rinpoche: (rtse-le sna-tshogs rang-grol) Tseleh Natsok Rangdrol (born 1608), was one of Rigdzin Jatson Nyingpo's principal pupils. Works by him presently available in English are "The Lamp of Mahamudra" and "The Mirror of Mindfulness". [Peter Roberts]
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Tsemang of Denma (ldan ma rtse mang). Important early Tibetan translator of the Tripitaka. Extremely well-versed in writing, his style of calligraphy is continued to the present day. Having received transmission of Vajrayana from Padmasambhava, he had realization and achieved perfect recall. He is said to be the chief scribe who wrote down many termas including the Assemblage of Sugatas connected to the Eight Sadhana Teachings. [ZL] [RY]
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Tsemon Ling Ngawang Tsultrim regent until his death 1791 [MR]
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TSEN (btsan). A type of evil spirit.[AL] [RY]
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tsen [LW1] [RY]
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Tsen spirits (btsan). [ZL] [RY]
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Tsenthang temple in Yarlung (yar klung btsan thang gi lha khang). [ZL] [RY]
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Tsering Yangtso. [RY]
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Tseringma. [RY]
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Tseten Dorje ovethrows the Rinpungpa, begins the 76 years rule of the Tsangpas: 1566 [MR]
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Tsewang Chokdrub Palbar (tshe dbang mchog grub dpal 'bar). The name of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche. [RY]
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Tsewang Chokdrub Palbar; See Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche [LW1] [RY]
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Tsewang Drakpa (tshe dbang grags pa). Son of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
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Tsewang Drakpa [LW1] [RY]
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Tsewang Norbu (tshe dbang nor bu). Son of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
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Tsewang Norbu [LW1] [RY]
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Tsewong Norbu. (tshe dbang nor bu) Holder of the Khatok Nyingma lineage, eighteenth century. [Peter Roberts]
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Tsi Temple (rtsis kyi lha khang). [ZL] [RY]
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Tsibri of Gyal (rgyal gyi rtsib ri). [ZL] [RY]
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Tsikey Monastery [LW1] [RY]
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Tsilung (rtsis lung). [ZL] [RY]
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Tsimara. [RY]
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Tsitta Sangphuk. [RY]
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Tso Mapham (mtsho ma pham); same as Lake Manarasovar [LW1] [RY]
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Tsogdruk Rangdrol (tshogs drug rang grol). 'Self-liberated six collections' of cognitions. It is also the name of Lama Shabkar. [RY]
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Tsognyi Rinpoche (grub dbang tshogs gnyis): 1789-1844 [MR]
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Tsogyal (mtsho rgyal). Also known as Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the close disciple of Guru Rinpoche who compiled the major part of his teachings. [RY]
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TSOGYAL (mtsho rgyal). See under 'Yeshe Tsogyal.'[AL] [RY]
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Tsogyal (mtsho rgyal). See Yeshe Tsogyal. [ZL] [RY]
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Tsogyal. See Yeshe Tsogyal [LW1] [RY]
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Tsokye Nyingtig (mtsho skyes snying thig); secret sadhana (gsang sgrub) [LW1] [RY]
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Tsong-kha-pa - Fifteenth century founder of dGe-lugs-pa school. [Tarthang]
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Tsongkhapa - The twenty-fifth of the tenth lunar month is the anniversary of Je Tsongkhapa's nirvana. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsongkhapa / (tsong kha pa) – (1357-1419) Fifteenth century founder of dGe lugs pa school [RY]
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Tsongkhapa: [MR]
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Tsopema. [RY]
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Tsuglag Trengwa (gtsug la 'phreng ba) (1504-1566). The Second Pawo Rinpoche. Disciple of the Mikyö Dorje, the eighth Karmapa, known for his writings on astrology and religious history.[EMP] [RY]
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Tsuklag Chokyi Gyalpo. [RY]
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tsulpas (tshul pa) were local people from Tsari villages outside the Ravines, who used to help the pilgrims going to Tsari. They would set rest houses (tshul khang) along the pilgrimage route and provide the pilgrims with water and fuel, but rarely provisions. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tsultrim Nyima. [RY]
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Tsurphu (tshur phu). The seat of H.H. the Karmapa in Tolung, Central Tibet. [RY]
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Tsurphu [LW1] [RY]
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Tsurphu. [RY]
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TUKDRUB BARCHEY KÜNSEL (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). A cycle of teachings revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa together with Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo consisting of about ten volumes of texts. Belong to the principle of Guru Vidyadhara. For details, see foreword to The Great Gate (Rangjung Yeshe Publ.). Tukdrub means 'Heart practice,' Barchey Künsel means 'dispeller of all obstacles.'[AL] [RY]
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Tukdrub Barchey Kunsel (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). See 'Barchey Kunsel.' [RY]
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Tukdrub Barchey Künsel (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel); see also 'Four Cycles of Guru Sadhana'; [LWx] [RY]
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Tukdrub Barchey Künsel. See Barchey Künsel [LW1] [RY]
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Tukdrub Barchey Künsel; [LWx] [RY]
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Tukdrub Deshek Dupa. [RY]
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Tukdrub Gongpa Kundu. [RY]
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Tukdrub Sampa Lhundrup. [RY]
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Tukdrub Yishin Norbu. [RY]
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Tukdrub Yishin Norbu. See Sampa Lhündrub [LW1] [RY]
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Tukdrub Yishin Norbu; Sampa Lhündrub (bsam pa lhun grub) [LW1] [RY]
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Tulku (sprul sku). Literally, 'apparitional body.' Can refer to an incarnated bodhisattva who works for the welfare of sentient beings, or to the nirmanakaya manifested by a buddha. [RY]
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Tulku (sprul sku). Nirmanakaya. Can refer to an incarnated bodhisattva who works for the welfare of sentient beings, or to the nirmanakaya manifested by a buddha.[Primer] [RY]
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Tulku Chokyi Nyima. [RY]
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Tulku Jigmey Khyentse [LW1] [RY]
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Tulku Jigmey. [RY]
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Tulku Pema Wangyal [LW1] [RY]
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Tulku Thondup [LW1] [RY]
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[[Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche]] ([[sprul sku o rgyan rin po che]]). A contemporary master of the [[Kagyü] and [[Nyingma lineage]s, who lives at [[Nagi Gompa]] in Nepal. [AL] [RY]
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Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, expl. of his lineage for Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo [LW1] [RY]
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[[Tulku Urgyen Tsewang Chokdrup Rinpoche]] ([[sprul sku u rgyan tshe dbang mchog grub rin po che]]). The long name of [[Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche]]. [RY]
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Tulku Urgyen. [RY]
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Tulku Urgyen: 1919- [MR]
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Tumi Sambhota [LW1] [RY]
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Tummo - One of the Six Yogas, tummo (gtum mo), which corresponds to the Sanskrit candali, means literally the "wild one." It refers to the practice of the inner heat, which is related to the mastery of the spiritual channels, energies and essences (rtsa, rlung, and thig le).  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Tummo (gtum mo, chandali). A practice to develop inner heat and bliss to consume obscurations and realize emptiness. One of the Six Doctrines of Naropa.[Primer] [RY]
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Tummo (gtum mo, chandali). One of the Six Doctrines of Naropa. [RY]
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Tummo / gTum mo ()- practice to develop the mystic inner heat in one type of tantric yoga. [RY]
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Tun-huang - The eastern terminus of the silk Route; location of extensive Buddhist cave temples and site of important manuscript finds [RY]
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Turfan - Ancient Buddhist center in Central Asia; location where many Buddhist manuscripts were found [RY]
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Turning the Wheel of Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo skor ba). Figurative expression for giving Dharma teachings. [RY]
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Turquoise Lion Lake (seng ge g.yu mtsho). [RY]
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Turquoise Roof Bridge (g.yu thog zam pa), a famous bridge in Lhasa erected by Yutok Yönten Gönpo, the famous luminary of Tibetan medicine. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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[[Tushita]] ([[dga' ldan]]). 'The Joyous', n. of the Pure Land of the thousand Buddhas of this [[aeon]], inhabited only by [[Bodhisattvas]] and [[Buddhas]]. [RY]
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Tushita [LW1] [RY]
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Tushita Heaven (dga' ldan). The heavenly realm in which lord Maitreya resides awaiting his appearance in this world as the next buddha. [RY]
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Tutelary deity (thugs dam), (yi dam). Enlightened deity on whom one's Tantric practice is centered. [RY]
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Tutob Namgyal [LW1] [RY]
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Twelve acts of Buddha Shakyamuni (mdzad pa bcu gnyis). According to NG 61: 1) Descending from Tushita Heaven, ('pho ba)., 2) Entering the mother's womb, (lhum zhugs)., 3) Taking birth, (bltams pa)., 4) Becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess, (bzo dang)., 5) Enjoying a retinue of queens, (rol rtse)., 6) Renouncing the world, (nges 'byung)., 7) Practicing austerities and renouncing them, (dka' spyad drug)., 8) Going to the essence of awakening (Going towards the Bodhi Tree), (gshegs), 9) Defeating Mara, (bdud sde bcom)., 10) Attaining total enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree, (byang chub)., 11) Turning the Wheel of the Dharma, (chos 'khor)., 12) Departing for the ultimate peace of parinirvana, (myang 'das). [MR]
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Twelve acts of Buddha Shakyamuni 1.; (mdzad pa bcu gnyis): (/second set according to Tarthang T.'s Kangyur Karchag, third set according to Namdrang Gyatso):,, 1) skye ba mngon par skye ba *** /Existence of the Bodhisattva as Svetaketu, 2) Moving /Descent ('pho ba) from Tushita, 3) Entering the womb at Kapilavistu, 4) Taking birth at Lumbini /Birth of the Bodhisattva, 5) Becoming skilled in crafts /Acts of dexterity, 6) Enjoying his retinue of queens /Life in the circle of noble women, 7) Renouncing the world /Departure from home, Kapilavistu to Vaisali, to Rajagrha, 8) Practicing austerities on the banks of Nairanjana River, 9) Going to the essence of awakening *** (byang chub snying por gshegs pa) /Victory over Mara, 10) Defeating the maras and attaining perfect enlightenment /Attaining enlightenment, 11) Turning the Wheel of Dharma /1) at Sarnath 2) at Rajagrha 3) at Vaisali and other places, 12) Departing in the Parinirvana at Kusinagara. [MR]
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Twelve and a Half Happy Generations (skyid pa'i gdung rabs phyed dang bcu gsum) [LW1] [RY]
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twelve ascetic virtues (sbyangs pa'i yon tan bcu gnyis), see NS, vol.2 p.169. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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twelve ascetic virtues (sbyangs pa'i yon tan bcu gnyis). 1) To wear clothing found in a garbage heap (phyag dar khrod pa), 2) to own only three monastic robes (chos gos gsum pa), 3) to wear clothes and boots made of felt (phying pa ba), 4) to eat one's meal at a single sitting (stan gcig pa), 5) to live only on alms (bsod snyoms pa), 6) not to eat after midday (zas phyis mi len pa), 7) to live in secluded places (dgon pa ba), 8) to live under trees (shing drung ba), 9) to live in the open air (bla gab med pa), 10) to live in cemeteries (dur khrod pa), 11) to sleep in a sitting posture (tsog pu ba), and 12) to stay wherever one happens to be (gzhi ji bzhin pa). See TC p.2023.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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twelve aspects of ascertainment (nges 'byed bcu gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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Twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis). The twelve main divisions of the Buddhist Canon: General Discourses (mdo sde); Proclamations in Song (dbyangs su bsnyad pa); Prophecies (lung du bstan pa); Poetic Pronouncements (tshigs su bcad pa); Special Aphorisms (mched du brjod pa); Declarations (gleng gzhi); Narratives (rtogs pa brjod pa); Parables (de lta bu byung ba); Succession of Former Lives (skyes pa'i rabs); Extensive Sayings (shin tu rgyas pa'i sde); Marvels (rmad du byung ba); Established Doctrines (gtan la dbab pa). [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis); listing [LW1] [RY]
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Twelve aspects of interdependence (rten 'byung yan lag bcu gnyis). The twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance, karmic formations, consciousness, name and form, six sense bases, contact, sensation, craving, grasping, becoming, birth, old age and death. [RY]
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Twelve Branches of Scriptures {gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis}. They correspond to twelve types of text, which are: 1) condensed {mdo sde}, 2) melodious {dbyangs bsnyan}, 3) prophetic {lung bstan}, 4) verse {tshigs bcad}, 5) spoken with a purpose {ched brjod}, 6) conversatory {gleng gzhi}, 7) concerning his past lives {skyed rab}, 8) marvelous {rmad byung}, 9) establishing a truth {gtan babs}, 10) biographical {rtogs brjod}, 11) historical {de ltar byung}, and 12) very detailed {shin tu tgyas pa}. [RY]
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Twelve buddhas of the maha ati lineage. [RY]
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Twelve Deeds (mdzad pa bcu gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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twelve deeds performed by an enlightened buddha (mdzad pa bcu gnyis). 1) Descending from Tusita Heaven (dga' ldan gnas nas 'pho ba), 2) entering the womb of his mother (lhums su bzhugs pa), 3) taking birth (sku bltams pa), 4) becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess (bzo la mkhas par ston pa dang gzhon nu'i rol rtsed), 5) enjoying his retinue of queens (btsun mo'i 'khor gyis rol pa), 6) renouncing the world (rab tu 'byung ba), 7) practicing austerities and renouncing them (dka' ba spyad pa), 8) going to the Bodhi-tree (byang chub snying por gshegs pa), 9) subduing Mara (bdud btul), 10) attaining full enlightenment (mngon par sangs rgyas pa), 11) turning the Wheel of the Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo bskor), 12) passing into the ultimate peace beyond suffering (Skt. parinirvana, Tib. mya ngan las 'das pa). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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twelve deeds performed by fully enlightened Buddhas (mdzad pa bcu gnyis):  1) Descending from Tushita Heaven (dga' ldan gnas nas 'pho ba).  2) Entering the womb of his mother (lhums su bzhugs pa).  3) Taking birth (sku bltams pa).  4) Becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess (bzo la mkhas par ston pa dang gzhon nu'i rol rtsed).  5) Enjoying his retinue of queens (btsun mo'i 'khor gyis rol pa).  6) Renouncing the world (rab tu 'byung ba).  7) Practicing austerities and then renouncing them (dka' ba spyad pa).  8) Going to the Bodhi-tree (byang chub snying por gshegs pa)  9) Subduing Mara (bdud btul).  10) Attaining full enlightenment (mngon par sangs rgyas pa).  11) Turning the Wheel of the Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo bskor).  12) Passing into the ultimate peace beyond suffering (Skt, parinirvana, Tib. mya ngan las 'das pa). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Twelve Kyongma Goddesses (skyong ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]
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Twelve links of dependent origination (rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba). The twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance (ma rig pa) gives rise to karmic formations ('du byed), which gives rise to consciousness (rnam par shes pa), which gives rise to name and form (ming dang gzugs), which give rise to the six sense bases (skye mched drug), and so on through contact (reg pa), ('tshor ba), craving (sred pa), grasping (nye bar len pa), becoming (srid pa), birth (skye ba), and old age and death (rga shi). See also 'dependent origination.' [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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Twelve Links of Dependent Origination (Skt. Pratityasamutpada, rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba) the twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance (ma rig pa) which gives rise to karmic dispositions ('du byed) which gives rise to consciousness (rnam par shes pa) which gives rise to name and form (ming dang gzugs) which give rise to the six senses (skye mched drug) which give rise to contact (reg pa) which gives rise to feeling ('tshor ba) which gives rise to craving (sred pa) which gives rise to grasping (Nye bar len pa) which gives rise to existence (Srid pa) which gives rise to birth (skye ba) which gives rise to old age and death (rga shi). [RY]
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twelve links of dependent origination; in relation to the four syllables [LW1] [RY]
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Twelve main aspects (gtso bo bcu gnyis) They are also called 'the twelve manifestations' (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis) They are twelve different forms of Guru Rinpoche as a 'magical net' of emanations to tame beings according to their needs. Inner cycle: 1. rgyal ba'i gdung 'dzin: east. 2. smra ba'i seng ge south: 3. skyes mchog tshul bzang: west. 4. bdud kyi gshed chen: north. Outer cycle: 5. 'dzam gling rgyan mchog: east. 6. padma 'byung gnas: south. 7. khyad par 'phags pa'i rig 'dzin: west. 8. rdzu 'phrul mthu chen: north. Intermediate directions: 9. rig 'dzin rdo rje drag rtsal: south east. 10. skal ldan 'dren mdzad: south west. 11. raksha thod phreng: north west. 12. bde chen rgyal po: north east. [RY]
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Twelve main aspects (gtso bo bcu gnyis). See 'twelve manifestations' (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis). They are twelve different forms of Guru Rinpoche as a 'magical net' of emanations to tame beings according to their needs. [RY]
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Twelve manifestations (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis). [RY]
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Twelve qualities (yan lag bcu gnyis). The 12 aspects of the Excellent Speech of the Buddha. [RY]
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twelve related causes of inner dependent origination; listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Twelve sections of Sutra. These are also known as the twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis) and are the twelve main divisions of the Buddhist Canon: General Discourses (mdo sde); Proclamations in Song (dbyangs su bsnyad pa); Prophecies (lung du bstan pa); Poetic Pronouncements (tshigs su bcad pa); Special Aphorisms (mched du brjod pa); Declarations (gleng gzhi); Narratives (rtogs pa brjod pa); Parables (de lta bu byung ba); Succession of Former Lives (skyes pa'i rabs); Extensive Sayings (shin tu rgyas pa'i sde); Marvels (rmad du byung ba); Established Doctrines (gtan la dbab pa). [EMP] [RY]
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twelve sense bases. See also aggregates, elements, and sense bases; listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Twelve sense-bases (skye mched bcu gnyis). The five senses and the mental faculty, and the five sense objects and mental objects. [RY]
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twelve sense-bases. The five senses and the mental faculty, and the five sense objects and mental objects.[Primer] [RY]
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Twelve Tenma Goddesses (brtan ma bcu gnyis). Important female protectors of the Nyingma lineage, semi-mundane semi-wisdom protectors. [ZL] [RY]
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Twelve times one hundred qualities (yon tan brgya phrag bcu gnyis). At the level of the first bodhisattva bhumi one is able to simultaneously manifest one hundred nirmanakayas for the benefit of beings. There are eleven other such sets of one hundred abilities. See the Abhisamayalamkara by Maitreya. [RY]
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twelve times one hundred qualities [LW1] [RY]
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Twelve Yama Goddesses (ya ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]
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Twelvefold Kilaya Tantra (ki la ya bcu gnyis). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Tantras with similar titles are found in Vol. DZA and HA of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]
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Twenty (nyi shu pa) [LW1] [RY]
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Twenty defects of bustle ('du rdzi'i skyon gsum). The Sutra Requested by Superior Intention says: "Maitreya, there are twenty defects of bustle. What are these twenty? Maitreya, they are no to have controlled one's body, not to have controlled one's speech, not to have controlled one's mind,to have great desire, to have great hatred, to have great dullness, to be tainted by mundane conversation, to have completely strayed away from supramundane conversation, to associate with people who do not respect the Dharma, to have fully cast away the Dharma, to consequently be harmed by the maras, to associate with people who are careless, to be careless oneself, to be dominated by conception (rtog pa) and discernment (dpyod pa), to completely stray away from great learning, to fail to achieve shamatha and vipashyana, to fail quickly to become brahmacharin, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Buddha, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Dharma, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Sangha. Maitreya, these twenty should be understood as the defects of taking delight in bustle. A bodhisattva after having applied examination will take delight in solitude and never become completely saddened. [RY]
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twenty defects of distraction [LW1] [RY]
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twenty subsidiary disturbances [LW1] [RY]
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Twenty Thousand (nyi khri) [LW1] [RY]
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Twenty Thousand [verses of Prajnaparamita]. (nyi khri) [RY]
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Twenty Verses; Vimshatika-karika; (nyi shu pa'i rab tu byed pa); Vasubandhu, 4th or 5th century. [PK] [RY]
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twenty-eight ishvaris [LW1] [RY]
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Twenty-eight shvari goddesses (dbang phyug ma nyer brgyad). Wrathful emanations of the four female gate keepers among the 42 peaceful deities in the mandala of Magical Net; seven for each of the four activities. [ZL] [RY]
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Twenty-five disciples. [RY]
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Twenty-five great sacred places. [RY]
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Twenty-five Main Disciples of Padmasambhava (rje 'bangs nyer lnga)- in various lists these include Vairotsana; Mandarava; Ye shes mTsho rgyal; rGyal ba mchog dbyangs; Nam mkha'i snying po;dPal gyi seng ge; ye shes dbyangs; Ye shes sde; dPal gyi rdo rje; Khri srong lde'u btsan; mKhar chen dpal gyi *dbang phyug; gYu sgra snying po; dPal gyi seng ge; rMa rin chen mchog; Sangs rgyas ye shes; rdo rje bdud 'joms; rGyal ba blo gros; lDan ma rtse mang; sKa ba dPal brtsegs; 'O bran dbang phyug; Jnanakumaravajra; Sog po lHa dpal gzhon nu; Lang gro dKon mchog 'byung gnas; rGal ba byang chub; Dran pa nam mkha' dbang phyug; Khye'u chung mKha' lding; Cog ru Klu'i rgyal mtshan; Ting nge 'dzin bzang po. [RY]
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Twenty-five Panditas (mkhas pa nyer lnga). 25 masters in the Dzogchen lineage from Garab Dorje to Guru Rinpoche, Vimalamitra and Vairocana who brought these teachings to Tibet. [RY]
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twenty-five qualities of fruition; listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Twenty-five tantras (rgyud nyi shu rtsa lnga). Dzogchen tantras belonging to the Mind Section and possibly also the Space Section, taught by Shri Singha to Vairotsana and Lekdrub. Listed in Chapter Fourteen. [ZL] [RY]
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Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen kyi rgyud nyi shu rtsa lnga). twenty-five tantras, belonging to the Mind Section and possibly also the Space Section, taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. Listed in Chapter 14. [ZL] [RY]
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twenty-four great sacred places (gnas chen nyer gzhi). According to the Hevajra Tantra (see Snellgrove, 1959, 1:70) these are: Jalandhara, Oddiyana, Paurnagiri, Kamarupa, Malaya, Sindhu, Nagara, Munmuni, Karunyapataka, Devikota, Karmarapataka, Kulata, Arbuta, Godavari, Himadri, Harikela, Lampaka, Kani, Saurasta, Kalinga, Kokana, Caritra, Kosala, and Vindhyakaumarapaurika. Other sources, such as the sadhana (sgrub thabs) of the Queen of Great Bliss (yum bka' bde chen rgyal mo) from the Longchen Nyingthig (see Tulku Thondup, 1985), give a different enumeration of these twenty-four sacred places. They abide on the vajra-body inherent in every sentient being, which is symbolized here by the body of Vajrayogini. These twenty-four are divided in three groups: a) Eight celestial abodes (Skt. khagacharya, Tib. mkha' spyod): 1) The crown of the head is Jalandhara, 2) in between the eyebrows is Pulliramalaya, 3) the nape is Arbuta, 4) the urna (the hair at the center of the forehead) is Rameshvara, 5) the right ear is Oddiyana, 6) the left ear is Godavari, 7) the eyes are Devikota, and 8) the shoulders are Malava. b) Eight earthly abodes (Skt. gocharya, Tib. sa spyod): 9) the throat is Lampaka, 10) the underarms and kidneys are Kamarupa, 11) the two breasts are Odra, 12) the navel is Trishanku, 13) the nose-tip is Koshala, 14) the palate is Kalinga, 15) the heart is both Kanchika and 16) Himalaya (Himavat). c) Eight underground abodes (Skt. bhugarbha, Tib. sa 'og gi gnas brgyad), 17) the genitals are Pretapuri, 18) the anus is Grihadeva, 19) the thumbs and big toes are Maru, 20) the thighs are Saurashtra, 21) the calves are Suvarnadvipa, 22) the sixteen other fingers and toes are Nagara, 23) the knees are Kulata, and 24) the ankles are Sindhu. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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twenty-four major places (gnas chen nyer bzhi) [LW1] [RY]
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Twenty-one Adepts (mkhas pa nyer gcig). Masters of the Mind Section and Space Section of Dzogchen. [RY]
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Twenty-one Chogdungs (cog brdung nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]
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Twenty-one Genyen (dge bsnyen nyi shu rtsa gcig). A group of powerful spirits indigenous to Tibet. They were converted by Padmasambhava are commanded to serve Buddhism. Today, they are still called upon along with Nyenchen Tanglha and Machen Pomra during Vajrayana rituals in order to guard the doctrine of the Buddha, elevate the status of the Precious Ones, expand the community of the Sangha, increase the life and splendor of the practitioners, raise the banner of fame, blow the conch of renown, and increase our following and prosperity. [ZL] [RY]
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Twenty-one Male and Female Yakshas (gnod sbyin pho mo nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]
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Twenty-one Mother Deities (ma mo nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]
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twice-born - Birds are said to be "twice-born," because they are "born" first in an egg and then a second time from the egg. Similarly, religious practitioners are "twice-born," having had both bodily and spiritual births. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Twin Buddhas (sangs rgyas kyi zhal skyin mched) [LW1] [RY]
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Twin Buddhas (sangs rgyas kyi zhal skyin mched) means the representatives of the Buddha; the two Jowo Shakyamuni statues in Lhasa. [RY]
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Two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit and of wisdom. [RY]
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Two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit with concepts and the accumulation of wisdom beyond concepts. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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TWO ACCUMULATIONS (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit with concepts and the accumulation of wisdom beyond concepts. [AL] [RY]
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two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulations of merit (bsod nams) and wisdom (ye shes), which lead to the realization of the two bodies or kayas of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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two accumulations [LW1] [RY]
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two accumulations of merit and wisdom (bsod nams and ye shes kyi tshogs) lead respectively to the realization of the two kayas, the dharmakaya (chos sku, absolute body) and the rupakaya (gzugs sku, manifested body) of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Two accumulations of merit and wisdom (bsod nams dang ye shes kyi tshogs). [RY]
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two benefits (don gnyis). The present and ultimate benefit of self and others. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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two bodies or kayas (sku gnyis). The dharmakaya (chos kyi sku), or absolute body, and the rupakaya (gzugs kyi sku), or body of form. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Two Chariots (shing rta gnyis); listing; of bodhisattva precepts [LW1] [RY]
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two congregations of the Sangha (dge bdun gyi sde gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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two crowned buddhas (jo bo rnam gnyis). The Jowo Rinpoche (jo bo rin po che), or Jowo Sakyamuni, which is in the Jokhang, the main temple of Lhasa (also known as ra sa 'phrul snang gtsug lag khang); and the Jowo Mikyö Dorje (jo bo mi bskyod rdo rje), which is kept in the temple of Ramoche (ra mo che). These statues, the most venerated in Tibet, were brought to Lhasa by the two wives of Songtsen Gampo, the Nepalese princess Bhrikuti (Tib. lha gcig khri btsun), who founded the Jokhang, and the Chinese princess Wengchen Kungchu, who founded Ramoche. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Two Jamgöns. [RY]
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Two kayas (sku gnyis). Dharmakaya and Rupakaya. [RY]
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Two kayas (sku gnyis). Dharmakaya realized for the benefit of self and rupakaya manifested for the welfare of others. [RY]
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two kayas [LW1] [RY]
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two kinds of self-entity (bdag gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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two obscurations (sgrib gnyis). The obscuration of disturbing emotions and the cognitive obscuration. [AL] [RY]
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two obscurations; listing of [LW1] [RY]
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Two profound stages (zab mo'i rim pa gnyis). The development stage and the completion stage. [RY]
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Two rupakayas (gzugs sku gnyis). Sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. [RY]
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Two sections of the sangha (sde gnyis). Refers to monks and ngakpas. [RY]
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Two Segments (brtag gnyis), the king of the Sarma Tantras, [RY]
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Two Segments (brtag gnyis). The condensed version of the Hevajra Tantra.[EMP] [RY]
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Two Segments (brtags pa gnyis pa) [LW1] [RY]
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Two stages (rim gnyis). See 'development stage' and 'completion stage.' [ZL] [RY]
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Two stages (rim gnyis). The development stage (bskyed rim) during which one visualizes deities and recites their mantras, followed by the completion stage (rdzogs rim), with or without formal representations. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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two stages. See development and completion [LW1] [RY]
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two supreme ones (mchog gnyis). Nagarjuna and Asanga, two among the Six Ornaments of the World. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Two supreme shravakas (nyan thos mchog gnyis). Shariputra and Maudgalaputra. Two close disciples of Buddha Shakyamuni. [RY]
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Two Truths (bden gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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two truths (bden pa gnyis). Absolute truth and relative truth. Absolute truth (don dam bden pa) is beyond concepts and definitions. Relative truth (kun rdzob bden pa) is considered as deceptive and devoid of any true existence; or, according to the Mantrayana, as the display of innate wisdom, the infinite purity of all phenomena. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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Two truths (bden pa gnyis). Relative truth and ultimate truth. Relative truth describes the seeming, superficial and apparent mode of all things. Ultimate truth describes the real, true and unmistaken mode. These two aspects of reality are defined by the Four Philosophical Schools as well as the tantras of Vajrayana in different ways, each progressively deeper and closer to describing things as they are. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
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TWO TRUTHS (bden pa gnyis). Relative truth and ultimate truth. Relative truth describes the seeming, superficial and apparent mode of all things. Ultimate truth describes the real, true and unmistaken mode. These two aspects of reality are defined by the Four Philosophical Schools as well as the tantras of Vajrayana in different ways, each progressively deeper and closer to describing things as they are. [AL] [RY]
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two truths; definition [LW1] [RY]
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two types of potential (rigs gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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two types of potential (rigs gnyis); explanation in terms of ground, path and fruition [LWx] [RY]
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two vehicles; causal and resultant [LW1] [RY]
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two veils (sgrib gnyis) which prevent one from achieving enlightenment are the veil created by the obscuring emotions, and the veil masking ultimate knowledge. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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two veils (sgrib gnyis). The veil created by the obscuring emotions (nyon mongs pa'i sgrib), and the veil masking ultimate knowledge (shes bya'i sgrib). They prevent one from achieving enlightenment. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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two waters and the five enjoyments. The "two waters and five enjoyments" are the usual shrine offerings of bowls, two containing water (one for the mouth and one for the feet), and the five enjoyments are flowers, incense, light, scent and food. The light is usually a metal oil-lamp without a bowl, and an extra bowl is added sometimes to represent flowers as a boundary marker, though Thrangu Rinpoche says that is not necessary here. This extra bowl is often misinterpreted as being the music offering, while in fact the actual musical instruments that one plays fulfill that purpose. [Peter Roberts]
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twofold egolessness [LW1] [RY]
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Twofold knowledge (mkhyen pa gnyis). The wisdom of knowing the nature as it is and the wisdom of perceiving all that exists. Knowledge of conventional and ultimate phenomena. [RY]
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twofold purity (dag pa gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
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Twofold purity (dag pa gnyis). Inherent or primordial purity and the purity of having removed all temporary obscurations. [RY]
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Twofold selflessness (bdag med gnyis). The inherent absence of a self-entity in the individual person as well as in all phenomena. [RY]
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Twofold siddhis (dngos grub rnam gnyis). See 'supreme and common siddhis.' [RY]
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twofold thought of enlightenment (byang chub kyi sems gnyis). Bodhicitta, the thought or mind of enlightenment, is defined as the intention to achieve Buddhahood for the sake of all beings. It has two aspects, relative and absolute. The relative mind of enlightenment (kun rdzob byang chub kyi sems) is itself divided into two steps: the wish to attain ultimate perfection to become able to free all beings from suffering (smon pa'i sems bskyed), and the entry into spiritual practice in order to actualize this wish ('jug pa'i sems bskyed). The absolute mind of enlightenment (don dam byang chub kyi sems) is the realization of emptiness and the recognition that the Buddha-nature abides in every sentient being. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
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twofold welfare; listing of [LW1] [RY]
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'''[[The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity]]''' (Front Cover)
 
'''[[The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity]]''' (Front Cover)

Revision as of 01:51, 13 February 2006

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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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Taden Gushri Kunga Nyima (ta bden gu shri kun dga' nyi ma): 1309-1322 (First son of Sangpo Pal's 6th spouse) [MR]

Tai Situ Changchup Gyaltsen, the first of the seven Phagdru kings (t'ai si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan): 1302-1371 [MR]

Taking Refuge (skyabs 'gro). Placing one's trust in the Three Jewels. [RY]

Taklung Dratsang. [RY]

Taklung Kagyu. [RY]

Taklung Matrul. [RY]

Taklung Thangpa, Tashi Pal; 1142-1210: (stag lung thang pa bkra shis dpal). Disciple of Phagmo Drupa (1110-1170). Founded Taklung Monastery (around 1180-1185) and the Taklung tradition. [MR]

Takmen Sordongma (stag sman zor gdong ma). [ZL] [RY]

Takse Richö (stag rtse ri chos): Ri chos zab mo grub pa'i bcud len sprang rtsi'i snying po, by stag rtse bya bral ba mi pham phun tshogs shes rab. 28 folios [MR]

Taksham Nüden Dorje (stag sham nus ldan rdo rje) [LW1] [RY]

Taksham Nuden Dorje (stag sham nus ldan rdo rje, born in 1682), also known as Samten Lingpa (bsam gtan gling pa), was a great tertön and an emanation of Atsara Sale, Yeshe Tsogyal's Nepalese consort. See ND, pp. 301-2 [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Taksham Nuden Dorje. [RY]

Taksham: 17th cent. [MR]

Taktsang (stag tshang). [ZL] [RY]

Taktsang Phurba (stag tshang phur ba, See RT vol.31, Ki) is the cycle of teachings focused on Vajra Kilaya rediscovered by Ratön Tertön (rwa ston gter ston, see Translator's Introduction, note 41) at Onphu Taktsang ('on phu stag tshang) near Samye in central Tibet. Onphu Taktsang is the cave where Guru Padmasambhava gave the Vajra Kilaya initiation to Tashi Kyidren (bkra shis khyi 'dren) and Yeshe Tsogyal (ye shes mtsho rgyal). It is also one of the thirteen "Tiger Dens" (stag tshang) of Tibet and Bhutan. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Taktsang Phurba, see chap.1, note 54. The rediscovered treasures mentioned here are likely to be the mind termas (dgongs gter) of Kunzang Dechen Gyalpo (see Appendix 4). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Talgyur Root Tantra (sgra thal 'gyur rtsa ba'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tamarisk Forest at Red Rock. [Daki] [RY]

Tamer of All Haughty Spirits (dregs pa kun 'dul). The chief figure in the mandala of Mundane Worship. [ZL] [RY]

Tamer of Mara. [Daki] [RY]

Tanagana (sbyor sgrol). The Vajrayana practice of 'union and liberation:' liberating ignorance and disturbing emotions by uniting with the wisdom of the enlightened state. [ZL] [RY]

Tanglha (thang lha). See Nyenchen Tanglha. [ZL] [RY]

Tangyur (bstan 'gyur); often pron. 'tanjur'. 'The Translated Treatises', the collection of Tib. translations of the Indian Buddhist literature other than the actual Buddha-word-commentaries, treatises, hymns, rituals, dictionaries, medical texts, etc - amounting to over two hundred volumes, or about twice the length of the Kangyur. [RY]

Tangyur / bsTan 'gyur - The collection of commentaries on the Buddha's teachings: the second part of the Tibetan Canon [RY]

Tangyur; expl.; [LWx] [RY]

Tantra - The teachings that form the basis for the Mantrayana. In rNying ma, there are three outer and three inner Tantras. [RY]

Tantra (rgyud) advanced teachings which offer many skillful means for obtaining liberation rapidly. Although in some systems the Tantras are considered to fall into only four categories, the Kriya, Charya, Yoga, and Anuttarayoga, the rNying mas accept three outer and three inner Tantras. [RY]

Tantra (rgyud). A canonical scripture of the esoteric class; the whole set of practices taught in such scriptures and their commentaries, involving identification of oneself with a fully Enlightened deity, the Vajrayana; a subset of such Tantric teachings, centered on a particular deity (e.g. 'the T. of Heruka) or of a particular level (Kriya tantra, Carya tantra, Yoga tantra, Anuttara yoga tantra). [RY]

Tantra (rgyud). Continuity is the ground tantra of the inseparable two truths. [RY]

tantra (rgyud). See also continuity. See also Sutra and Mantra, Mantrayana, Vajrayana [LW1] [RY]


Tantra (rgyud). The Vajrayana teachings given by the Buddha in his sambhogakaya form. The real sense of tantra is 'continuity,' the innate buddha nature, which is known as the 'tantra of the expressed meaning.' The general sense of tantra is the extraordinary tantric scriptures also known as the 'tantra of the expressing words.' Can also refer to all the resultant teachings of Vajrayana as a whole. [Bardo Guide 91][ZL] [RY]

TANTRA (rgyud). The Vajrayana teachings given by the Buddha in his sambhogakaya form. The real sense of tantra is 'continuity,' the innate buddha nature, which is known as the 'tantra of the expressed meaning.' The general sense of tantra is the extraordinary tantric scriptures also known as the 'tantra of the expressing words.' Can also refer to all the resultant teachings of Vajrayana as a whole. [AL] [RY]

Tantra acarya. Professor of Tantric studies. [RY]

Tantra Adorned with Thousandfold Knowledge (shes pa stong gis brgyan pa'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra and Sadhana Section (rgyud sde dang sgrub sde). The two aspects of Mahayoga. [RY]

Tantra Mahamudra (sngags kyi phyag chen). Same as Mantra Mahamudra. [RY]

Tantra manifest as sound (sgrar snang ba'i rgyud) is is mind transmission or both the transmission of mind and symbol. [RY]

Tantra of Amending Incompleteness (ma tshang ba kha skong ba'i rgyud). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Vol. OM of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Confession. (bshags pa thams chad kyi rgyud dri ma med pa'i rgyal po). Sanskrit: Samaya sarva viti anu sarva sanitantra vimala raja."The Stainless King, the Tantra of all Confessions". The copy in my possession is 88 folios and it is therefore quite substantial. It was translated by Vimalamitra and Nyak Jnana Kumara, but does not appear in the Kangyur index, either under its title or as one of the two translators' works. [Peter Roberts]

Tantra of Equalizing All Buddhas. See Samayoga Tantra [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Excellent Accomplishment (legs par grub pa'i rgyud), Skt. Susiddhikara. A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Fulfilling All Needs (rgyud 'dod pa kun 'byung). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Graceful Auspiciousness (bkra shis mdzes ldan gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how to establish the nature of awareness, and how to identify the basis of confusion and the unmistaken wisdom. [RY]

Tantra of Immaculate Fruition ('bras bu dri ma med pa'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of Indestructible Blissful Wrath (rdo rje bde khros kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

tantra of meaning (don rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of meaning (don rgyud) is ground, path and fruition. [RY]

Tantra of No Letters (yi ge med pa'i rgyud). This tantra desribes the actual means of practice, how to abadon acitivites and live in places free from defects, the four ways of 'freely resting,' sustaining naturalness as well as the undefiled method of the main part of practice. [RY]

Tantra of Pacifying (zhi byed kyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of Piled Gems (rin chen spungs pa'i rgyud). This scripture explains how all the qualities manifest are all the essence of space and awareness. [RY]

Tantra of Pointing-out Instructions (ngo sprod sprad pa'i rgyud). This scripture describes apply the essence of awareness in one's practice through various indications. [RY]

Tantra of Powerful Liberation (stobs po che yongs sgrol gyi rgyud). A scripture belonging to Mahayoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Secrets (gsang rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Self-Arising Awareness (rang shar) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Self-arising Awareness (rig pa rang shar gyi rgyud); expl. [LWx] [RY]

Tantra of Self-existing Perfection (rdzogs pa rang byung). This scripture teaches how to prepared to be a suitable recepient of the teachings by means of the four empowerments. [RY]

Tantra of Self-liberated Awareness (rig pa rang grol gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how awareness is uncreated but is liberated by itself, how to control appearances, to grow familiar with the vajra chain, and to naturally free all of samsara and nirvana. [RY]

Tantra of Self-manifest Awareness (rig pa rang shar gyi rgyud). This scripture teaches how to resolve the view, meditation and action. [RY]

Tantra of Shining Relics (sku gdung 'bar ba'i rgyud). This tantra describes the outer and inner signs of awareness reaching maturity which are manifest before and after the time of death in order to inspire and instill confidence in other persons. [RY]

Tantra of Studded Jewels (nor by bkra bkod). This tantra shows how to eliminate the defects and sidetracks connected to the view and the practice of meditation, conduct and fruition. [RY]

Tantra of Taming Haughty Spirits (dregs pa 'dul ba'i rgyud). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga; focused on the section of Mundane Worship. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of Taming the Elemental Forces ('byung po 'dul byed kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Black Wrathful Shri Ekajati (dpal e ka dza ti nag mo khros ma'i rgyud). This tantra describes how to protect the practitioner against harms inflicted by others. [RY]

Tantra of the Blazing Mass of Fire that Consumes the Kleshas (me dpung 'bar ba nyon mongs sreg pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Upa Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Blazing Vajra Mountain (rdo rje me ri'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Brilliant Expanse (klong gsal). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Enlightenment of Mahavairocana (Skt. Mahavairocanabhisambodhi-vikurvitadhisthana-vaipulya-sutranta-raja, Tib. rnam par snang mdzad chen po mngon par rdzogs par byang chub rnam par sprul pa byin gyis rlob pa shin tu rgyas pa mdo sde'i dbang po'i rgyal po, T 494). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tantra of the Flawless Essence (dri ma med pa snying po'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Four Vajra Thrones (rdo rje gdan bzhi'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. Possibly identical with the Catuhpitha (gdan bzhi) which is included among the tantras in the Tripitaka. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Full Enlightenment of Vairochana (rnam snang mngon par byang chub pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Upa Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the General Accomplishment of Knowledge Mantras (rig sngags spyi'i sgrub lugs kyi rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. Also named Galpo Düpa (gal po bsdus pa). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Glorious Assemblage of Herukas (dpal heruka 'dus pa'i rgyud). One of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Great Graceful Auspiciousness (bkra shis mdzes ldan chen po'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY] Tantra of the Great Perfection that is Equal to Space (rdzogs pa chen po nam mkha' dang mnyam pa). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Heart Mirror of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po thugs kyi me long). This tantra shows how to identify and cut through pitfalls and errors and how to establish what is innate. [RY]

Tantra of the Heart of Vajrasattva (rdo sems snying gi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Immaculate Essence (dri ma med snying po'i rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

TANTRA OF THE IMMACULATE KING OF CONFESSION (dri med bshags rgyud kyi rgyal po).[AL] [RY]

Tantra of the Inconceivable Secret (gsang ba bsam gyis mi khyab pa'i rgyud). A tantra of the New schools which sets forth the system of Mahamudra. [RY]

Tantra of the Indestructible Secret Teaching (rdo rje gsang ba bstan pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Lamp of the Three Realms (khams gsum sgron ma'i rgyud). One of the Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. A text with similar title is found in Vol. KA of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Liberation of the Ten Objects (zhing bcu sgrol ba'i rgyud). A Mahayoga scripture. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Lotus Mound Mantra (padma brtsegs pa sngags kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Magical Net (Skt. mayajala-mahatantraraja, Tib. rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po sgyu 'phrul drwa ba, T 466). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tantra of the Magical Net of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' sgyu 'phrul dra ba'i rgyud). Same as Essence of Secrets, Guhyagarbha. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Major and Minor Casket Array (za ma tog che chung bkod pa'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Mind Mirror of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' snying gi me long). This tantra teaches how the lamps are the self-display of awareness. By means of 21 pointing-out instructions, the different types of people recognize wisdom. It further teaches the four key points and how to practice. [RY]

Tantra of the Mind Mirror of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' snying gi me long gi rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of the Mirror of the Heart (snying gi me long). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of the Ocean of Ferocious Activity (gtum po las rgya mtsho'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Perfect Embodiment of the Unexcelled Nature (bla med don rdzogs 'dus pa'i rgyud). [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Perfected Lion (seng ge rtsal rdzogs kyi rgyud). The scripture explains the degrees of progres and the signs that occur, how to stabilize awareness and increase the level of experience. [RY]

Tantra of the Precious Gathering of All into One (kun 'dus rin po che'i rgyud). A tantra of this name or even containing this name does not appear to be listed in the Derge Kangyur. [Peter Roberts]

Tantra of the Profound Mantra Ritual (cho ga zab mo sngags kyi rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Six Spheres of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud). This tantra teaches how to prevent rebirth in and purify the six realms, and manifest the pure realms of self-display. [RY]

Tantra of the Six Spheres of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of the Sphere of Awakened Mind (byang chub sems kyi thig le'i rgyud). One of the Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud). This tantra shows which experience a person undergoes in the intermediate state, the bardo, after passing away. It teaches how to resolve one's master's oral instructions during the bardo of this life, how to stabilize awareness during the bardo of dying, how to attain enlightenment through recognizing awareness during the bardo of dharmata, and, if necessary, how to be assured a rebirth in a natural nirmanakaya realm during the bardo of becoming and there attain buddhahood without further rebirths. [RY]

Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of Union (kha sbyor gyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra of Victory Over the Three Realms (khams gsum rnam par rgyal ba'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

tantra of words (tshig rgyud), three types of [LW1] [RY]

Tantra of words (tshig rgyud). Sound, words and symbols in scriptures. [RY]

Tantra Section (rgyud sde). One of the two divisions of Mahayana. The Mahayoga tantras appeared in this world when revealed by Vajrasattva and the Lord of Secrets to King Jah, the ruler of Zahor, who was born 112 years after Buddha's nirvana. Some of the contemporary lineage holders were Uparaja, Kukuraja, Vimalakirti, and Jnanamitra. Subsequent masters were Shakputri, the regent and son of King Jah, King Jah's daughter Gomadevi, Singaraja, Lilavajra, Buddhaguhya and Vajrahasya. The following generation of lineage holders were Bhashita, Prabhahasti, and Padmasambhava, the latter of whom also received the tantras directly from King Jah. [ZL] [RY]

Tantra Section (rgyud sde); of Mahayoga [LW1] [RY]

Tantra system (rgyud lugs). See Mantrayana [LW1] [RY]

Tantra that Embodies the Four Rivers of Empowerment (dbang gi chu bo bzhi 'dus kyi rgyud). [EMP] [RY]

Tantra That Prophesies Realization (dgongs pa lung ston) [LW1] [RY]

Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud) is the letter characters of the scriptures. [RY]

Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud). The letter characters of the scriptures. [RY]

Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud) is oral transmission of great masters. [RY]

Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud). Oral transmission. [RY]

Tantra, statement, and instruction (rgyud lung man ngag). a) Tantras (rgyud) b) statements (lung) and c) instructions (man ngag). Usually equated with the three inner tantras of maha, anu and ati, it is also taught that each of the three inner tantras has the three aspects of rgyud, lung and man ngag. [RY]

tantra; of meaning (don rgyud); of words (tshig rgyud), three types of [LWx] [RY]

Tantra; six sections of Tantra (rgyud sde drug) [LW1] [RY]

tantras (rgyud). See tantras, statements, and instructions [LW1] [RY]

Tantras of Mantra (sngags rgyud) are the extraordinary scripture exalted above the sutras. [RY]

tantras of Mantrayana (sngags rgyud) [LW1] [RY]

Tantras, scriptures and instructions (rgyud lung man ngag). The teachings of Mahayoga, Anu Yoga, and Ati Yoga respectively. [ZL] [RY]

tantras, statements, and instructions (rgyud lung man ngag) [LW1] [RY]

Tantric (rgyud kyi), (sngags kyi). Of or pertaining to Vajrayana. [ZL] [RY]

Tantric layman. [RY]

Tantric Practice in the Nyingma, Ketsün Sangpo Rinpoche and Geoffrey Hopkins; Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca. [ZL] [RY]

Tantric practitioners (sngags pa). A person who has received empowerment, continues the sadhana practice and keeps the commitments. [RY]

Tantric samayas of the vidyadharas (rig 'dzin sngags kyi dam tshig). The commitments of a Vajrayana practitioner. [RY]

Tantric sections (rgyud sde). The four or six sections of tantras. [RY]

Tantric Tradition of the Nyingmapa by Tulku Thondup, Buddhayana, Marion, Massachusetts. [ZL] [RY]

Tantric vows, mantra samvara, (sngags kyi sdom pa). Set of twenty-two prohibitions that anyone receiving an empowerment of Yoga tantra or Anuttara yoga tantra must undertake to observe. [RY]

Tantrika (sngags pa). See 'tantric practitioner.' [RY]

Tantrika (sngags pa). 'Tantric practitioner,' ngakpa. A person who has received empowerment, continues sadhana practice and keeps the sacred commitments. In particular, an adept follower of Mahayoga Tantra. [ZL] [RY]

Tantrika Dorje Dudjom (sngags pa rdo rje bdud 'joms). See Dorje Dujom. [RY]

Tao-an - Fourth century author of catalogue of Chinese Sutra translations [RY]

Tara (sgrol ma) the *redemptress venerated as a great Bodhisattva of Compassion. King srong btsan sgam po's two Buddhist queens were considered to be emanations of Tara. [RY]

Tara (sgrol ma). The Savioress, She who Takes (beings) Across (the Ocean of Samsara); also means 'Star'. [RY]

Tara Goddess (sgrol ma lha mo). 'Divine Savioress.' A important female bodhisattva of compassion, the one who takes beings across the ocean of samsara. There are twenty-one forms of Tara while the most popular are the white and green Taras. [ZL] [RY]

Tara Lugong (ta ra klu gong). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]

Tara Temple of Nyethang (snye thang sgrol ma lha khang), south of Lhasa, was the main residence of Jowo Atisha (see Translator's Introduction, note 12) in Tibet and the place where he died in 1054. Some of Atisha's bones, his Dharma robes, and a statue said to be a true likeness of him are still kept in this temple, along with many other precious relics. [MR-ShabkarNotes] Taraka. 'Star, meteor'. A type of demon, presumably the followers of the daitya (or asura) Taraka. [RY]

Taranatha - Tibetan historian and Jo nang pa master of the early seventeenth century [RY]

TARPALING IN BUMTANG ('bum thang thar pa gling). Temple in eastern Bhutan founded by Longchen Rabjam.[AL] [RY]

Tashi Chime Drubpey Gatsal. [RY]

Tashi Gomang Stupa of Chung Riwoche (gcung, or cung, ri bo che'i bra shis sgo mang). The building of the gigantic nine-storey stupa with many chapels, which lasted from 1449 to 1456, is described in Thangtong Gyalpo's biography. See Vitali (1990), Stearns (1980), and Gyatso (1981). The stupa is being renovated after the damage caused during the Cultural Revolution. The Bright Mirror Record (dkar chags gsal ba'i me long), the detailed list and description of the restoration work of the Stupa of Chung Riwoche written by Shabkar. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashi Lhunpo (bkra shis lhun po) was founded in 1447 by Gedun Drup (dge 'dun grub, 1391-1475), Tsongkhapa's nephew and disciple. He was retroactively designated as the first Dalai Lama and his relics were preserved in a stupa at Tashi Lhunpo. Tashi Lhunpo, which housed upto four thousand monks, is the seat of the Panchen Lamas (see chap.2, note 30). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashi Özer (bkra shis 'od zer). 1836-1910. An abbot of Paljor monastery and a student of Jamgön Kongtrül the First. [RY]

Tashi Tsekpa (bkra shis brtsegs pa), a sutra recited to bring auspiciousness. It is found in the gzungs 'dus (a collection of dharanis and short sutras used to perform ceremonies). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashi Tseringma (bkra shis tshe ring ma). A female Dharma protector of Tibet. [RY]

Tashikhyil hermitage (dben pa'i bkra shis 'khyil), where Shabkar spent most of the latter part of his life, is not to be confused with the great monastery of Labrang Tashikhyil (bla brang bkra shis 'khyil). This retreat place, also known as Yama Tashikhyil (g.ya' ma bkra shis 'khyil, see RO, p.644), was founded by Gyal Khenchen Gedun Tenpai Nyima (rgyal mkhan chen dge 'dun bstan pa'i nyi ma). Shabkar built new temples and hermitages; since then, the place has been taken care of by Shabkar's successive reembodiments and disciples. The Dewachen Temple was recently restored under the guidance of Alak Sherap (d. 1992). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tashilhunpo was founded in 1447 by Gedun Drup (1391-1475) Tsongkhapa' nephew and disciple, who was retrospectively designated as the first Dalai Lama, and whose relics where preserved in a stupa at Tashilhunpo. It became the seat of the Panchen Lama, who are said to be incarnation of Buddha Amitabha. The first Panchen Lama who holded such a title was Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen (1570-1662), who was declared by the 5th Dalai Lama (1617-1682), his disciple, to be the 4th Tulku of Khedrup Je (1385-1438), on the two chief disciples of Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). Tashilhunpo used to house upto four thousand monks. [MR]

Tathagata - The perfectly realized being: an epithet for the Buddha [RY]


Tathagata (De bzhin gshegs pa) lit. 'Thugs gone' or 'Thus come'; one of the titles of the Buddha. [RY]

Tathagata (de bzhin gshegs pa). A buddha who has gone (gata) to the state of dharmata suchness (tatha). [RY]

tathagata (de bzhin gshegs pa). Same as buddhas [LW1] [RY]

Tathagata (de bzhin gshegs pa). 'Thus-gone.' Same as a fully enlightened buddha. [Bardo Guide 91] [ZL] [RY]

Tathagata {bde bzhin gsheg pa}. Another name for the Buddha. [RY]

tathagata essence; [LWx] [RY]

tathagata; expl. [LWx] [RY]

Tathagatagarbha (de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po). Same as 'buddha nature' and sugatagarbha. [RY]

tathagata-garbha (de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po). See sugata essence [LW1] [RY]

Tathagatagarbha {bde bar gshegs pa'i snying po}. The essence of Buddhahood which pervades all sentient beings. [RY]

Tathagatas and their sons (de gshegs sras bcas). The buddhas who have gone (gata) to the state of dharmata suchness (tatha). Their sons are the bodhisattvas on the ten bhumis. [RY]

Tatvasamgraha Root Tantra (rtsa ba'i rgyud de kho na nyid bsdus pa). One the Four Major Sections of Yoga Tantra. [ZL] [RY]

Tavi Hricha. [Daki] [RY]

TAWA LONG-YANG (lta ba klong yangs). A treasure cycle of the Father Tantra aspect of the Great Perfection revealed by Dorje Lingpa (1346-1405). Tawa Long-yang means 'Vast Expanse of the View.'[AL] [RY]

Taxila - Early Indian university and center of Buddhist studies in the northwest; meeting place for ideas; also known as Taksashila [RY]

Teacher {bla ma}. Spiritual master. [RY]

teaching centers for the Tripitaka (sde snod gsum gyi bshad grva) [LW1] [RY]

Teaching Cycle of Dorje Drakpo Tsal (rdo rje drag po rtsal kyi chos skor) [LW1] [RY]

Teaching, study, meditation and practice. To teach ('chad) means to explain to other fortunate persons. To study (nyan) means to receive oneself from a qualified master. To meditate (sgom) means to contemplate the meaning and meditate upon it correctly. To practice (sgrub) means to apply oneself to the practice within the state of development, recitation and completion. [RY]

teachings (chos). See also Dharma, vehicle; according to the three kayas [LW1] [RY]

Teachings centers for the tripitaka (sde snod gsum gyi bshad grva) [RY]

Teachings of Maitreya (byams chos). [EMP] [RY]

Teachings of the Kadampas, Father and Son; (bka' gdams pha chos bu chos), the teachings on mind training of the father, Lord Atisha, and his sons, Drom Tonpa and the other spiritual heirs of the Kadam lineage. [MR]

Teachings of the Kadampas, Father and Sons (bka' gdams glegs bam pha chos bu chos) is a collection of instructions, questions and answers, stories, songs, and prophecies given by Atisha (982-1054) to his main spiritual son Drom Tönpa Gyalwai Jungne ('brom ston pa rgyal ba'i 'byung gnas, 1004-64) and to other subsequent Kadampa masters. These teachings were collected by Lekpai Sherap (legs pa'i shes rab) in two volumes. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Teachings of the three kayas. The dharmakaya teaching is Dzogchen Atiyoga. The sambhogakaya teachings are the three outer tantras of Secret Mantra as well as the the inner of Maha and Anu. The nirmanakaya teachings are the three causal vehicles of the shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas. [RY]

teachings; according to the three kayas [LWx] [RY]

Tekchok Dorje. See Karmapa [LW1] [RY]

Tekchok Tenphel; expl. of his lineage for Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo [LW1] [RY]

Temple (gtsug lag). The outer temple is a palace and the inner temple is the excellent teachings. [RY]

Temple of Purification (khrus khang gling). A temple at Samye. [ZL] [RY]

Temporary experiences (nyams). See 'experience.' [RY]

Temporary stains (glo bur gyi dri ma). The obscurations that are not intrinsic to the sugatagarbha, like clouds are not inherent in the sky. [RY]

Temporary straying from the essence (gshis kyi 'phral shor). [RY]

Temporary straying from the path (lam gyi 'phral shor). [RY]

Temporary straying from the remedy (gnyen po 'phral shor). [RY]

Temporary straying into generalizing (rgyas 'debs 'phral shor). [RY] ten benefits of living in isolated places, according to the King of Samadhi Sutra. 1) One's activities will be fewer and fewer, 2) one will be far removed from noise and distractions, 3) one will be free from quarrels, 4) one will also be free from harm, 5) one will not let obscuring emotions increase, 6) one will not create causes for discord, 7) one will always enjoy perfect tranquility, 8) one will keep one's body, speech, and mind under control, 9) one will live in a way that is conducive to liberation, and 10) one will quickly reach complete freedom. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ten bhumis (sa bcu). The ten levels of a noble bodhisattva's development into a fully enlightened buddha. On each stage more subtle defilements are purified and a further degree of enlightened qualities is manifested: The Joyous, the Stainless, the Radiant, the Brilliant, the Hard to Conquer, the Realized, the Reaching Far, the Unshakable, the Good Intelligence, and the Cloud of Dharma. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

ten bhumis (sa bcu); listing of; lords of [LW1] [RY]

Ten bodhisattva stages (byang chub sems dpa'i sa bcu). The ten levels of a noble bodhisattva's development into a fully enlightened buddha. On each stage more subtle defilements are purified and a further degree of enlightened qualities is manifested. For their names see 'ten bhumis.' [RY]

ten coarse winds (rags pa'i rlung bcu) [LW1] [RY]

ten dharma activities (chos spyod bcu). 1) Writing commentaries and spiritual instructions, if one is qualified to do so, 2) making offerings (of the mandala, the seven branches, etc.) 3) giving to the needy, (4) listening to the teachings, 5) reading the holy scriptures, 6) committing their meaning to memory, 7) explaining this meaning to others, 8) reciting one's daily prayers, 9) pondering over the teachings one has received, 10) assimilating them through contemplation and meditation. See Kongtrul's rgya chen bka'i mdzod, vol 12, p.238. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

ten directions. The ten directions are the four principal directions: north, east, south, west; the four intermediate directions: north-east, south-east, south-west and north-west; and finally the two directions of above and below. In fact it is an expression meaning every direction. [Peter Roberts]

Ten glorious ornaments (dpal gyi chas bcu). Ornaments worn by a wrathful buddha. [RY]

ten guardians of the directions (phyogs skyong bcu) [LW1] [RY]

Ten guardians of the directions (phyogs skyong bcu) such as King Vajra Bearer (dbang po rdo rje 'chang ba). [RY]

ten masteries (dbang bcu) [LW1] [RY]

ten nonvirtues (mi dge ba bcu) [LW1] [RY]

Ten nonvirtues (mi dge ba bcu). The physical misdeeds are killing, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct. The verbal misdeeds are lying, uttering divisive talk, harsh words, and gossiping. The mental misdeeds are harboring covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

TEN NONVIRTUES (mi dge ba bcu). The physical misdeeds are killing, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct. The verbal misdeeds are lying, uttering divisive talk, harsh words, and gossiping. The mental misdeeds are harboring covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. [AL] [RY]

ten nonvirtuous actions (mi dge ba bcu). Killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct; telling lies, slandering, gossiping and speaking harsh words; envy, ill will, and erroneous views. These three groupings comprise the wrongdoings, respectively, of body, speech and mind. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ten nonvirtuous actions (mi dge ba bcu). The physical misdeeds are killing, taking what is not given, and engaging in sexual misconduct. The verbal misdeeds are lying, uttering divisive talk, harsh words, and gossiping. The mental misdeeds are harboring covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. These actions have the four factors of object, intent, engagement, and completion. In the instance of killing, the object is to be unmistaken about that someone is a human being for example, the intent is the desire to kill, the engagement is take a weapon for example, and the completion is that the life-faculty is interrupted. The other misdeeds are shown through this example. [RY]

ten paramitas (pha rol du phyin pa bcu). 1) Generosity (sbyin pa), 2) ethical discipline (tshul khrims), 3) patience (bzod pa), 4) effort (brtson 'grus), 5) concentration (bsam gtan), 6) insight (shes rab), 7) means (thabs), 8) aspiration-prayer (smon lam), 9) strength (stobs), and 10) primordial wisdom (ye shes) [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ten paramitas (phar phyin bcu). The six paramitas in addition to means, strength, aspiration and wisdom. [RY]

ten qualities of the stage beyond training (mi slob pa'i chos bcu) [LW1] [RY]

Ten riches ('byor ba bcu). The five riches from others are: a buddha appears, teaches the Dharma, the teachings remain, there are followers, and there are teachers with the kindness to teach. The five riches from oneself are: Being a human, born in a central country, having the physical and mental faculties intact, not having a perverted livelihood, and having trust in the Three Jewels. [RY]

TEN SPIRITUAL ACTIVITIES (chos spyod bcu). Copying scriptures, making offerings, giving alms, listening to discourses, memorizing, reading, expounding, reciting, reflecting upon and training in the meaning of the Dharma.[AL] [RY]

Ten Spiritual Levels - see Bodhisattva. [RY]

ten spiritual or Dharma activities (chos spyod bcu): 1) Writing commentaries and spiritual instructions, if one is qualified to do so; 2) making offerings (of the mandala, the seven branches, etc..); 3) giving to the needy; 4) listening to the teachings; 5) reading the holy scriptures; 6) committing their meaning to memory; 7) explaining this meaning to others; 8) reciting one's daily prayers; 9) pondering over the teachings one has received; 10) assimilating them through meditation. See Kongtrul's rgya chen bka'i mdzod, vol. 12, p.10. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

ten spiritual stages or bhumis (sa bcu). The stages through which a Bodhisattva passes before attaining full Buddhahood, the eleventh bhumi. These are 1) Perfect Joy (rab tu dga' ba), 2) Immaculate (dri ma med pa), 3) Illuminating ('od byed pa), 4) Brilliant ('od 'phro ba), 5) Hard to Conquer (sbyang dka' ba), 6) Manifest (mngon du gyur pa), 7) Far-reaching (ring du song ba), 8) Immutable (mi g.yo ba), 9) Excellent Intelligence (legs pa'i blo gros), and 10) Cloud of the Dharma (chos kyi sprin). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ten things that hold the name of the Dharma {chos kyi sgra thog pa'i sa bcu}, which are: 1) what is to be known {shes bya}, 2) the path {lam}, 3) nirvana {mya ngan 'das}, 4) mental objects {yid kyi yul}, 5) merit bsod nams}, 6) lifespan {tshe}, 7) the scriptures {gsung rab}, 8) future {'byung 'gyur}, 9) certainty {nges pa}, and 10) religion {chos lugs}. (acc.to the Yontendzod). [RY]

ten topics of knowledge (rig pa'i gnas bcu) [LW1] [RY]

Ten topics of tantra (rgyud kyi dngos po bcu). View, conduct, mandala, empowerment, samaya, activity, accomplishment, samadhi, offering puja, mantra and mudra. These are the ten aspects of the path of a tantric practitioner, as well as the ten primary topics to be explained. [RY]

TEN TOPICS OF TANTRA (rgyud kyi dngos po bcu). View, conduct, mandala, empowerment, samaya, activity, accomplishment, samadhi, offering puja, mantra and mudra. These are the ten aspects of the path of a tantric practitioner, as well as the ten primary topics to be explained.[AL] [RY]

ten totalities (zad par bcu) [LW1] [RY]

Ten unvirtuous actions (mi dge ba bcu). Killing, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive talk, harsh words, idle gossip, covetousness, ill-will, and wrong views. [RY]

Ten unvirtuous actions;: (mi dge ba bcu) Three by body - to kill, to steal, and to have an improper sexual conduct; four by the speech - to lie, to slander, to chatter uselessly, and to say harsh words; and three by the mind - to wish to harm, to envy, and to hold false views. The ten virtuous actions are to avoid the ten unvirtuous ones and practice their opposite. [MR]

Ten virtues (dge ba bcu). Generally, to refrain from the above ten nonvirtues. In particular, to engage in their opposites; for example, to save life, be generous, etc. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

TEN VIRTUES (dge ba bcu). Generally, to refrain from the above ten nonvirtues. In particular, to engage in their opposites; for example, to save life, be generous, etc. [AL] [RY]

Ten Virtues to abstain from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, slander, abusive speech, senseless speech, coveting, ill will, and wrong views. [RY]

ten virtuous actions (dge ba bcu) [LW1] [RY]

Ten virtuous actions (dge ba bcu). Generally, to refrain from the above ten unvirtuous actions. In particular, to engage in their opposites; for example, to save life, be generous, etc. [RY]

Ten virtuous actions (dge ba bcu). The opposites of the above ten nonvirtuous actions. [RY] ten virtuous deeds (dge ba'i las bcu). Three of the body: 1) To protect life, 2) to be honest, 3) to maintain proper sexual conduct. Four of speech: 1) to tell the truth, 2) to avoid gossip 3) to avoid slander, 4) to speak gentle words that bring happiness to others. Three of the mind: 1) to rejoice in the good fortune of others, 2) to have only thoughts that are beneficial to others, 3) to have correct views. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ten virtuous deeds: Three of the body: (1) To protect life, (2) to be honest, and (3) to maintain proper sexual conduct. Four of speech: (1) to tell the truth, (2) to avoid gossip, (3) to avoid slander, and (4) to speak gentle words that bring happiness to others. Three of the mind: (1) to rejoice in the good fortune of others, (2) to have only thoughts that are beneficial to others, and (3) to have correct views. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

ten winds (rlung bcu); listing of [LW1] [RY]

Tenchok Gyurme Ling. [RY]

Tenchok Gyurmey Ling [LW1] [RY]

Tendai - Japanese Tien-t'ai school; its center on Mt. hiei played a vital role in Japanese Buddhist history [RY]

tendencies for the three experiences of transference(snang gsum 'pho ba'i bag chags); as synonym for the all-ground, expl. [LW1] [RY]

Tendzin Chögyal [LW1] [RY]

Tendzin Tulku - Karma Gelek Nyima. Contemporary of Chokgyur Lingpa, and regarded by him as reincarnation of Dhanasamskrita and Drogmi Palgyi Yeshe. [epk] [RY]

Tenga Rinpoche - Ven. Tenga Rinpoche was born in 1931 in the province of Kham/Nangchen in eastern Tibet. At the age of seven he was taken to Benchen monastery, where he received most of his education from the former Sangye Nyenpa Rinpoche, the abbot of the monastery, and others. After having left Tibet, due to the Chinese invasion, he first settled in Rumtek monastery, where he served as the Vajra-master of His Holiness the 16th Karmapa for 17 years. Eventually he went to Nepal, where he established his own monastery, which houses about 200 monks at present. Tenga Rinpoche is well known for his comprehensive, as well as humorous, style of teachings and is well-loved by thousands of students all over the world. [RY]

Tenga Rinpoche, Surmang [LW1] [RY]

TENGAM (rten gam). Room of sacred objects.[AL] [RY]

Tengyur - bsTan-'gyur - The collection of commentaries on the Buddha's teachings: the second part of the Tibetan Canon. [Tarthang]

Tengyur (bstan 'gyur) [LW1] [RY]

Tengyur (bstan 'gyur). The Translated Treatises. A collection of several hundred volumes of scriptures explaining the Kangyur, the Translated Words of the Buddha. [RY]

Tenma Goddesses (brtan ma). See Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]

TENMA GODDESSES or Twelve Tenma Goddesses (brtan ma bcu gnyis). Important female protectors of the Nyingma lineage, semi-mundane semi-wisdom protectors. [AL] [RY]

Tennyi Yungdrung Lingpa (bstan gnyis g.yung drung gling pa). The tertön name of Jamgön Kongtrül the first. [RY]

Tennyi Yungdrung Lingpa. See Jamgön Kongtrül [LW1] [RY]

Tenpa Rabgye. [RY]

Tenpa Tsering [LW1] [RY]

Tenth Dalai Lama, Tsultrim Gyatso (tshul khrims rgya mtsho, 1816-1837). [MR-ShabkarNotes] tenth day of the waxing moon. The tenth day of the lunar month would be auspicious as this is the date specified by Padmakara to be a time when he will have a very strong connection with his followers. [Peter Roberts]

TENTH DAY PRACTICE IN EIGHT CHAPTERS (tshe bcu le'u brgyad pa).[AL] [RY]

tenth level of enlightenment. Dharma-mega (chos kyi sprin) "The Cloud of Dharma". [Peter Roberts]

Ter (gter). see terma [RY]

Ter. [RY]

Terchen Chogyur Dechen Lingpa: 1829-1870 [MR]

Terchen Chokgyur Lingpa 1829-1870 (gter chen mchog gyur gling pa). The great treasure revealer Chokgyur Lingpa. See Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche's The Life and Teaching of Chokgyur Lingpa, Rangjung Yeshe Publications. [RY]

Terchen Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]

Terchen Dudjom Lingpa : 1835-1903 [MR]

Terchen Sherab Özer (gter chen shes rab 'od zer): 1516- [MR] Prajnarasmi, Trangpo Tertön [RY]

Terdag Lingpa Gyurme Dorje (1646-1714) Built Mindrol Ling in central Tibet, one of the most important Nyingma monasteries. This verse was the last he uttered just before passing away. [RY]

Terdag Lingpa, the king of Dharma, sun of the teachings of the Early Translations; a reincarnation of the great translator Vairochana. One of his well known termas is the Minling Dorsem,[see itself] [RY]

Terdak Lingpa (gter bdag gling pa) [LW1] [RY]

Terdak Lingpa, Gyurme Dorje - The great tertön is the Minling Terchen, Terdak Lingpa, Gyurme Dorje (See chap.1, note 38) who in 1670 founded Mindroling, the main seat of the Nyingma tradition in central Tibet. Gdung ba refers to gdung sras, the descendant of the Minling Terchen, who holds the throne of Mindroling. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Terdhe. [RY]

Terjang / gTer byang - see gTer ma. [RY]

terma (gter ma). See also Kama, Terma, and Pure Vision; details of; Dharma treasures; lineage; listing of different types; meaning of terma sign; sign; three special qualities of revelation; treasures [LW1] [RY]

Terma (gter ma). 'Treasure.' 1) The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer, for the benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions of the Nyingma School, the other being 'Kama.' This tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the Buddha has disappeared. 2) Concealed treasures of many different kinds, including texts, ritual objects, relics, and natural objects. [Bardo Guide 91] [ZL] [RY]

TERMA (gter ma). 'Treasure.' 1) The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer, for the benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions of the Nyingma School, the other being 'Kama.' This tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the Buddha has disappeared. 2) Concealed treasures of many different kinds, including texts, ritual objects, relics, and natural objects. [AL] [RY]

Terma (gter ma). 'Treasure.' The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be revealed at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer for the benefit of future disciples. [RY]

Terma / gTer ma - Concealed treasures of many different kinds, including texts, ritual objects, relics, and natural objects. gTer ma convey essential teachings suited for the time and place in which they are discovered. Through the blessings of Padmasambhava, the discoverer, or gter ston, can locate and decipher the gter. The gter ston receives various aides to help in his discovery. These include the kha byang, the gter byang, the yang byang, the snying byang and the lung byang. These are lists of books to be found in certain locations, precise descriptions of places where the gter will be found, lists of gter which have been hidden twice, and various other predictions concerning the hidden treasures. Padmasambhava predicted three grand gter stons, eight great gter stons, twenty one powerful gter stons, one hundred and eight intermediate gter stons, and one thousand lesser gter stons. The gter ma lineage preserves very pure and undistorted teachings especially necessary in the present era, the Kali Yuga. [RY] Terma / gTer ma - Texts hidden by Padmasambhava or sometimes other masters for recovery by gter stons at a later time [RY]

Terma box. [RY]

Terma practice. [RY]

terma revelation; three special qualities of; [LWx] [RY]

Terma root text Sheldam Nyingjang Yishin Norbu (gter gzhung zhal gdams snying byang yid bzhin nor bu). See Sheldam Nyingjang Yishin Norbu [RY]

Terma sign (gter tsheg), according to the vision of Taksham Dorje, it is said that the two circles symbolize means and knowledge and the crescent moon their indivisible unity. This is, however, not totally fixed since the wood blocks at Mindrol Ling have only two circles without a crescent moon. [RY]

terma sign; meaning of [LWx] [RY]

terma teaching; expl. [LWx] [RY]

Terma teachings. [RY]

Terma treasures (gter ma). See Terma. [ZL] [RY]

terma treasures; details of; expl.; three special qualities of [LWx] [RY]

Terma, See Kama and Terma [LW1] [RY]

Termas are very often discovered in the form of a yellow scroll (shog ser) on which are written a few syllables in symbolic dakini script (mkha' 'gro brda yig). These letters can only be deciphered by the tertön to whom the legacy of the spiritual treasure belongs, and are unintelligible to anyone else. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tersar (gter gsar). Recent /new treasures. Ex: Chokling Tersar, Dudjom Tersar. [RY]

Tersar. [RY]

Tersey Choktrul Rinpoche (gter sras mchog sprul rin po che). A great lama and brother of Samten Gyatso. [RY]

Tersey Rinpoche (gter sras rin po che). A great lama and brother of Samten Gyatso. For details, see The Life and Teaching of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]

Tertön (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal. [RY]

Tertön (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal. [ZL] [RY]

TERTÖN (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal.[AL] [RY]

Tertön (gter ston). A revealer of hidden treasures, concealed mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal.[Primer] [RY]

tertön (gter ston); expl. of treasure master [LW1] [RY]

Tertön Dechen Barwai Dorje: 1836-1920 [MR]

Tertön Dechen Barwai Dorje: 1836-1920. [RY]

Tertön Dudul Dorje (bdud 'dul rdo rje): 1615-1672 [MR]

tertön kings, five (gter ston rgyal po lnga), listing of [LW1] [RY]

Tertön Mingyur Dorje (gter ston mi 'gyur rdo rje): 1645-1667 [MR]

Tertön Nyida Özer, Legden Dorje (nyi zla od zer legs ldan rdo rje): 1512-1625 [MR]

Tertön Nyima Trakpa: 17th century [MR]

Tertön Sangye Lama (sangs rgyas bla ma): 1000-1080 [MR]

Tertön Sogyal, Lerablingpa: 1856- [MR]

TESTAMENT OF PADMA (padma'i bka' chems). Revealed by the great tertön Nyang Ral, and presumably identical with the medium-length version of the Sanglingma biography of Padmasambhava, an English translation of which is published as The Lotus-Born (Shambhala Publications, 1993).[AL] [RY]

Thabshe Drubpa. (thabs shes grub pa) Composed by the Indian siddha Yanlag Mepey Dorje, (yan lag med pa'i rdo rje), himself a disciple of Mahasukhanatha (dgon po bde ba chen po). [RY]

thag rgyang gang do, lit, "the distance of two rope lengths," corresponding to approximately ten arm spans, or 150 feet. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Thalgyur (thal 'gyur). An important maha ati tantra. [RY]

Thalgyur Root Tantra (thal 'gyur rtsa ba'i rgyud). The chief Dzogchen tantra of the Instruction Section (man ngag sde). [RY]

Thamal gyi shepa (tha mal gyi shes pa). The Tibetan for 'ordinary mind.' [RY]

Thangka (thang ka) Skt pata. A painting on cloth. [RY]

Thangtong Gyalpo's Oral Transmission (thang ston snyan rgyud), see Translator's Introduction, p.xxi. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Thantong Gyalpo: 1385-1510, or 1361-1485 (in namthar), or 1385-1464 /or 1384-1501 [MR] Thar Drupche. [RY]

Thatness (de nyid). The nature of phenomena and mind. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

thatness of deity (lha'i de kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]

thatness of emanation and absorption ('phro 'du'i kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]

thatness of guhyamantra (gsang sngags kyi kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]

thatness of recitation (bzlas brjod kyi kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]

thatness of self (bdag gi kho na nyid) . One of sngags kyi yan lag lnga [RY]

Thaton - Capital city of southern Burma; early Theravadin center [RY]

Thayenchi (known as rtse gzhung in Tibetan) is a mountain retreat in Bakhog area (ba khog), near Chuzang Monastery (chu bzang dgon). One speaks of the big and the small Thayenchi (tha yan chi che chung, see AC vol.1, p.48). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

The Biography of Namkha Jigme (grub pa'i dbang phyug dam pa dpal chen nam mkha' 'jigs med mchog gi rnam par thar pa snying por dril ba skal bzang thar pa 'khrid pa'i ded dpon), The Torch That Illuminates the Graded Path (lam rim gsal ba'i sgron me), A Treatise on the View (legs bshad nyi ma rang shar), The Many-stringed Lute (springs yig pi wang rgyud mangs), Opening the Door of Compassion (snying rje sgo 'byed), Opening the Door of Faith (dad pa'i sgo 'byed), The Song to Rejoice Lobzang (blo bzang dgyes pa'i glu dbyangs), (grangs 'drin me tog phreng ba blo gsal gzhon nu'i mgul rgyan), The Song of Remembering My Mother (a ma dran pa'i mgur), The Spontaneously Arising Sun of Happiness (bde skyid nyi ma rang shar), The Instruction That Alone Frees All (gdams pa gcig shes kun grol), Commentary upon the Three Sentences that Strike to the Vital Point (tshig gsum gnad rdegs kyi 'grel ba), Advice to My Disciples (bu slob zhal gdams), and Advice to My Benefactors (yon bdag zhal gdams). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

The Clear Mirror which is found in the second volume of Kagye Desheg Dupa. [Daki] [RY]

The Easy Path (bde lam), see chap.2, note 30. The Swift Path (myur lam), another of the Eight Great Scriptures on the Graded Path, was written by the second Panchen Lama, Lobzang Yeshe (blo bzang ye shes, 1663-1737). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

The Eight Commands, Union of the Sugatas (bka' brgyad bde gshegs 'dus pa), rediscovered by Nyang Ral Nyima Öser (nyang ral nyi ma 'od zer, 1136-1204). This is the first and most important of the terma cycles based on the Eight Commands (sgrub pa bka' brgyad). On the life-story of Nyang Ral, see NS, pp. 755-9. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

The Marvelous Emanated Scriptures (ngo mtshar sprul pa'i glegs bam), see Appendix 5. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

The Paramita vehicle (phar phyin gyi theg pa) is the Mahayana system of the gradual path through the five paths and ten bhumis according to the Prajnaparamita scriptures. See also 'six paramitas.'[AL] [RY]

the prince dies. elder brother tho gan the mur brings to sman rtse [RY]

The Sublime Continuum; Uttaratantra-shastra; (rgyud bla ma); Maitreya-Asanga, 4th century. [PK] [RY]

The Swift Fulfillment of Wishes (bsam pa myur 'grub ma). Unidentified. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

The Three Lands of Ngari in Tö (stod mnga ri skor gsum):. These are 1) Gugey Ya'i Kor (gu ge gya' yi sKor), the Slate Land of Gugey; 2) Puhrang Khang gi Kor (spu rang gangs kyi sKor), the Snow Land of Puhrang; 3) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thop chab kyi sKor), the Water Land of Ruthop. According to The Ocean-like Annals (deb ther rgya mtsho), History of Amdo by Konchog Rabgye: 1) Purang, Mang Yul, and Sangkar (spu rang, mang yul, zang dkar), making the first land; 2) Li, Drusha, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second land; and 3) Shang Shung, Triteh and T"meh (zhang zhung, khri te, stod smad), making the third land. [MR]

The Three Ridges /Heights of Dokham (smad mdo kham sgang gsum): are 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham, Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad); and 3) Gyi Thang in Tshongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha) [MR]

The very top of a stupa consists of thirteen Dharma wheels of decreasing diameters, finally surmounted by a moon crescent and a sun. These thirteen "wheels" are sometimes thirteen squares, as in the case of Bodhnath stupa. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Thekchen Lingpa Karma Drodön Tarchin (thek chen gling pa karma 'gro don mthar phyin, 1700-75/6 see GC, vol. Ga, p. 218), also known as Tertön Drime Lingpa (gter ston dri med gling pa), born in Zurkar (zur mkhar) as a descendant of Tertön Dechen Lingpa (bde chen gling pa). He was the incarnation of Guru Padmasambhava's disciple Gyalwa Chöyang (rgyal ba mchog dbyangs) and the immediate incarnation of Rongpa Tertön Dudul Lingpa (rong pa gter ston bdud 'dul gling pa). He became a disciple of Rigdzin Thukchog Dorje (rig 'dzin thugs mchog rdo rje) from whom he received the transmission of the Kunzang Nyingthig (kun bzang snying thig) of Tennyi Lingpa (bstan gnyis gling pa, 1480-1535). He was gifted with clairvoyance and had visions in which he remembered his former births as Melong Dorje (me long rdo rje, 1243-1303), Dechen Lingpa (bde chen gling pa), Dudul Lingpa (bdud 'dul gling pa) and others. He lived a contemplative life in solitary places and revealed several termas in Trak Yangdzong (sgrags yang rdzong) and other places. His main disciples were Jigme Lingpa (rig 'dzin 'jigs med gling pa), Kunzang Dechen Gyalpo (kun bzang bde chen rgyal po), Trati Ngakchang (bkra ti sngags 'chang), Chaksampa Tendzin Yeshe Lhundrup (lcags zam pa bstan 'dzin ye shes lhun grub) and the Seventh Dalai Lama (skal bzang rgya mtsho). His descendants are still found at Zurkar Lhadeng (zur mkhar lha sdeng). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Thekchog Dorje The fourteenth Karmapa,(theg mchog rdo rje, 1798-1868). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Thekchog Dorje, (theg mchog rdo rje), Karmapa XIV: 1798-1868 [MR]

Theravada - The school of Buddhism that predominates in Southeast Asia, tracing its lineage to the early Sthaviras [RY]

Theu-rang (the'u rang). A type of spirits who ride goats and as patrons of blacksmiths carry a bellows and hammer. [ZL] [RY]

Thien - Vietnamese form of Ch'an teachings, introduced in the sixth century; together with Pure land became dominant form of Buddhism [RY]

Thinking and stillness (gnas 'gyu). Presence and absence of thought activity. [RY]

Third Council (bsdu ba gsum pa) - Council convened at time of Kaniska to authenticate the teachings; in the Theravada the Third Council was convened at Pataliputra under Ashoka [RY]

Third Dhyana Realm. See Dhyana Realms [LW1] [RY]

Third empowerment (dbang gsum pa). The third of the four empowerments in the Anuttara Yoga system to introduce the unity of bliss and emptiness. [RY]

Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (chos 'khor gsum pa). The last teachings of the Buddha including the sutras on the definitive meaning placing emphasis on buddha nature, the unity of luminosity and emptiness devoid of constructs..[Primer] [RY]

Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (chos 'khor gsum pa). The last teachings of the Buddha including the sutras on the definitive meaning. [RY]

Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma (chos 'khor gsum pa). The teachings by the Buddha placing emphasis on buddha nature, the unity of luminosity and emptiness devoid of constructs. [RY]

Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma. See Dharma Wheels [LW1] [RY]

Thirteen bhumis (sa bcu gsum). According to the New Schools there are an additional three stages which are actually degrees of manifesting complete enlightenment. See Tsele Natsok Rangdrol's The Lamp of Mahamudra, Shambhala Publications, 1989. [RY]

Thirteen great root texts of philosophy (gzhung chen bcu gsum). [RY]

Thirteen major philosophical texts (gzhung chen bcu gsum). The fundamental treatises on Buddhist philosophy covering the topics of Vinaya, the bodhisattva trainings, Maitreya's five treatises covering Prajnaparamita etc., as well as Abhidharma, and Madhyamaka. [RY]

Thirteen Tantras of the Goddess (lha mo'i rgyud lung bcu gsum). [ZL] [RY]

Thirty Seven-fold Practice of a Bodhisattva, see Translator's Introduction, p.xxi. [MR-ShabkarNotes] thirty-seven aspect offering. The thirty-seven aspect offering is not included within either the original sadhana or the edition that Kongtrül later compiled. It is however within the preliminary text made by Kongtrül, though in the Tibetan edition only the beginning is given as it is assumed that practitioners would know it by heart. It can be found within, for example,the Mahamudra preliminary practices. [Peter Roberts]

thirty-seven factors conducive to enlightenment (byang phyogs kyi chos so bdun); summary of [LW1] [RY]

thirty-two major countries (yul chen so gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

Thirty-two major marks (mtshan gsum bcu so gnyis). The perfect marks of a buddha. [RY]

Thirty-two thought states resulting from anger (zhe sdang las byung ba'i rtog pa so gsum). See list under the 'eighty innate thought states.' [RY]

Thoding / (mtho lding) - Monastery in Gu ge in western Tibet where Rin chen bzang po and Atisha both worked. [RY]

Thögal (thod rgal), the most advanced practice of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen, see Appendix 1). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Thomi Sambhota to India: 632 ?? [MR]

Thöngwa Donden, Karmapa VI: 1416-1453. [RY]

Thon-mi sambhota - Minister sent to India or Kashmir bv Tibetan king Srong-btsan sgam-po to study Sanskrit and devise written Tibetan language. [Tarthang]

Thonmi Sambhota / (thon mi sam bho ta) - Minister sent to India or Kashmir by Tibetan king Srong btsan sgam po to study Sanskrit and devise written Tibetan language [RY]

Thought arising as meditation (rnam rtog bsgom du 'char ba). [RY]

Thousand buddhas of this aeon. [RY]

Thrangu Monastery. [RY]

Thrangu Rinpoche, quotation by [LW1] [RY]

Thrangu Rinpoche. [RY]

Thread-cross (mdos). A tantric ritual involving structures of sticks with colored yarn used to appease mundane spirits. [ZL] [RY]

Thread-cross talisman (mdos): an elaborate structure made of threads of various colors arranged as a three-dimensional device, it represents the body and its various elements (earth, water, fire, wind, and space). The mdos, accompanied by various other objects symbolizing great riches, is offered as a substitute for a person and his or her possessions in a special ritual, the aim of which is to satisfy harmful spirits intent on stealing the person's life or prosperity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Thread-crosses (mdos). A tantric ritual involving structures of sticks with colored yarn used to appease mundane spirits. [EMP] [RY]

Threatening forefinger, tarjani, (sdigs mdzub). A gesture of threat, point the forefinger. [RY]

Three Abodes of Goodness (dge gnas gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three Abodes of Radiance ('od gsal gyi gnas gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three abodes. Under, upon and above the ground. [Peter Roberts]

three activities connected with spreading the Dharma (chos kyi las gsum). Exposition ('chad), debate (rtsod), and composition (rtsom). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three adoptions (khyer so gsum). The three adoptions are the transmutation of all form, sound and mind into the path. [Peter Roberts]

three ancestral Dharma kings (chos rgyal mes dbon rnam gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three baskets (Skt. Tripitaka, Tib. sde snod gsum). Vinaya ('dul ba), sutra (mdo) and abhidharma (mngon pa). They are included in the Tibetan canonical collection called Kangyur. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three bindus of the Mahasandhi. Mahasandhi. Tibetan: rdzogs chen. "The Great Completion". The highest teaching within the Nyingma tradition, it was introduced into Tibet primarily by Vimalamitra and Vairochana in the eighth century. Its three "bindus", which means vital drops or essences, are the three sections of its teachings, at one time existing in Tibet as separate lineages: The sems sde "Mind Section", the klong sde "Expanse Section" and the man ngag sde "Instructions section". [Peter Roberts]

three bodies or kayas (sku gsum). The dharmakaya (Tib. chos kyi sku), or absolute body; the sambhogakaya (Tib. longs spyod rdzogs pa'i sku), or body of enjoyment; and the nirmanakaya (sprul pa'i sku), or manifested body. They correspond to the empty nature of mind and of all phenomena; the luminous clarity of wisdom; and the unobstructed manifestation of compassion. These are known as the three bodies (trikaya) of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Brahma Abodes (tshangs gnas gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three causal vehicles (rgyu'i theg pa gsum); listing of [LW1] [RY]

three classes within atiyoga (rdzogs chen sde gsum). 1) the mind class (sems sde), 2) the space class (klong sde), and 3) the class of pith or extraordinary instructions (man ngag sde). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Collections (sde snod gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three conditions for the purity of meat (gnas gsum dag pa'i sha). There are three conditions that make the eating of meat less evil 1) that one has not oneself killed an animal for meat, 2) or asked someone to kill it, 3) or taken the meat of an animal that has been killed specifically for oneself, even though one did not ask for it to be slaughtered. These are defined according to Hinayana sutras. According to Mahayana sutras the eating of meat, at the cost of animals' suffering, is unacceptable (see Appendix 5, note 6, and Emanated Scriptures of Compassion). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Confidences (yid ches gsum) - According to H.H. Khyentse Rinpoche, the three confidences are 1) the confidence that the goal of the practice resides in oneself (bsgrub bya rang la bzhugs pa yid ches), 2) the confidence in the extraordinary instructions which allow one to attain this goal (sgrub byed kyi man ngag la yid ches), and 3) the confidence in the spiritual master (bla ma la yid ches). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three confidences (yid ches gsum). 1) the confidence that the goal of the practice resides in oneself (bsgrub bya rang la bzhugs pa yid ches), 2) the confidence in the extraordinary instructions which allow one to attain this goal (sgrub byed kyi man ngag la yid ches), and 3) the confidence in the spiritual master (bla ma la yid ches). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Cycles of Dohas (do ha skor gsum, T 2263) comprises the three main "songs of realization" of the great siddha Saraha. They are the Doha for the King, the Doha for the Queen, and the Doha for the Subjects. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Cycles of Oral Lineage;, (snyan brgyud skor gsum), are the three main lineages of the Oral or Whispered Transmission of the Chakrasamvara teachings of the Kagyu Tradition. The three are: 1) The Dagpo Nyengyu (dwags po snyan brgyud), the Oral Lineage of Dagpo Lharje, Gampopa, the most extensive form; 2) The Rechung Nyengyu (ras chung snyan brgyud), the Oral Transmission of Rechungpa, the middle form; and 3) The Ngamdzong Nyengyu (ngam rgzong snyan brgyud), the condensed form. [MR]

Three Defects (skyon gsum). When listening to a Dharma talk: Not paying attention, not remembering, being mixed with impure motivation. [RY]

Three defects of the vessel (snod kyi skyon gsum). When listening to a Dharma talk: Not paying attention, not remembering, being mixed with impure motivation. [RY]

Three Dharma robes (chos gos gsum). [RY]

three Dharma Wheels of the causal teachings of the Philosophical Vehicles. See Dharma Wheels [LW1] [RY]

three diamond-hard, or vajra-like, resolutions (rdo rje gsum). 1) The vajra of unswerving determination: no matter what our parents, friends, or anyone else may think or say, no matter what adverse conditions there may be, nothing can deter us from our resolve to practice the Dharma. 2) The vajra of indifference to what others may think of us: Once we have achieved our goal--to practice Dharma--even if people have a poor opinion of us, criticize us for "wasting our time," or slander us, we should not care about it in the least. 3) The vajra of wisdom: awareness of the ultimate truth, which should accompany us at all times. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Districts of Ngari [LW1] [RY]

three divisions of ngari in tö (stod mnga' ris skor gsum). According to CN, they are: 1) The Dharma Land of Mang Yul (mang yul chos kyi skor); 2) The Auspicious Bönpo Land of Guge (gu ge g.yung drung bon gi skor); and 3) The Snow Land of Purang (pu rang /spu hreng gangs kyi skor). Alternately, these three have been defined as 1) Guge Ya'i Kor (gu ge g.ya' yi skor), the Slate Land of Guge; 2) Purang Khang gi Kor (spu hreng gangs kyi skor), the Snow Land of Purang; 3) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thob chab kyi skor) the Water Land of Ruthop. According to AC, vol.1, p.3, the three divisions are 1) Purang, Mang Yul, and Zanskar (spu hreng, mang yul, zangs dkar), making the first division; 2) Li, Gilgit, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second division; and 3) Shang Shung, Triteh and Lower Tö (zhang zhung, khri te /bri ste, stod smad), making the third division. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

THREE DOORS (sgo gsum). Body, speech and mind; thought, word and deed.[AL] [RY]

three doors (sgo gsum). Body, speech, and mind. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three doors; [LWx] [RY]

Three excellencies (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhicitta, the excellent main part of nonconceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedicating the merit. [RY]

Three excellencies {dam pa gsum}. The beginning, bodhicitta; the main part, meditation free of conceptualization; and the conclusion, dedication. [RY]

Three existences: The world beneath the ground, e.g nagas. The world upon the ground, e.g. humans. The world above the ground, e.g. the devas of the paradises. [Peter Roberts]

three experiences (snang gsum). See also tendencies for [LW1] [RY]

three experiences of transference (pho ba) [LW1] [RY]

Three extensive and medium length versions of the Prajnaparamita teachings (bka' shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa rgyas 'bring rnam gsum). [ZL] [RY]

Three families (rigs gsum). The vajra, padma and sugata families. [RY] Three families (rigs gsum). Vajra, padma, and tathagata. When referring to the 'lords of the three families' they are Manjushri, Avalokiteshvara, and Vajrapani. [RY]

three families, lords of the (rigs gsum mgon po). The Buddhas Manjusri, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani, the respective manifestations of wisdom, compassion, and power. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Family Lords (rigs gsum mgon po). Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri and Vajrapani. [RY]

Three fields of objects (yul gsum). (snang yul, dbang yul, yid kyi yul). The form of the deity appearing as either a perceptual object, in the experience of the senses by someone else, or as a mental object. [RY]

Three Forefather Dharma Kings (chos rgyal mes dbon rnam gsum) [LWx] [RY]

Three Forefather Dharma Kings (chos rgyal mes dpon rnam gsum). [RY]

three fundamental aspects of the buddhist teachings. 1) Renunciation (nges byung), the root of the Hinayana and therefore the foundation of all subsequent vehicles, 2) compassion (snying rje), the driving force of the Mahayana, and 3) pure vision (dag snang), the extraordinary outlook of the Vajrayana. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three gates (sgo gsum) are the body, the speech, and the mind. All these enumerations (the three gazes, the three postures, the four lamps, the four visions and the three crucial points) refer to the esoteric practice of Thögal (thod rgal). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three gates of emancipation (rnam thar sgo gsum). Emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness. [RY]

three gates of emancipation. See emancipations [LW1] [RY]

three Great Stupas in Kathmandu Valley - Bodhnath stupa or Jarung Khashor (bya rung kha shor, see note 28) and Svayambunath Stupa or Phagpa Shinkun ('phags pa shing kun) are two of the three Great Stupas in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The third one is the Takmo Lujin (stag mo lus sbyin, locally known as "Namobuddha"), erected near the place where the Buddha Sakyamuni, when he was born as a prince in one of his former lives, gave his body to feed a starving tigress. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Great Temples - lHa sa, Khra 'brug, and Ra mo che built by Srong btsan sgam po. [RY] Three Great Tertöns (gter chen gsum). Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Jamgön Kongtrül and Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]

Three great tertöns (gter stons chen po gsum) are Nyi ma 'od zer, chos kyi dbang phyug, and Rig 'dzin rgod ldem 'phru can. Nyang ral Nyi ma 'od zer (12th century) and Guru Chos kyi dbang phyug (13th century) are known as the Sun and Moon. gTer ma they discovered are called Upper and Lower treasures, or gter kha gong 'og. Rig 'dzin rgod ldem 'phru can (14th century) was editor and compiler of gter known as the Northern Treasures. [RY]

three great transmissions (brgyud pa chen po gsum); of the Nyingma School [LW1] [RY]

Three hidden valleys. [Daki] [RY]

Three higher realms (mtho ris gsum). The worlds of human beings, demigods or asuras, and gods or devas. These realms are more pleasant than the lower realms of animals, hungry ghosts and hell beings, but are not places of lasting happiness since even the highest realms of the gods are still within samsara. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Three Hundred and Sixty Sacred Incantations (gzungs sum brgya drug cu). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Three incalculable aeons (bskal pa grangs med gsum). Incalculable refers to the number ten followed by 52 zeros. [RY]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). Maha, Anu, and Ati Yoga. [RY]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). Mahayoga, Anu Yoga, and Ati Yoga. These three sections of tantra are the special characteristics of the Nyingma School of the Early Translations. According to Jamgön Kongtrül the First, "The Three Inner Tantras are also known as the 'Vehicles of the Methods of Mastery' because they establish the way to experience that the world and beings are the nature of mind manifest as kayas and wisdoms, that everything is the 'indivisibility of the superior two truths,' and hereby ensuring that the practitioner will become adept in the method of gaining mastery over all phenomena as being great equality." The Three Inner Tantras are, respectively, also renowned as 'development, completion, and great perfection' or as 'tantras, scriptures, and instructions.' According to Mipham Rinpoche, the Three Inner Tantras reached Tibet through six different lines of transmission: 1) As perceived by ordinary people in Tibet, Padmakara, the Second Buddha, taught only the Instruction on the Garland of Views but bestowed both the profound and extensive empowerments and instructions of all of the Three Inner Tantras to his exceptional disciples including Sangye Yeshe, Rinchen Chok, Lui Wangpo of Khön, and many others, the oral lineages of which have continued unbroken until this very day. Moreover, the major part of his teachings were sealed as terma treasures for the benefit of followers in future generations. 2) When the great translator Vairochana extensively had received the profound teachings of the Great Perfection from the Twenty-five Panditas, especially from Shri Singha, he returned to Tibet and imparted the Mind Section five times, as well as the oral lineage of the Space Section, both of which are continued uninterruptedly. 3) The great pandita Vimalamitra arrived in Tibet and taught the Instruction Section chiefly to Tingdzin Sangpo of Nyang. This lineage was transmitted both orally and through terma treasures. 4) Sangye Yeshe of Nub received from four masters in India, Nepal and Drusha innumerable teachings headed by the important scriptures of Anu Yoga and Yamantaka. His lineage of the Scripture of the Embodiment of the Realization of All Buddhas is still unbroken. 5) Namkhai Nyingpo received the transmission of the teachings of Vishuddha from the Indian master Hungkara which he then spread in Tibet. 6) During following generations, incarnations of the king and the close disciples of Padmasambhava have, and still continue to do so, successively appeared, as great masters who at opportune times reveal the profound teachings that had been concealed as terma treasures, in order to ensure the supreme welfare of people in Tibet and all other countries, both temporarily and ultimately. [ZL] [RY]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). See also tantras, statements, and instructions; definition of sugata essence; listing of [LW1] [RY]

three inner tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). The tantras of Mahayoga, Anuyoga, and Atiyoga. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum); definition of sugata essence; listing of [LWx] [RY]

Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, the Precious Dharma and the Precious Sangha. [ZL] [RY]

THREE JEWELS (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, the Precious Dharma and the Precious Sangha. In The Light of Wisdom (Shambhala Publ.), Jamgön Kongtrül explains: "The Buddha is the nature of the four kayas and five wisdoms endowed with the twofold purity and the perfection of the twofold welfare. The Dharma is what is expressed, the unconditioned truth of total purification comprised of cessation and path, and that which expresses, the two aspects of statement and realization appearing as the names, words and letters of the teachings. The Sangha consists of the actual Sangha, the sons of the victorious ones abiding on the noble bhumis who are endowed with the qualities of wisdom and liberation, and the resembling Sangha who are on the paths of accumulation and joining as well as the noble shravakas and pratyekabuddhas."[AL] [RY]

Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum); expl. of qualities; in the context of the lesser vehicles; objects of refuge; Precious Ones of Vajrayana [LW1] [RY]

Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum); guru as theThree Precious Ones [LW1] [RY]

Three Jewels {dkon mchog gsum}. The Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. [RY]

three Jewels and three Roots. The Three Roots: The Tantric equivalent, or essence of the Three Jewels. They are the Guru, the Yidam Deity and thirdly, the Dakas, Dakinis and Dharma-Protectors. [Peter Roberts]

Three Kayas - The Mahayana recognizes the three aspects (Trikaya) of the Buddha: Dharmakaya (Chos kyi sku), lit. 'Dharma body'; Sambhogakaya (Longs spyod kyi sku), lit. 'Enjoyment body'; and Nirmanakaya (sPrul sku), lit. 'Representation body'. Dharmakaya is voidness and its realization, beyond time and space, and is pure transcending awareness. The Sambhogakaya, the pure enjoyment aspect of the Dhyanibuddhas, also represents the aspect of communication. The Nirmanakaya forms are embodiments taken by Buddhas among earthly beings in order to clarify the way to enlightenment. Rupakaya - The Sambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya are sometimes known together as the Rupakaya (gZugs sku), lit. 'Form body'; all three kayas are sometimes considered aspects of a fourth body, called the Svabhavikakaya (Ngo bo nyid sku). [RY]

three kayas (sku gsum) are the dharmakaya (chos kyi sku), or absolute body; the sambhogakaya (longs spyod kyi sku), or body of enjoyment; and the nirmanakaya (sprul sku), or manifested body. They correspond respectively to the void, the luminous, and the compassionate aspects of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya (chos sku) is the first of the three kayas, which is devoid of constructs, like space. The 'body' of enlightened qualities. Should be understood in three different senses, according to ground, path and fruition. Sambhogakaya (longs spyod rdzogs pa'i sku) means the 'body of perfect enjoyment.' In the context of the 'five kayas of fruition,' sambhogakaya is the semi-manifest form of the buddhas endowed with the 'five perfections' of perfect teacher, retinue, place, teaching and time which is perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the ten levels. Nirmanakaya (sprul sku) means 'emanation body' or 'form of magical apparition' and is the third of the three kayas. This aspect of enlightenment that can be perceived by ordinary beings. [Primer] [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the levels; and the nirmanakaya which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. In the context of this book, the three kayas are sometimes Buddha Amitabha, Avalokiteshvara, and Padmasambhava. [ZL] [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and capacity'; as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya, which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya, which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas; and the nirmanakaya, which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

THREE KAYAS (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the levels; and the nirmanakaya which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [AL] [RY]

three kayas (sku gsum); of buddhahood; expl.; threefold wisdom [LW1] [RY]

Three kayas of buddhahood (sangs rgyas sku gsum). The dharmakaya is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the '21 sets of enlightened qualities.' Sambhogakaya is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the bhumis. The nirmanakaya manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [RY]

Three kayas of fruition ('bras bu'i sku gsum). The dharmakaya is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the '21 sets of enlightened qualities.' Sambhogakaya is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the bhumis. The nirmanakaya manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [RY]

three kindnesses (bka' drin gsum) according to the Mantrayana, of a spiritual master are as follows: to mature the disciple with an empowerment (dbang bskur), to expound the tantras (rgyud bshad), and to bestow pith instructions (man ngag ston). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three kindnesses of a spiritual master (bka' drin gsum). To mature the disciple with an empowerment (dbang bskur), to expound the tantras (rgyud bshad), and to bestow pith instructions (man ngag ston). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three kinds of celestial beings (lha gsum). The gods of the realms of desire, form, and no-form. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three kinds of ignorance (ma rig pa rnam gsum). Single identity ignorance, coemergent ignorance and conceptual ignorance. [RY]

three kinds of knowledge (shes rab rnam gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three kinds of mental nonvirtues. See ten nonvirtues [LW1] [RY]

Three kinds of miraculous powers (cho 'phrul gsum). The perfect deeds of a nirmanakaya buddha enacted through his body, speech and mind. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Three kinds of obscurations (sgrib pa gsum). The obscuration of disturbing emotions, the obscuration of dualistic knowledge, and the obscuration of tendencies or habitual patterns. [RY]

three kinds of physical nonvirtues. See ten nonvirtues [LW1] [RY]

Three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum) are to please by means of material things, service, and practice. The last is the most eminent of the three. The two first perfect the accumulation of merit and the latter the accumulation of wisdom. [RY]

Three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum). To please one's teacher by means of material things, service, and practice. [RY]

three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum); expl. [LWx] [RY]

Three levels of enlightenment (byang chub gsum). The attainment of the nirvana of an arhant, pratyekabuddha, and of a fully perfected buddha. [RY]

three levels of enlightenment (byang chub gsum); listing of [LW1] [RY]

Three levels of existence (srid pa gsum). Usually the same as the 'three realms.' [RY]

three levels of impure existence [LWx] [RY]

Three levels of wisdom; (shes rab gsum): 1) Conventional, worldly wisdom: Is basically the four traditional sciences, which are healing, logic, languages and crafts. 2) Ultimate, transworldly wisdom: Is the inner science based on the teachings of the sravakas and the pratyekabuddhas, and leads to recognition that physical aggregates are unclean, necessarily involve suffering, are impermanent and devoid of inherent existence. 3) The wisdom of realization: Is based upon the Mahayana teachings and leads to the thorough experiential understanding of the empty nature of phenomena, which are unoriginated, baseless and rootless. There are three other aspects to wisdom: the wisdom that realizes relative truth, and that is perfect knowledge of the whole phenomenal world and the way it manifests; the wisdom that realizes absolute truth, and that knows the empty nature of all phenomena; and the wisdom that unerringly accomplishes the welfare of beings. [MR]

three lineages (brgyud pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three lower realms (ngan song gsum). The realms of the denizens of the hells, of the tormented spirits, and of the animals. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three lower realms (ngan song gsum). The worlds of hell beings, hungry ghosts, and animals. [RY]

Three Main Points of the Path (lam gyi gtso bo rnam gsum), a short text by Tsongkhapa, belonging to the pith instruction section of the Kadampa teachings. The three main points are, as Jamgön Kongtrul says in his commentary, "The gold foundation of renunciation, on which rises the fabulously arranged Mount Meru and continents of Bodhicitta, upon which shines the brilliant sun of the wisdom of the perfect view." (See DZ, Vol. 4., pp. 435-88). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three mind poisons (dug gsum). Attachment, anger, and delusion. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Three mudras (phyag rgya gsum) are karma mudra (las kyi phyag rgya), samaya mudra (dam tshig gi phyag rgya) and jnana mudra (ye shes kyi phyag rgya), a mental consort. [RY]


Three mysteries (gsang ba gsum). The Vajra Body, Speech and Mind. [RY]

Three natures (rang bzhin gsum) (mtshan nyid gsum). The aspects of phenomena as set forth by the Cittamatra and Yogachara schools: the 'imagined,' the 'dependent,' and the 'absolute.' The imagined (kun brtags) is the two kinds of self-entity. The dependent (gzhan dbang) is the eight collections of consciousness. The absolute (yongs grub) is the empty nature of things, suchness. [RY]

three natures (rang bzhin gsum); among the Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma [LW1] [RY]

three notions ('du shes gsum); in regards to a master [LW1] [RY]

Three outer tantras (phyi rgyud gsum). Kriya, Upa, and Yoga. [RY]

Three Outer Tantras (phyi rgyud sde gsum); definition of sugata essence; listing of; of Mantrayana [LW1] [RY]

Three outer Tantras are the Kriya, Charya, and the Yoga Tantras. () The Kriya Tantras emphasize purification of body and speech through ritual and cleansing activities, establishing a relationship between the deity and the practitioner similar to the relationship of master and servant. Realization can be gained within sixteen human lifetimes. [RY]

three permissive conditions," see Appendix 5, note 6, and Shabkar's Emanated Scriptures of Compassion (snying rje sprul pa'i glegs bam). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three places (sa gsum) are the realms of celestial beings above the earth, of human beings upon the earth, and of the nagas below the earth. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three places (sa gsum). The realms of the celestial beings above the earth; of human beings upon the earth and of the nagas below the earth. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three planes; (sa gsum) : The realms of celestial beings above the earth, of human beings upon the earth, and of the nagas below the earth. [MR]

Three poisonous emotions (nyon mongs pa dug gsum). Attachment, anger, and delusion. [RY]

Three poisons (dug gsum). Desire, anger, and delusion. [RY]

three poisons or klesas (dug gsum). Desire, hatred, and confusion. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Precious Ones (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. [RY]

Three Precious Ones. See Three Jewels [LW1] [RY]

Three profound empowerments (zab mo'i dbang gsum). They are also called "the three supreme empowerments" (mchog dbang gsum) and are the secret empowerment (gsang dbang), the wisdom empowerment (sher dbang) and the word empowerment (tshig dbang). [RY]

Three Protectors (rigs gsum mgon po) Avalokiteshvara, Vajrapani, and Manjushri. [RY] three pure bhumis; bodhichitta; summary of path [LW1] [RY]

Three pure conditions for eating meat;: That one does not kill an animal for meat, or ask someone to kill it, or take the meat of an animal that has been killed for oneself even though one did not ask for it. [MR]

three ranges of dokham (smad mdo khams sgang gsum). 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham, Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad); and 3) Gyi Thang in Tsongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Ranges of Dokham (smad mdo khams sgang gsum): are 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham; Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad) Domey; and 3) Gyi Thang in Tsongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three realms (khams gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three realms (khams gsum). The samsaric realms of Desire, Form and Formlessness. [RY]

Three realms (khams gsum). The samsaric realms of Desire, Form and Formlessness. [ZL] [RY]

Three rituals (cho ga gsum). Three steps in visualization of a deity: seat with seed syllable, attribute, and deity. [RY]

Three Roots - lama, yidam, dakini. The guru is the root of all blessing, the yidam is the root of all siddhi, and the dakini is the root of Buddha activity. [RY]

Three roots (rtsa ba gsum). Guru, Yidam and Dakini. The Guru is the root of blessings, the Yidam of accomplishment, and the Dakini of activity. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

THREE ROOTS (rtsa ba gsum). Guru, Yidam and Dakini. The Guru is the root of blessings, the Yidam of accomplishment, and the Dakini of activity. [AL] [RY]

three roots (rtsa ba gsum). The guru (bla ma); deva, or meditational deity (yi dam); and the dakini (mkha' 'gro). They are the roots, respectively, of blessings, of spiritual accomplishment, and of enlightened activity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Roots (rtsa ba gsum); expl. the special Precious Ones; listing of; objects of refuge [LW1] [RY]

three Roots. The Peaceful Guru (Padmabhasajvala), the Wrathful Guru (Guru Drakpo) and Singhamukha, as the Guru, Yidam and Dakini, who are the roots of blessing, siddhi and activity. [Peter Roberts]

Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. [RY]

Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. The samadhi of suchness is to rest in the composure of the innate emptiness of all phenomena, as pointed out by one's root master, or simply to imagine that all things are empty like space. The samadhi of illumination is let natural compassion manifest like sunlight illuminating the sky, or simply to generate compassion for all the beings who fail to realize the nature of things. The samadhi of the seed-syllable is the innate unity of emptiness and compassion manifesting in the form of a syllable that is the 'seed' or source from which the deity and the entire mandala will appear during the practice. These three samadhis are the indispensible framework for the development stage of Vajrayana practice. In his Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo, Padmasambhava says, "The main part begins with the profound and vast samadhis Which purify the manner of death, bardo, and rebirth: The great emptiness space of suchness is pure like the sky. Rest evenly in this space of the undivided two truths. Emanate the magic of compassion, an all-illuminating cloud of awareness, filling the space, radiant yet without fixation. The single mudra in the manner of a subtle syllable Is the causal seed which produces everything. Keep this changeless wisdom essence, manifests in space, one-pointedly in mind and bring its vivid presence to perfection. [RY]

Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. They form the framework for the development stage. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

three samadhis. The Thatness samadhi, the Manifestation samadhi and the Causal samadhi. They are represented by the syllables Om Ah and Hum. They are essentially emptiness and the Dharmakaya; compassion and the Sambhogakaya; the deity's symbolic form and the Nirmanakaya. They are also described, within this text, in the instructions on the outer practice, just before the description of Padmakara. [Peter Roberts]

three samadhis. These are described in detail in the longer commentary. In brief, they are the "thatness-samadhi" of great emptiness. The "Total-manifestation samdhi" of compassion and illusion, and the "Causual samadhi" of the mudra, the deity's body. They are represented respectively by the three syllables "Om ah hum"recited in the sadhana before the description of the empty nature of phenomena. Hrih is then recited before the description of the appearance of the deity. Some western editions of the sadhana have mistakenly taken the Hrih to be the last syllable of the preceding mantra of the emptiness of phenomena: dharmadhatu svabhava ah hum. [Peter Roberts]

Three seats of completeness (gdan gsum tshang ba'i dkyil 'khor). The three seats (gdan gsum) are the aggregates and elements as the seat of male and female tathagatas, the sense-bases as the seat of the male and female bodhisattvas, and the actions and faculties as the seat of the male and female wrathful ones. [RY]

three secrets (gsang ba gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three secrets (gsang ba gsum). Same as the three mysteries. [RY]

three secrets (gsang ba gsum). The vajra body, vajra speech and vajra mind of an enlightened being. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three secrets (gsang gsum) [LWx] [RY]

three secrets. The three secrets: The body, speech and mind of the Gurus, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. They are called secret because they are inconceivable to ordinary beings. [Peter Roberts]

Three sections (sde gsum) The three divisions of Dzogchen: Mind Section, Space Section and Instruction Section. Also the name of an important terma of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]

Three Sections of Dzogchen (rdzogs chen sde gsum). After Garab Dorje established the six million four hundred thousand tantras of Dzogchen in the human world, his chief disciple, Manjushrimitra, arranged these tantras into three categories: the Mind Section emphasizing luminosity, the Space Section emphasizing emptiness, and the Instruction Section emphasizing their inseparability. [ZL] [RY]

Three Sections of Dzogchen. Garab Dorje entrusted these teachings to his main disciple, Manjushrimitra, who then classified them into the Three Sections of Dzogchen: Mind Section, Space Section, and Instruction Section. [RY]

three sets of precepts (sdom gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three sets of precepts (sdom gsum). See three vows. [RY]

three sets of vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara, a tantric practitioner. [AL] [RY]

three solitudes of body, speech, and mind (lus ngag yid kyi dben gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three sorts of laziness; (le lo gsum): Indolence, which is to be prone to sleep and idleness. Faint-heartedness, which is to be discouraged before even beginning to strive, thinking, "Someone like me will never reach enlightenment, however much I may try." Laziness of neglecting true priorities, which is to be stuck in non-virtuous ways of acting and be only concerned only with affairs limited to this life. [MR]

three special qualities of the terma treasures; listing of [LW1] [RY]

three special qualities of transmission; of the Nyingma School, listing of [LW1] [RY]

Three special trainings {lhag pa'i bslab pa gsum}. The training of moral discipline, the training of contemplation and the training of discriminative awareness. [RY]

Three spheres ('khor gsum). The three 'spheres' or concepts of subject, object and action. [RY]

three spheres ('khor gsum); conceptualizing [LW1] [RY]

Three spheres {'khor gsum}. Subject, object and their interaction. [RY]

Three spheres of concepts ('khor gsum gyi dmigs pa). Subject, object and action. [RY]

Three Stages (rim gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three strengths of the lion (seng ge'i rtsal gsum). Miraculous transformations (rdzu 'phrul), swiftness (myur mgyogs), and the possession of wings made of wind (rlung gshog). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three strengths or faculties of the lion (seng ge'i rtsal gsum). These three have been suggested: miraculous transformations (rdzu 'phrul), swiftness (myur mgyogs), and the possession of wings made of wind (rlung gshog). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three successive Dharma Wheels of the causal teachings of the philosophical vehicles [LWx] [RY]

Three sufferings (sdug bsngal gsum). The suffering upon suffering, the suffering of change, and the all-pervasive suffering of formations. [RY]

three sufferings (sdug bsngal rnam pa gsum). The suffering upon suffering (as when losing one's parents and then falling very sick); the suffering of change (as when going to a happy picnic and being bitten by a snake); and the all-pervading, latent suffering inherent in all forms of conditioned existence. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three sufferings (sdug bsngal rnam pa gsum): the suffering upon suffering (e.g. losing one's parents and then falling very sick); the suffering of change (e.g. going to a pleasant picnic and being bitten by a snake); and the all-pervading, latent suffering inherent in all forms of conditioned existence. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three supreme image mandalas (lhag pa gzugs brnyan gyi dkyil 'khor gsum) are made of colored powder (rdul tshon), painted cloth (ras bris) and heaps (tshom bu). [RY]

three sweets (mngar gsum). Sugar, honey and molasses. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three things to carry (khyer so gsum). Regarding sights, sounds, and thoughts as being deity, mantra, and wisdom. [RY]

Three thousand fold universe. [RY]

Three Trainings (bslab pa gsum), in regard to the six paramitas; under the ten bhumis [LW1] [RY]

three trainings (bslab pa gsum). Ethical discipline (tshul khrims), contemplation (ting nge 'dzin), and wisdom (shes rab). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three trainings (bslab pa gsum). The trainings of discipline, concentration, and discriminating knowledge. [ZL] [RY]

Three trainings (bslab pa gsum): discipline, contemplation and wisdom. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three transmissions of the teachings (bka'i brgyud pa gsum). Buddhas' Mind Transmission, Vidyadharas' Sign Transmission and Great Masters' Oral Transmission. [RY]

three transmutations. The three transmutations are form into the deity or guru, sound into the mantra, and the automatic liberation of thought. [Peter Roberts]

Three Turnings - Aspects of the Buddha's teachings (Turnings of the Wheel of the Dharma), presented at different times and in different locations [RY]

Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma. See Dharma Wheels [LW1] [RY]

Three types of "tantra of words" (tshig rgyud gsum): a] Tantra manifest as sound (sgrar snang ba'i rgyud) is is mind transmission or both the transmission of mind and symbol. b] Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud) is oral transmission of great masters. c] Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud) is the letter characters of the scriptures. For example, the terma teachings belong to the category of the three types of tantra of words; the mind transmission is to keep in mind what he initially have heard, the oral transmission he uttered it to the King and the subjects as the spontaneous sound of dharmata, and the Word Transmission of Yellow Parchment (shog ser tshig brgyud) is the teaching written down on the yellow parchment. [RY]

three types of emancipation. See emancipation [LW1] [RY]

Three types of ignorance (ma rig pa gsum). The ignorance of single identity, coemergent ignorance, and conceptual ignorance. [RY]

three types of individuals (skyes bu gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three types of knowledge (shes rab gsum). The understanding and insight resulting from learning, reflection and meditation practice. [RY]

Three types of liberation (thar pa gsum). The three types of emancipation of the shravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva. [RY]

three types of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three types of pure nirvana. See also three levels of enlightenment [LW1] [RY]

three vajras - Our essence, nature and capacity are the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. They are also the three vajras — the vajra body, speech and mind of all the buddhas — which we are supposed to achieve. This real and authentic state is, in itself, empty, which is dharmakaya. Its cognizant quality, isn't that sambhogakaya? Its unconfined unity, isn't that nirmanakaya? This indivisible identity of the three kayas is called the 'essence body,' svabhavikakaya. when we have cut through karma and obscurations and habitual patterns, then the nature of the three vajras is primordially and spontaneously present already within us. Unless we had these how could we produce the three vajras. Its because the three vajras are present within the ground as the vajra body, vajra speech and vajra mind and which is primordially present in all sentient beings as well. [Primer] [RY]

three vajras (rdo rje gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three vajras (rdo rje gsum). The three Vajras: The vajra (i.e. indestructible) body, speech and mind of Buddhahood. [Peter Roberts]

three valleys (ljong gsum), listing of [LW1] [RY]

Three vehicles (theg pa gsum). Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana. [RY]

three vows (sdom gsum). The pratimoksa vows of the Hinayana, which concern all the lay and monastic precepts of conduct taught by Lord Buddha in the Vinaya, the Bodhisattva vows of the Mahayana, which are embodied in the generation, cultivation and preservation of the twofold thought of enlightenment, or Bodhicitta, and the samayas, which are the precepts and commitments of the Vajrayana. Samayas formalize and acknowledge the all-important bonds with one's guru, one's fellow disciples and one's practice. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Vows (sdom pa gsum) are the Pratimoksha vows, the Bodhisattva precepts, and the Vajrayana samayas. See Appendix 1. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara. [RY]

Three vows;, (sdom gsum). The pratimoksa vows concern all the lay and monastic precepts of conduct taught by Lord Buddha in the Vinaya. The bodhisattva vows are in essence the wish to generate, cultivate and preserve the vow to dedicate all one's thoughts, words and actions solely to the benefit of others. Relatively, this means the exercise of loving kindness, compassion, and the six paramitas, ultimately leading all beings to complete enlightenment. The samaya vows are the sacramental links created when a disciple attends a spiritual master and receives from him an initiation. Although it is said that there are one hundred thousand samayas in the Mantrayana, they can be condensed into the samayas related to the body, speech and mind of the guru. [MR]

Three ways of pleasing the spiritual master {nyes pa gsum}, by making substantial offerings, offerings of service and offering of one's spiritual practice. [RY]

three wheels or activities of a buddha ('khor lo rnam gsum). The wheel of study and reflection (thos bsam); the wheel of meditation (sgom pa); and the wheel of activity (phrin las). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three wheels or activities of a Buddha ('khor lo rnams gsum): the wheel of study and reflection (thos bsam), the wheel of meditation (sgom pa), and the wheel of activity (phrin las). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three whites (dkar gsum). Milk, curd, and butter. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three whites and the three sweets. The three whites are butter, curd and milk. The three sweets are honey, molasses and sugar. [Peter Roberts]

three whites are milk, curd, and butter; the three sweets are sugar, honey and molasses. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three worlds - Meaning above the earth, on the earth, and below the earth, respectively the realms of the gods, human beings, and nagas. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three worlds ('jig rten gsum). The three spheres of gods, humans, and nagas. [RY]

three worlds (khams gsum). The world of desire ('dod pa'i khams), the world of form (gzugs kyi khams), and the world of no-form (gzugs med kyi khams). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Yanas (theg pa gsum). The three levels of Buddhist teaching; Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana. [RY]

Three Yogas (rnal 'byor gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three Yogas of Continual Practice (khyer so gsum gyi rnal 'byor). Perceiving appearances as deities and pure lands, sounds as mantra and thoughts as wisdom. [RY]

Three Yogas. See also Three Inner Tantras [LW1] [RY]

three Yogas: the utpatti (generation phase), the sampanna (completion phase) and the mahasandhi (the great completion). Also known as the Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga, the names that will shortly be used for them. [Peter Roberts]

three Zurpa masters [LW1] [RY]

three-cornered, red "glorious-food" torma, encircled by a retinue of five tormas the same as itself and by dough triangles. dpal-bshos, more commonly known as a "Paltor" ("Glorious Torma"), this one being described as red with a lotus-petal base but with a projecting sharp-edged "waist" that forms points at three corners, unlike the rounded form of the guru-torma. The Karseh Kongtrül tradition follows Tsewang Norbu's use of eight surrounding lesser tormas instead of the five in this text [Peter Roberts]

Threefold Confidence (yid ches gsum ldan), a life story of Padmasambhava by Taranatha according to Indian sources. Tibetan title: slob dpon pad-ma'i rnam thar rgya gar lugs yid ches gsum ldan. Included by Jamgön Kongtrül in the Rinchen Terdzö, Vol. KA. [ZL] [RY]

Threefold Division of Ngari in Tö (stod mnga' ris skor gsum): According to CN, they are: 1) The Dharma Land of Mang Yul (mang yul chos kyi skor); 2) The Auspicious Bönpo Land of Guge (gu ge g.yung drung bon gi skor); and 3) The Snow Land of Purang (pu rang /spu hreng gangs kyi skor). Alternately, these three have been defined as 1) Guge Ya'i Kor (gu ge g.ya' yi skor), the Slate Land of Guge; 2) Purang Khang gi Kor (pu hrang gangs kyi skor), the Snow Land of Purang; 3) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thob chab kyi skor) the Water Land of Ruthop. According to AC, Vol I, p.3, the three divisions are: 1) Purang, Mang Yul, and Zanskar (spu hreng, mang yul, zangs dkar), making the first division; 2) Li, Gilgit, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second division; and 3) Shang Shung, Triteh and Lower Tö (zhang zhung, khri te /bri ste, stod smad), making the third division. Tö (stod) and Latö (la stod) are sometimes confused. Tö refers traditionally to the western part of Tibet at large, as opposed to U-Tsang (dbu gtsang) and Domey (mdo smad), and is the same as Ngari. Latö is the western part of Tsang and includes the districts of Nyanang (gnya' nang), Tingri (ding ri), Pungrong (spung rong), and Shelkar (shel dkar). People from Latö call themselves Töpas (stod pa), "people of Tö", which adds to the confusion, but they are not considered as such by inhabitants of Ngari. One also distinguishes North Latö (byang la stod) and South Latö (lho la stod, see TC, p. 2745), which were two of the thirteen divisions of Tibet (bod khri skor gcu sum). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

threefold equality (mnyam pa nyid gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Threefold equality, (mnyam pa nyid gsum), means being equal to all the buddhas 1) in having perfected the accumulations, 2) in being enlightened, and 3) in accomplishing the welfare of beings. [RY]

Threefold Excellence (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhicitta, the excellent main part of nonconceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedication. Also called the three excellencies. [RY]

THREEFOLD EXCELLENCE (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhichitta, the excellent main part without conceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedication. Also called the three excellencies. For a detailed explanation, see Repeating the Words of the Buddha (Rangjung Yeshe Publ.).[AL] [RY]

Threefold faith (dad pa gsum). Admiring, yearning and trusting faith. [RY]

Threefold Knowledge (rig gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Threefold miraculous actions (cho 'phrul rnam gsum). [RY]

Threefold Praise (skabs gsum pa) is a ritual text of praise in use in the Geluk tradition. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Threefold Purity ('khor gsum rnam dag). Absence of fixation on subject, object, and action. [RY]

threefold purity; expl. [LWx] [RY]

threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum) is the ripening of nature, faculty, and thought (khams dbang po bsam pa) or strong ripening: The nature is ripened through having trained in the Dharma and the path during many former lives. By the power of that, the faculties are ripened since the five faculties of perfection (rnam byang) have become extremely sharp. By the power of that, discriminating knowledge (shes rab) has ripened from the present intelligence (shes rab) obtained at birth. [RY]

Threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum). The ripening of nature, faculty, and thought (khams dbang po bsam pa). [RY]

Threefold vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara. [RY]

threefold wisdom (ye shes rnam gsum), of Ati Yoga; expl. [LW1] [RY]

Three-pronged vajra mudra {rdo rje rtse gsum kyi phyag rgya}. Mudra where the fingers are arranged in the form of a three-pronged vajra. This mudra is used while throwing out the stale breath at the beginning of the preliminary practice before each session. [RY]

Three-storied Three Crescents (zla gam gsum pa bang rim gsum pa). [ZL] [RY]

Three-thousandfold universe (stong gsum gyi 'jig rten gyi khams). The world system of Mount Sumeru and the four continents multiplied a thousand times a thousand times a thousand, adding up to one billion. [RY]

Thub pa'i dbang po'i bstod pa leags bshad snying po, more well knows as rten 'brel bstod pa;, Praise to the Interdependent Links, in 58 stanzas, composed by Tsongkhapa while doing a solitary retreat at Olkha, in Central Tibet, following a dream in which he meet, Nagarjuna, Shantideva, Chandrakirti, Aryadeva and other great Indian panditas, the chief expounders of the Madhyamaka philisophy. At the end of the dream Buddhapalita stood up and blessed Tsongkhapa with a volume of his commentary on Madhyamakalankara. Following this dream Tsongkhapa achieved a high degree of understanding of the ultimate reality while reading a verse of Bhudhapalita which says that, "the self is neither different nor identical to the aggregates." The same day, Tsongkhapa wrote this praise to Lord Buddha, the Awakened One who first realized this truth. [MR]

Thubten Chökyi Dorje, the 5th Dzogchen Rinpoche: 1872- [MR]

Thukje Chenpo Gyutrul Drawa. [RY]

Thunder of the Drum of Brahma (tshangs pa'i rnga sgra); sambhogakaya realm of [LW1] [RY]

Thunder of the Drum of Perfection. [Daki] [RY]

Tibet and Kham [LW1] [RY]

Tibet Guide, The, by Stephen Bachelor, published by Wisdom Publications, London, 1987, pp. 466 [MR]

Tibet is often called the "Land to the North," referring to the prediction of Buddha Sakyamuni that his teachings would spread to the north. When passing into Parinirvana, the Buddha laid his head toward the north. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tibet, a Political History, by Tsepon, W.D. Shakabpa, Potala Publications, New York, 1984, pp.369 Potala Publications, Rm. 703, 801 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10017 USA [MR]

Tibet; explanation of the spiritual quality of the place [LW1] [RY]

Tibetan army defeat the Chinese Emperor, and invades China upto Thranhen: 763 [MR]

Tibetan army defeat the Chinese Emperor, and invades China upto Thranhen: 763. [RY]

Tibetan Book of the Dead, The: The Great Liberation Through Hearing in the Bardo. Trns. by Franscesca Fremantle and Chögyam Trungpa, Shambhala Publications, Boston. [ZL] [RY]

Tibetan calendar is based on a sixty year cycle, based on twelve different animal signs combined with five elements. In addition, each year of this cycle also has a specific name of its own. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tibetan coins and measures. These measures correspond to quantities of silver and gold since banknotes were issued only at the beginning of the twentieth century. In Shabkar's times one sho (zho) was the equivalent of 3.7 g. of silver and nine sho were roughly equivalent to one sang (srang). Various Nepalese coins (called tamka, Tib. tangka, from a Muslim name) equivalent to one-and-half sho circulated in Tibet at the same value, although some were made of pure silver and some of 50 percent alloy. The issue of debased coins caused repeated conflicts with Nepal (see chap. 13, note 46). Chinese coins of fine silver equivalent to one sho were also common. The karma (skar ma) is the smallest monetary unit and is roughly equivalent to one-tenth of a sho. A che-gye (phyed brgyad) is half of a cut tanka. A dotse (rdo tshad = stone-size) is the weight, or collection of fifty sangs. A Chinese tamik (rta rmig = horse hoof) is a silver ingot cast in the shape of a horse's hoof. There are two sizes: a large one weighing 165 tolas of silver (that is, about 2 kg.) and a small one weighing about 500 gms. On the development of currency in Tibet, see Rhodes (1990). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tibetan History (bod kyi srid don rgyal rabs), by Tsepon, W.D. Shakabpa, published by Shakabpa House, Kalimpong, Indian, 1976, Vol. I and II. [MR]

Tibetan Schools of Buddhism - these come under the two general headings of rNying ma (the ancient ones) and gSar ma (the new ones). [RY]

TIDRO CAVE AT SHOTÖ (sho stod sti sgro). Sacred place of Padmasambhava and Yeshe Tsogyal near Drigung Til in Central Tibet. Opened by Padmasambhava for future practitioners, this important pilgrimage site also has hot springs with healing properties. [AL] [RY]

Tidro Gang (ti sgro gangs) [LW1] [RY]

Tidro. [Daki] [RY]

Tiger's Nest. [Daki] [RY]

Tika (thig le). Essence; sphere. [ZL] [RY]

Tika. A commentary (esp. on another commentary). [RY]

Tilaka (thig le). Essence; sphere. [ZL] [RY]

Tilopa (10th-11th century) Naropa (active in the middle of the 11th century), Marpa (mar pa chos kyi blo gros, 1012-97) and Rechung Dorje Drakpa (ras chung rdo rje grags pa, 1084-1161) are the first patriarchs of the Kagyu Lineage. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tilopa (Skt.). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa, and father of the Kagyu lineage. [RY]

Tilopa (til li pa). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa and father of the Kagyü lineage. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Tilopa. (988-1069). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa and father of the Kagyü lineage.[Primer] [RY]

Tilopa: 988-1069 [MR]

Tilopa: 988-1069. [RY]

Times of decline. =Degenerate age. [RY]

Times, the three (dus gsum). Past, present, future. [RY]

Ting Od Barma (mthing 'od 'bar ma). The consort of Raksha Tötreng. [RY]

Tingri Langkhor (ding ri glang 'khor), which lies west of Tingri Dzong, was established in 1097 by the Indian yogin Padampa Sangye (d. 1117). See Aziz (1980). The relics and belongings of the saint were preserved there. Most of these were saved from the devastation brought on by the Cultural Revolution and are presently preserved by Dza Trulshik Rinpoche in Nepal. The Langkhor monastery, now in process of restoration, was built above the cave where Padampa meditated. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tingri Langkhor; (ding ri glang 'khor) Tingri Langkhor, which lies West of Tingri Dzong, was established in 1097 by the Indian yogin Padampa Sangye (-1117). The Langkor monastery, now in process of restoration, was built above the cave where Padampa meditated. [MR]

Tingshag (ting shags), tiny, thick cymbals with a high-pitched sound. They are often made of bell-metal and are mostly used in Kriya Tantra rites, water torma offering (chu gtor), and burnt offerings (gsur) made to the starving spirits. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tingting Tinglomen (ting ting ting lo sman). [ZL] [RY]

Tiny pearl-like relics (ring bsrel). See chap.6, note 11. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tipitaka - Pali term for the Tripitaka: Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma, with Tantra sometimes regarded as a fourth pitaka [RY]

Tirahuti. [Daki] [RY]

Tirthapuri; A sacred place with a cave blessed by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, where one can see granite rock with their embedded foot-prints. One also finds hot springs and a geyser. [MR]

Tirthika (mu stegs pa) [LW1] [RY]

Tirthika (mu stegs pa). Non-Buddhist teachers of philosophy adhering to the extreme views of eternalism or nihilism. [RY]

Tirthika (mu stegs). An adherent of a non-buddhist religion, esp. a Hindu, Jain or Lokyata (materialist) [RY]

Tirthikas (mu stegs pa). Non-Buddhist teachers of philosophy adhering to the extreme views of eternalism or nihilism.[Primer] [RY]

Ti-se - Sacred mountain in western Tibet; also known as Kailasa. [Tarthang]

Tisey / (ti se) - Sacred mountain in western Tibet; also known as Kailash [RY]

Tishi Repa (ti shi ras pa). One of the masters in the Barom Kagyu lineage. [RY]

Tobden. [Daki] [RY]

Tob-yig (thob yig) [LW1] [RY]

Tögal (thod rgal) [LW1] [RY]

Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing.' Dzogchen has two main sections: Trekchö and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub).[Primer] [RY]

Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing' or 'passing above.' Dzogchen, mahasandhi, has two main sections: trekcho and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub). [RY]

Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing.' Dzogchen has two main sections: Trekchö and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub). [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Tögal vision (thod rgal gyi snang ba). The four 'visions' or stages of experience on the path of Tögal are 'manifest dharmata,' 'increased experience,' 'awareness reaching fullness,' and 'exhaustion of dharmas beyond concepts.' [RY]

Tokharia? - Central Asia Dharma language associated with the areas of Kucha and Turfan; usually divided into two branches [RY]

tol bu, pronounced "tolhu;" is the calf born from a dzomo (the hybrid offspring of a bull and dri, the female of the yak). The tolhu is a feeble animal, useless for domestic purposes, and is often killed or left to starve to death. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tolung Tsurphu. [RY]

Tölung Valley (stod lung). [ZL] [RY]

Tölung Valley [LW1] [RY]

Tong-len (gtong len). See 'giving and taking.' [RY]

Torch of the Three Ways (tshul gsum sgron me) [LW1] [RY]

Torch That Illuminates the Graded Path (lam rim gsal ba'i sgron me); see Appendix 5. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tori Nyenshel [LW1] [RY]

Torma (gtor ma) is a symbolic ritual object often made of flour, wood, or precious metal, which, depending on circumstances, can be visualized as an offering, as the deity, as a blessing, or as a weapon hurled against negative forces. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Torma (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits. [ZL] [RY]

TORMA (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits. [AL] [RY]

Torma (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits.[Primer] [RY]

Torma {gtor ma}. Ritual objects in different shapes made of flour or clay which symbolize deities or offerings. [RY]

Torma. "continuous tormas", the "temporary tormas" and the "fixed-duration tormas". The three kinds of torma: The "continuous torma" is one that remains upon the shrine throughout the practice, either as offerings or as representations of the deity. [Peter Roberts]

tormas for the obstacle-makers. In this practice the torma offered in the preliminary practice for pacifying obstacle makers is called sha-gzugs-ma "the flesh-shape torma", which represents a bent leg, the thigh upon the ground and the foot in the air against the sole of which a butter disc is pressed. This is said to represent the leg that Padmakara manifested, while in meditation, and hurled to obstacle-makers to pacify them. [Peter Roberts]

Tossing the flower - This refers to the section of the empowerment ceremony in which one throws a flower onto the mandala to determine the meditation deity with which one has the closest karmic links or affinity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Total purity of the three concepts ('khor gsum rnam dag). Absence of fixation on subject, object and action. [RY]

totalities, ten (zad par bcu). See ten totalities [LW1] [RY]

Tötreng Tsal (thod phreng rtsal). The secret name of Guru Rinpoche and also the long Guru Rinpoche mantra in the context of Trinley Nyingpo. [RY]

To-yor Nagpo (tho yor nag po). [ZL] [RY]

Tra Düntse (pra dun rtse). [ZL] [RY]

Traditions of the Two Chariots (shing rta gnyis). See Two Chariots [LW1] [RY]

Training, threefold, tri-shiksa, (bslab pa gsum). The trainings relating to Morality, to Concentration, and to Wisdom. [RY]

Trainings (bslab pa). See Three Trainings [LW1] [RY]

Trak Yerpa 1.;, (brag yer pa) Drak Yerpa (brag yer pa) is the holy place of Guru Padmasambhava related to the speech aspect. In this place of great scenic beauty there are over 80 caves where many great beings from all lineages meditated. On the top are the caves of Guru Padmasambhava (brag gi yang bgrod dka') and of Yeshe Tsogyal (gsang phug). Below is Drubthop Phug (grub thob phug) the great cave where the 80 siddhas of Yerpa (Guru Padmasambhava's disciples) meditated together. There is also Lord Atisha's cave (rten 'brel phug, or Atisa'i gzim phug). There is also Dawa Phug (zla ba phug), a cave blessed by Guru Padmasambhava who left an imprint of his foot in the rock). Padampa Sangye, too, meditated in this cave. Nyima Phug (nyi ma phug) is another cave, uphill, blessed by Guru Rinpoche. Dorje Phug (rdo rje phug) is the cave where Lhalung Palkyi Dorje is said to have hid himself after assassinating King Langdarma in 842. Chögyal Phug (chos rgyal phug) is the cave where King Songtsen Gampo meditated. [RY]

Trak Yerpa 2. Chanag Dorje Phug (Phyag na rdo rje'i phug) comprise a serie of four south-facing caves. At the invitation of Ngok Changchup Dorje, Jowo Atisha, accompanied by Drom Tönpa, came in 1047 and taught extensively at Yerpa, and established there the second Kadampa Monastery, Yerpa Drubde (yer pa sgrub sde). At the very top of the cliff are Utse Phug (dbu rtse phug) and Pukar Rabsel (phug dkar rab gsal). [MR]

Trakar Taso (brag dkar rta so) between Kyirong and Dzongka (see MI) is one of the most important meditation places of Milarepa. There he spent nine, or according to others twelve, years in continuous meditation, beginning in 1083. At that location is Milarepa's cave known as the Central Citadel (dbu ma rdzong). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Trakar Taso Tulku Chökyi Wangchuk (brag dkar rta so sprul sku chos kyi dbang phyug, 1775-1837) was an influential master in the areas along the Nepal-Tibet border. He was a disciple of Trinley Dudjom Gön Nang Chöje (phrin las bdud 'joms mgon gnang chos rje, 1726-89), himself a disciple of Kathog Rigdzin Tsewang Norbu (kah thog rig 'dzin tshe dbang nor bu, 1698-1755). His reply to Shabkar's letter, as well as a reply to a second letter from Shabkar is found in Vol. Tha of Trakar Taso Tulku's Collected Writings, pp. 749-54. (Communicated by Franz-Karl Ehrhard). Shabkar's second letter, as well the letters mentioned above, is found in DOL 3, folio 88b and in TS 4, p.694. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Trakpa Choyang, Gyaltsap V: 1617-1658 [MR]

Traktung Pawo (khrag 'thung dpa' bo). The name of Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje. [RY]

Tralep Kyamgon. [RY]

Trambu Forest (gram bu'i tshal). [ZL] [RY]

Tramdruk. [Daki] [RY]

Tramen (phra men). Goddesses with human bodies and animal heads. 'Tramen' means 'hybrid' or 'alloy.' [ZL] [RY]

tramen (phra men); eight goddesses [LW1] [RY]

Tranh-nhan Ton - Vietnamese king who founded a school that sought to integrate Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian ideals [RY]

Tranpo Tertön Sherab Özer *(?? po gter ston shes rab 'od zer). The heart disciple of ?? [RY]

Transcendent Knowledge (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa), prajnaparamita. Intelligence that transcends conceptual thinking. 'Transcendent' literally means 'gone to the other shore' in the sense of having departed from 'this shore' of dualistic concepts. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Transcendent Knowledge (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa, prajnaparamita). Intelligence that transcends conceptual thinking. [RY]

Transcendent Knowledge. See Prajnaparamita, knowledge [LW1] [RY]

Transcendental actions (pha rol tu phyin pa'i spyod pa). See 'paramita.' [RY]

transference (pho ba); about ignorance; habitual tendency of; level of subtlety; obscuration of; tendencies for the three experiences of; three experiences of [LW1] [RY]

Transference. [RY]

transference; about ignorance; habitual tendency of; level of subtlety; obscuration of; obscuration of ('pho sgrib); obscuration of ('pho sgrib), expl.; tendencies for the three experiences of (snang gsum 'pho ba'i bags chags); tendencies of the three experiences of (snang gsum 'pho ba'i bag chags), expl.; three experiences of [LWx] [RY]

Transformation (sprul bsgyur): a meditation practice in which a practitioner visualizes himself or herself going through all possible transformations. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Transitory collection ('jig tshogs). Refers to the continuity of the five aggregates. [RY]

Translated Treatises. See Tengyur [LW1] [RY]

Translated Words. See Kangyur [LW1] [RY]

Translation Temple (sgra sgyur gling). A temple at Samye. [ZL] [RY]

Translator ('jig rten mig gcig). The Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word Locava [lotsawa]. [RY]

Translator from Langdro (lang gro lo tsa ba). One of the 25 disciples of Guru Rinpoche. [RY]

Transmission (dbang lung),/ (ngo sprod). 1) A name covering both empowerment and reading transmission. 2) Same as the 'pointing-out instruction.' [RY]

Transmission Lineages - After the Great Dharma King Ral pa can was killed by anti-Buddhist factions of the government, his brother, Glang dar ma, took the throne. During his reign, traditional studies were halted, monks forced to return to lay life, and monasteries closed. Esoteric practitioners continued secretly, and all lineages were preserved. The Vinaya transmission was maintained in the East through gYo, Rab, and dMar, Bla chen, and Klu mes, who returned to Central Tibet; the Abhidharma transmission was maintained in the East through lHa lung dPal gyi rdo rje and his disciples; the Prajnaparamita transmission was maintained through sKu ba dPal brtsegs, Cog ro Klu'i rgyal mtshan, and Ye shes sde; the Tantra transmission was maintained through gNyags Jnanakumara, gNubs chen Sangs rgyas ye shes, and the Three Zur. [RY]

Transmission of the Earthen Pot {rdza ma'i lung}. Name of a transmission from the Dharma of transmission. [RY]

Transmission of the four rivers of Secret Mantra (gsang sngags chu bo bzhi'i bka' babs) Tantra, vajra master, life and awareness. [RY]

Transmission of the Leather Bag {sgro ba'i lung}. Name of a transmission from the Dharma of transmission. [RY]

transmission, four special (bka' babs bzhi) The transmissions that Tilopa received from his four main teachers. These four transmissions were passed from Tilopa to Naropa and then to Marpa. They are the yogas of the illusory body, dream, luminosity, and candali. [Rain of Wisdom] Travels of Fa-Hsien: 399-414 [MR]

Treasure letters (gter yig) possessing physical form are nirmanakayas. They are also speech for u [RY]

treasure letters (gter yig). See also dakini script [LW1] [RY]

Treasure lineages (gter brgyud). The transmission of teachings, hidden as treasures, to be revealed in the future to destined students by a tertön, treasure-revealer. [RY]

Treasure lords (gter bdag). The guardians of the terma teachings. [RY]

treasure master; expl.; [LWx] [RY]

Treasure of Abhidharma; Abhidharmakosha; (mngon pa mdzod) - Vasubandhu, 4th or 5th century. [PK] [RY]

Treasure revealer (gter ston). The master who reveals a terma teaching. [RY]

treasure. See terma [LW1] [RY]

treasure. Terma. The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer, for the benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions of the Nyingma School, the other being 'Kama.' This tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the Buddha has disappeared.[Primer] [RY]

treasures; listing of different types [LWx] [RY]

Treasury Commentary (mdzod tik) [LW1] [RY]

Treasury of Abhidharma (chos mngon pa mdzod) [LW1] [RY]

Treasury of Mahayana Sutras [LW1] [RY]

TREASURY OF PRECIOUS TERMAS (rin chen gter mdzod). See under 'Rinchen Terdzö.'[AL] [RY]

Treasury of the Nonarising Jewel (skye med rin po che'i mdzod) [LW1] [RY]

Treatises (bstan bcos), shastra. Scriptures composed by accomplished or learned masters. [RY]

treatises (shastra) [LW1] [RY]

Tregu Cave of Chimphu (mchims phu bre gu dge'u). A cave at Samye Chimphu. [ZL] [RY]

Trekchö (khregs chod) [LW1] [RY]

Trekcho (khregs chod) See 'Cutting Through.' One of the two main aspects of Dzogchen practice, the other being Tögal. [RY]

Trekchö (khregs chod). 'Cutting through' the stream of delusion, the thoughts of the three times, by revealing naked awareness devoid of dualistic fixation. To recognize this view through the oral instructions of one's master and to sustain it uninterruptedly throughout all aspects of life is the very essence of Dzogchen practice.[Primer] [RY]

Trekchö (khregs chod). 'Cutting through' the stream of delusion, the thoughts of the three times, by revealing naked awareness devoid of dualistic fixation. To recognize this view through the oral instructions of one's master and to sustain it uninterruptedly throughout all aspects of life is the very essence of Dzogchen practice. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Trekchö; and Thögal;, (khregs chod; and thod rgal). The practices of cutting through the solidity of clinging and of direct vision, these two relating respectively to primordial purity (ka dag) and spontaneous accomplishment (lhun grup). [MR]

Tri Changchup Chöpel Rinpoche (khri byang chub chos 'phel, 1756-1838), the first Trijang Rinpoche, and the sixty-ninth holder of the throne of Ganden. He became tutor of the ninth Dalai Lama. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tri Gya, the Hundred Instructions; (khrid brgya), one hundred meditative instructions from all traditions collected and arranged by Jonang Jetsün Kunga Drolchog, 1507-1566. (Can be found in the gdams ngag mdzod, vol.18) [MR]

Tri Ralpachen (khri ral pa can). See Ralpachen. [ZL] [RY]

triangular "red-torma" as a basis for the visualisation of Singhamukha, encircled by four tormas the same as itself and by dough triangles. This red torma, which is traingular and comes to a point at the tip, like an elongated pyramid, and is known as a "sharp-pointed red torma" (dmar-gtor rtse-rno), and is also known as a "Tun-tor" (thun-gtor "magic-weapon torma") as opposed to the "blunt-ended" red tormas. [Peter Roberts]

Trichiliocosm {stong gsum gyi stong chen po 'jig rten gyi 'khams}. Three-thousandfold universe. [RY]

Trident. [Daki] [RY]

Tridey Tsugten (khri lde gtsug rten). [ZL] [RY]

trikaya (sku gsum; three bodies) The three bodies of buddhahood. The dharmakaya (chos kyi sku; [RY]

Trikaya Guru (sku gsum bla ma). Literally, the master of the three bodies; the master who is the embodiment of dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya. In the context Lamey Tukdrub Barchey Kunsel, it can also refer to the gurus of the three kayas, i.e. Amitabha as the dharmakaya, Avalokiteshvara as the sambhogakaya, and Padmakara as the nirmanakaya. [RY]

Trilogy of Commentaries by Bodhisattvas (sems 'grel skor gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Trinley Drodul Tsal (phrin las 'gro 'dul rtsal). Another name of Chokgyur Lingpa [RY]

Trinley Nyingpo (phrin las snying po). The Essence Practice. The short version of the guru sadhana of Barchey Kunsel. [RY]

Tripitaka - The three collections of the Buddha's tea [RY]

Tripitaka - The three collections of the Buddha's teachings: Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma, with Tantra sometimes regarded as a fourth pitaka. [Tarthang]

Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of teachings; vinaya, sutra, and abhidharma. [RY]

Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni: Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma. Their purpose is the development of the three trainings of discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge while their function is to remedy the three poisons of desire, anger and delusion. The Tibetan version of the Tripitaka fills more than one hundred large volumes, each with more than 600 pages. [ZL] [RY]

Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni: Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma. Their purpose is the development of the three trainings of discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge while their function is to remedy the three poisons of desire, anger and delusion. The Tibetan version of the Tripitaka fills more than one hundred large volumes, each with more than 600 large pages. In a wider sense all of the Dharma, both Sutra and Tantra, is contained within the three collections and three trainings. To paraphrase Khenpo Ngakchung in his Notes to the Preliminary Practices for Longchen Nyingtig: "The three collections of Hinayana scriptures, namely Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma, respectively express the meaning of the training in discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge. The teachings describing the details of precepts for the bodhisattva path belong to the Vinaya collection while the meaning expressed by these scriptures are the training in discipline. The sutras expressing the gateways to samadhi are the Sutra collection while their expressed meaning, reflections on precious human body and so forth, are the training in concentration. The scriptures on the sixteen or twenty types of emptiness are the Abhidharma collection while their expressed meaning is the training in discriminating knowledge. Scriptures expounding the details of the samayas of Vajrayana are the Vinaya collection while their expressed meaning is the training in discipline. The scriptures teaching the general points of development and completion belong to the Sutra collection, while their expressed meaning is the training in samadhi. All the scriptures expressing the Great Perfection belong to the Abhidharma collection, while their expressed meaning is the training in discriminating knowledge."[AL] [RY]

Tripitaka (Three Collections) (sde snod gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Tripitaka {sde snod gsum}. The three collections of the Buddhist teachings, Vinaya {'dul ba}, Sutra {mdo}, and Abhidharma {mngon pa}. [RY]

Tripitaka. [Daki] [RY]

Tripitaka: the three baskets of Vinaya, Sutra and Abhidharma. The are all included in the Tibetan canonical collection called Kangyur (bka' 'gyur). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tripitaka; expl.; see also 'Three Collections'; [LWx] [RY]

Triple Gem - the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. [RY]

Triple Gem (tri ratna, dkon mchog gsum). The Buddha, Dharma and Sangha Refuges. [RY]

Triple Refuge (skyabs gnas gsum). Same as the Three Jewels. [RY]

triple sangha [LWx] [RY]

Triple-storied Central Temple (dbu rtse rigs gsum) / (rim gsum). The central structure at the temple complex of Samye. [ZL] [RY]

Triple-vow vajra-holder (sdom gsum rdo rje 'dzin pa). A master who can keep the vows of each of the three vehicles simultaneously and without conflict. [RY]

triplistic conceptualisation. The conceptualisation of subject, action and object. Dualistic conceptualisation being that of subject and object, or self and other. [Peter Roberts]

Trisang Lhalö (khri bzang lha lod). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]

Trisang Yablhag (khri bzang yab lhag). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]

Trishö Gyalmo (khri shod rgyal mo) [LW1] [RY]

Trishok Gyalmo - The Mother is the Blue Lake, Trishok Gyalmo, and her mantle is the ice that covers the lake during the winter and allows one to cross from the mainland to the islands. The holy place and the palace mentioned below refer to Tsonying Island. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Trisong Detsen: 790-844 /or 718 (Buton) or 730 (in Bee kar) [MR]

Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche. [RY]

Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. Panditas and lotsawas translated many texts, and large numbers of practice centers were established. [RY]

Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. In The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, Jamgön Kongtrül date Trisong Deutsen as being born on the eighth day of the third month of spring in the year of the Male Water Horse (802). Other sources state that year as his enthronement upon the death of his father. Until the age of seventeen he was chiefly engaged in ruling the kingdom. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. He arranged for panditas and lotsawas to translate innumerable sacred texts, and he established a large number of centers for teaching and practice. [ZL] [RY]

Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. In The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, Jamgön Kongtrül dates Trisong Deutsen as being born on the eighth day of the third month of spring in the year of the Male Water Horse (802). Other sources state that year as his enthronement upon the death of his father. Until the age of seventeen he was chiefly engaged in ruling the kingdom. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. He arranged for panditas and lotsawas to translate innumerable sacred texts, and he established a large number of centers for teaching and practice. Among his later incarnations are Nyang Ral Nyima Özer (1124-1192), Guru Chöwang (1212-1270), Jigmey Lingpa (1729-1798), and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820-1892).[AL] [RY]

Trisong Deutsen (khri srong lde'u btsan); details of [LWx] [RY]

Trisong Deutsen / Khri srong lde btsan - Tibetan Dharma king regarded as an incarnation of Manjushri; invited Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita to Tibet [RY]

Trisong Deutsen / Khri srong lde'u btsan (8th century) second great Dharma King, who invited to Tibet Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. With the aid of Shantarakshita and Padmasambhava, he built bsam yas, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri. he proclaimed Buddhism the religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. Panditas and lotsawas translated many texts, and large numbers of practice centers were established. He was succeeded by: Mu ne and Khri lde srong btsan (Sad na legs) [RY]

Trisong Deutsen. See King Trisong Deutsen [LW1] [RY]

Trisong Deutsen: 790- 844 /or 718 (Buton) or 730 (in Bee kar). [RY]

Trisong Deutsen; (790-844), (Khri srong ldeu btsan), The great dharma king who invited from India the abbot Santarakshita (tib. Shiwatso) - also known as Khanchen Bodhisatto - and Guru Padmasambhava, to build the monastery of Samye, and establish Buddhism in Tibet. He then invited one hundred and eight great Indian panditas, led by Vimalamitra, to translate all the Buddhist scriptures into Tibetan, together with the same number of Tibetan panditas led by Vairotsana. With the other of the twenty five main disciples of Guru Rinpoche he received the first empowerment given by Guru Rinpoche in Tibet, at Samye Chimphu. Later, he took successive rebirths as many great saints and tertöns, among them Rigdzin Jigme Lingpa himself, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. [MR]

Trisong Deutsen; initiation name [LWx] [RY]

Trodrel (spros bral). The second stage in the practice of Mahamudra. [RY]

TRÖMA NAGMO (khros ma nag mo). A wrathful black form of the female buddha Vajra Yogini. Tröma Nagmo means 'Black Lady of Wrath.'[AL] [RY]

True all-ground of application (sbyor ba don gyi kun gzhi). [RY]

True Dharma, sad-dharma, (dam chos). The Law of the Buddhas. [RY]

True Goal, bhuta-koti, (yang dag pa'i mtha'). Ultimate Truth, Emptiness. [RY]

True Image Mind-Only School (sems tsam rnam bden pa). [RY]

True Image Mind-Only School of Equal Number Perceiver and Perceived (bzung 'dzin grangs mnyam sems tsam rnam bden pa). [RY]

True Joy (mngon par dga' ba). The pure realm of Buddha Akshobhya. [RY]

True luminosity (don gyi 'od gsal). Same as empty luminosity. [RY]

True meaning (nges don). The definitive meaning as opposed to the expedient or relative meaning. The teachings of Prajnaparamita and the Middle Way. [RY]

True meaning (nges don). The definitive meaning as opposed to the expedient or relative meaning. The teachings of Prajnaparamita and the Middle Way. In his Treasury of Knowledge, Jamgön Kongtrül the Great defines the true /definitive meaning in the following way: The topics taught to exceptional disciples that the nature of all phenomena is profound emptiness devoid of constructs such as arising and ceasing, and, that the innate real condition of things is by nature luminos wakefulness and lies beyond words, thoughts and description. Moreover, it is the words of the Buddha expounding this meaning as well as the commentaries upon them. [RY] True Nature (dharmata, chos nyid; also gnas lugs). ditto. [RY]

True wisdom (don gyi ye shes). The wisdom which is the unity of awareness and emptiness introduced through the fourth empowerment. [RY]

Trülnang ('phrul snang). One of two important temples in Lhasa built by King Songtsen Gampo and housing a statue of Buddha Shakyamuni. [ZL] [RY]

Trulshig Senge Gyabpa:1243-1303 [MR]

Trülshik Rinpoche [LW1] [RY]

Truly high (mngon mtho) The three higher realms of humans, demigods and gods. [RY]

Truly High (mngon mtho). Refers to a rebirth in the three higher realms within samsara: humans, demigods and gods. [RY]

truth (bden pa); of cessation; four aspects of; of origin; four aspects of; of suffering; four aspects of; of the path; four aspects of [LW1] [RY]

truth of cessation [LW1] [RY]

truth of cessation; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]

truth of origin; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]

truth of suffering; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]

truth of the path; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]

Truths, the two (satya, bden). Ultimate and conventional. [RY]

Tsagong of Tsari (tsa ri tsa gong). [ZL] [RY]

Tsa-lung (rtsa rlung). Nadi and prana, the channels and energies. [RY]

Tsamchok. [RY]

Tsami Lotsawa Sangye Trak (tsa mi lo tsa ba sangs rgyas grags). Born in the eastern Tibetan province of Minyak, he travelled to India and studied with the famous pandita Abhayakara. He was acclaimed throughout India as the most learned of panditas and a fully realized mahasiddha, and was the only Tibetan ever to hold the thrones of Vajrasana and Nalanda. (See BD, IV, p.280). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsampa (rtsam pa) is a flour made of roasted barley. It is the staple food among Tibetans. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsandra Rinchen Drak (tsa 'dra rin chen brag) [LW1] [RY]

Tsandraghirti (Chandrakirti) [LW1] [RY]

Tsang (gtsang). See also Ü and Tsang; clan; province [LW1] [RY]

Tsang Khenchen (gtang mkhan chen 'jam dbyangs dpal ldan rgya mtsho): 1610-1684 [MR]

Tsang Nyön Heruka (gtsang smyon he ru ka rus pa'i rgyan can): 1452-1507 [MR]

Tsangma Shangton (founder of Sagpa line of Shangpa Kagyu): 1234-1309 [MR]

Tsangpa Gyare (gtsang pa rgya ras ye shes rdo rje): 1161-1211 [MR]

Tsangpa Gyarey (gtsang pa rgya ras) (1161-1211). Early master in the Drukpa Kagyü lineage, also known as Yeshe Dorje (ye shes rdo rje). Chief disciple of Lingje Repa and founder of Druk Gönpa after which Drukpa Kagyü got its name. It was during his time that a saying appeared, "Half the people are Drukpas, half the Drukpas are mendicant beggars, and half the mendicants are siddhas."[EMP] [RY]

Tsangpa Lhai Metok, 'divine flower of Brahma.' (tshangs pa lha'i me tog). Name of King Trisong Deutsen [Daki] [RY]

Tsangpa Lhayi Metok. See King Trisong Deutsen [LW1] [RY]

Tsangpo (gtsang po), Skt. Brahmaputra. The river flowing by Samye. [ZL] [RY]

Tsangsar Chimey Dorje (tshang gsar 'chi med rdo rje). The father of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche and brother of Samten Gyatso. For details, see The Life and Teachings of Chokgyur Lingpa, Rangjung Yeshe Publications. [RY]

Tsangsar family. [RY]

Tsangsar Lhai Dung-gyu (tshang gsar lha'i gdung rgyud). The 'divine blood-line of the Tsangsar family which is said to originate from a deva descending on earth. [RY]

Tsangsar Lumey Dorje (tshang gsar lus med rdo rje). One of the masters in the Barom Kagyu lineage. [RY]

Tsangsar Nargon. [RY]

Tsangsar Ngaktrin Lama (gtsang gsar ngag phrin bla ma). Son of the daughter of Chokgyur Lingpa and root guru of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, also known as Samten Gyamtso. [RY]

Tsangsar Ngaktrin. [RY]

Tsangsar Sönam Yeshe. [RY]

Tsangtsen Dorje Lekpa (gtsang btsan rdo rje legs pa). [ZL] [RY]

Tsa-nyag Lama Sherab [LW1] [RY]

Tsarchen Losal Gyatso: 1502- 1565 [MR]

Tsari - The two thousand and eight hundred deities who dwell on the central mountain of Tsari, which resembles a large crystal "Stupa with Many Doors of Auspiciousness" (bkra shis sgo mang mchod rten). An explanation on how to calculate that number is given in Pema Karpo's description of Tsari. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsari - There are three levels at which one can circumambulate the holy mountain of Tsari: upper, intermediate and lower. The last one, known as Tsari Rong Khor, the Circumambulation of the Ravines of Tsari (tsari rong bskor), is exceedingly difficult and was done only once every twelve years, in the Monkey Year. Because of its blessing and rarity, this event attracted tens of thousands of pilgrims. These were confronted by many difficulties. The southern part of the pilgrimage led through low altitudes and the pilgrims had to travel under the cover of tropical forests so thick that the sky could not be seen for hours on end. The humidity, moreover, was so intense that their woollen and felt clothing, suited to the dry, cold climate of the highlands, would rot. Sometimes the pilgrims had to walk along dangerous cliffs and cross turbulent rivers on vertiginous ladders or on bridges made from the slippery trunks of trees. Another danger came from the savage Lhopa tribes scattered throughout the forest, who would attack unaccompanied travelers with poisoned arrows, and often kill them. In an attempt to prevent such incidents, every twelve years, the Tibetan government would send up to a hundred loads of gifts and offer incentives to the Lhopas to pacify them while the pilgrimage was taking place. After an agreement had been reached, a swearing ceremony was held (See House of the Turquoise Roof, pp.90-91, summarized below). A gate made of bamboo was erected and the meat of two freshly killed yaks was tied to the post on each side. The Lhopas' representatives would show their good faith by passing under the gate. In passing, each Lhopa would cut a small piece of raw meat from one the carcasses and eat it. But even then they could not be trusted completely, and the government had to send soldiers to protect the pilgrims and guides to lead them on their hazardous journey. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsari Dakpa Shelri. [RY]

Tsari is a mountain in southern Tibet sacred to the deity Chakrasamvara (see chap.10). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsari is identified as both Caritra and Devikota, two of the twenty-four great sacred places described in the tantras. For an analysis of the identification of Tsari as these two sacred places, see Huber (1992, vol.2). For a summary of the guidebook to Tsari by the eight Drukchen, Chökyi Nangwa, see Filibeck (1988). There are four main gateways to the Pure Crystal Mountain of Tsari (dag pa shel ri): the eastern one is that of Manjusri; the southern, of Vajrapani; the western, of Tara; and the northern, of Avalokitesvara. According to Kunkhyen Pema Karpo (see Bibliography), the general sequence of human entry into the Tsari mandala is as follows: Guru Padmasambhava entered through the southern door and remained seven years in the Magnificent Secret Cave (zil chen gsang phug, see JK, vol. Da, p.104). Vimalamitra, too, traveled miraculously to Tsari. Lawapa (la ba pa, or Kambalapada, tenth century), a teacher of Atisha, entered through the eastern door with his disciple Bhusuku, and later departed to the Buddhafield of Khechara (mkha' spyod), without leaving his physical body behind. Kyebu Yeshe Dorje (skyes bu, also spelled skye bo, ye shes rdo rje, twelfth century, an incarnation of Nyang Ben Tingdzin Zangpo (see TN p.515), tried thrice to enter Tsari according to the prediction of Gampopa, his teacher (see JK, vol. Da, p.104). The third time, Yeshe Dorje was able to enter through the western door and reached the Turquoise Lake (g.yu mtsho). He also opened the door to the Lake of the Black Mandala (mtsho mandal nag po), in Dagpo; there, together with Gampopa, he concealed as terma the Teaching on Mind, the Wish-fulfilling Gem (sems khrid yid bzhin nor bu). Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje (gtsang pa rgya ras ye shes rdo rje, 1161-1211, not to be confused with Kyebu Yeshe Dorje) went to Tsari, following a prediction given to him in a vision by Gyalwa Lorepa (rgyal ba lo ras pa, 1187-1250). After Tsangpa Gyare had opened the door of the sacred place he had a vision at the Turquoise Lake Palace, in which Chakrasamvara told him, "You will become the Buddha known as The Young Aspirant (chung mos pa), the youngest of the 1002 Buddhas of this kalpa, and your teachings will spread far and wide from here, to the distance of eighteen days of an vulture's flight." Drigung Jigten Gonpo ('jig rten mgon po, 1143-1217) sent to Tsari first three of his main disciples, headed by Nyö Gyalwa Lhanangpa (gnyos rgyal ba lha nang pa), and then a great number of hermits (see chap. 11, note 10). Finally Sonam Gyaltsen (bsod nams rgyal mtshan), from Ralung, entered through the northern door. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsari-like Jewel Rock. [RY]

Tsarong (tsha rong): this noble family, whose estate was near Sakya, descends from the famous Tibetan physician, Yuthok Yontan Gonpo. (See Petech, 1973, pp.134-8) [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsasum Drildrub (rtsa gsum sgril sgrub) [LW1] [RY]

Tsa-tsa (tshva tshva). A small clay image of a buddha stamped from a mold. [RY]

tsa-tsa [LW1] [RY]

Tsa-tsas are small stupas molded in clay or other material. When made for the sake of a dead person, funeral ashes are mixed with the clay, and later the tsa-tsas are deposited in holy places or in a clean natural environment. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsawa Ridge [LW1] [RY]

Tsechik (rtse gcig). The first stage in the practice of Mahamudra. [RY]

Tsechok Ling Yongdzin Pandita Kachen Yeshe Gyaltsen (tshe mchog gling yong 'dzin bka' chen ye shes rgyal mtshan, 1713-1793), a learned and accomplished sage who lived most of his life as a renunciate and was the founder of Samten Ling Monastery in Kyirong. he was, as well, the tutor of the eighth Dalai Lama, Jampel Gyatso ('jam dpal rgya mtsho, 1758-1804). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsechu Cham. [RY]

Tsedrub Dorje Trengwa. [RY]

Tsegyal. [RY]

Tsegyeh Gonpa (rtse brgyad dgon pa), the only monastery on the banks of Rakkas Tal Lake. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsele Natsog Rangdrol (1608-?) [MR]

Tsele Natsok Rangdröl (rtse le sna tshogs rang grol). (b. 1608) Important master of the Kagyü and Nyingma schools. He is also the author of Mirror of Mindfulness and Lamp of Mahamudra, both Shambhala Publications. [ZL] [RY]

Tseleh Rinpoche. Tseleh Rinpoche: (rtse-le sna-tshogs rang-grol) Tseleh Natsok Rangdrol (born 1608), was one of Rigdzin Jatson Nyingpo's principal pupils. Works by him presently available in English are "The Lamp of Mahamudra" and "The Mirror of Mindfulness". [Peter Roberts]

Tsemang of Denma (ldan ma rtse mang). Important early Tibetan translator of the Tripitaka. Extremely well-versed in writing, his style of calligraphy is continued to the present day. Having received transmission of Vajrayana from Padmasambhava, he had realization and achieved perfect recall. He is said to be the chief scribe who wrote down many termas including the Assemblage of Sugatas connected to the Eight Sadhana Teachings. [ZL] [RY]

Tsemon Ling Ngawang Tsultrim regent until his death 1791 [MR]

TSEN (btsan). A type of evil spirit.[AL] [RY]

tsen [LW1] [RY]

Tsen spirits (btsan). [ZL] [RY]

Tsenthang temple in Yarlung (yar klung btsan thang gi lha khang). [ZL] [RY]

Tsering Yangtso. [RY]

Tseringma. [RY]

Tseten Dorje ovethrows the Rinpungpa, begins the 76 years rule of the Tsangpas: 1566 [MR] Tsewang Chokdrub Palbar (tshe dbang mchog grub dpal 'bar). The name of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche. [RY]

Tsewang Chokdrub Palbar; See Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche [LW1] [RY]

Tsewang Drakpa (tshe dbang grags pa). Son of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]

Tsewang Drakpa [LW1] [RY]

Tsewang Norbu (tshe dbang nor bu). Son of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]

Tsewang Norbu [LW1] [RY]

Tsewong Norbu. (tshe dbang nor bu) Holder of the Khatok Nyingma lineage, eighteenth century. [Peter Roberts]

Tsi Temple (rtsis kyi lha khang). [ZL] [RY]

Tsibri of Gyal (rgyal gyi rtsib ri). [ZL] [RY]

Tsikey Monastery [LW1] [RY]

Tsilung (rtsis lung). [ZL] [RY]

Tsimara. [RY]

Tsitta Sangphuk. [RY]

Tso Mapham (mtsho ma pham); same as Lake Manarasovar [LW1] [RY]

Tsogdruk Rangdrol (tshogs drug rang grol). 'Self-liberated six collections' of cognitions. It is also the name of Lama Shabkar. [RY]

Tsognyi Rinpoche (grub dbang tshogs gnyis): 1789-1844 [MR]

Tsogyal (mtsho rgyal). Also known as Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the close disciple of Guru Rinpoche who compiled the major part of his teachings. [RY]

TSOGYAL (mtsho rgyal). See under 'Yeshe Tsogyal.'[AL] [RY]

Tsogyal (mtsho rgyal). See Yeshe Tsogyal. [ZL] [RY]

Tsogyal. See Yeshe Tsogyal [LW1] [RY]

Tsokye Nyingtig (mtsho skyes snying thig); secret sadhana (gsang sgrub) [LW1] [RY]

Tsong-kha-pa - Fifteenth century founder of dGe-lugs-pa school. [Tarthang]

Tsongkhapa - The twenty-fifth of the tenth lunar month is the anniversary of Je Tsongkhapa's nirvana. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsongkhapa / (tsong kha pa) – (1357-1419) Fifteenth century founder of dGe lugs pa school [RY]

Tsongkhapa: [MR]

Tsopema. [RY]

Tsuglag Trengwa (gtsug la 'phreng ba) (1504-1566). The Second Pawo Rinpoche. Disciple of the Mikyö Dorje, the eighth Karmapa, known for his writings on astrology and religious history.[EMP] [RY]

Tsuklag Chokyi Gyalpo. [RY]

tsulpas (tshul pa) were local people from Tsari villages outside the Ravines, who used to help the pilgrims going to Tsari. They would set rest houses (tshul khang) along the pilgrimage route and provide the pilgrims with water and fuel, but rarely provisions. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tsultrim Nyima. [RY]

Tsurphu (tshur phu). The seat of H.H. the Karmapa in Tolung, Central Tibet. [RY]

Tsurphu [LW1] [RY]

Tsurphu. [RY]

TUKDRUB BARCHEY KÜNSEL (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). A cycle of teachings revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa together with Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo consisting of about ten volumes of texts. Belong to the principle of Guru Vidyadhara. For details, see foreword to The Great Gate (Rangjung Yeshe Publ.). Tukdrub means 'Heart practice,' Barchey Künsel means 'dispeller of all obstacles.'[AL] [RY]

Tukdrub Barchey Kunsel (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). See 'Barchey Kunsel.' [RY]

Tukdrub Barchey Künsel (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel); see also 'Four Cycles of Guru Sadhana'; [LWx] [RY]

Tukdrub Barchey Künsel. See Barchey Künsel [LW1] [RY]

Tukdrub Barchey Künsel; [LWx] [RY]

Tukdrub Deshek Dupa. [RY]

Tukdrub Gongpa Kundu. [RY]

Tukdrub Sampa Lhundrup. [RY]

Tukdrub Yishin Norbu. [RY]

Tukdrub Yishin Norbu. See Sampa Lhündrub [LW1] [RY]

Tukdrub Yishin Norbu; Sampa Lhündrub (bsam pa lhun grub) [LW1] [RY]

Tulku (sprul sku). Literally, 'apparitional body.' Can refer to an incarnated bodhisattva who works for the welfare of sentient beings, or to the nirmanakaya manifested by a buddha. [RY]

Tulku (sprul sku). Nirmanakaya. Can refer to an incarnated bodhisattva who works for the welfare of sentient beings, or to the nirmanakaya manifested by a buddha.[Primer] [RY]

Tulku Chokyi Nyima. [RY]

Tulku Jigmey Khyentse [LW1] [RY]

Tulku Jigmey. [RY]

Tulku Pema Wangyal [LW1] [RY]

Tulku Thondup [LW1] [RY]

Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche (sprul sku o rgyan rin po che). A contemporary master of the [[Kagyü] and [[Nyingma lineage]s, who lives at Nagi Gompa in Nepal. [AL] [RY]

Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, expl. of his lineage for Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo [LW1] [RY]

Tulku Urgyen Tsewang Chokdrup Rinpoche (sprul sku u rgyan tshe dbang mchog grub rin po che). The long name of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche. [RY]

Tulku Urgyen. [RY]

Tulku Urgyen: 1919- [MR]

Tumi Sambhota [LW1] [RY]

Tummo - One of the Six Yogas, tummo (gtum mo), which corresponds to the Sanskrit candali, means literally the "wild one." It refers to the practice of the inner heat, which is related to the mastery of the spiritual channels, energies and essences (rtsa, rlung, and thig le). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tummo (gtum mo, chandali). A practice to develop inner heat and bliss to consume obscurations and realize emptiness. One of the Six Doctrines of Naropa.[Primer] [RY]

Tummo (gtum mo, chandali). One of the Six Doctrines of Naropa. [RY]

Tummo / gTum mo ()- practice to develop the mystic inner heat in one type of tantric yoga. [RY]

Tun-huang - The eastern terminus of the silk Route; location of extensive Buddhist cave temples and site of important manuscript finds [RY]

Turfan - Ancient Buddhist center in Central Asia; location where many Buddhist manuscripts were found [RY]

Turning the Wheel of Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo skor ba). Figurative expression for giving Dharma teachings. [RY]

Turquoise Lion Lake (seng ge g.yu mtsho). [RY]

Turquoise Roof Bridge (g.yu thog zam pa), a famous bridge in Lhasa erected by Yutok Yönten Gönpo, the famous luminary of Tibetan medicine. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Tushita (dga' ldan). 'The Joyous', n. of the Pure Land of the thousand Buddhas of this aeon, inhabited only by Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. [RY]

Tushita [LW1] [RY]

Tushita Heaven (dga' ldan). The heavenly realm in which lord Maitreya resides awaiting his appearance in this world as the next buddha. [RY]

Tutelary deity (thugs dam), (yi dam). Enlightened deity on whom one's Tantric practice is centered. [RY]

Tutob Namgyal [LW1] [RY]

Twelve acts of Buddha Shakyamuni (mdzad pa bcu gnyis). According to NG 61: 1) Descending from Tushita Heaven, ('pho ba)., 2) Entering the mother's womb, (lhum zhugs)., 3) Taking birth, (bltams pa)., 4) Becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess, (bzo dang)., 5) Enjoying a retinue of queens, (rol rtse)., 6) Renouncing the world, (nges 'byung)., 7) Practicing austerities and renouncing them, (dka' spyad drug)., 8) Going to the essence of awakening (Going towards the Bodhi Tree), (gshegs), 9) Defeating Mara, (bdud sde bcom)., 10) Attaining total enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree, (byang chub)., 11) Turning the Wheel of the Dharma, (chos 'khor)., 12) Departing for the ultimate peace of parinirvana, (myang 'das). [MR]

Twelve acts of Buddha Shakyamuni 1.; (mdzad pa bcu gnyis): (/second set according to Tarthang T.'s Kangyur Karchag, third set according to Namdrang Gyatso):,, 1) skye ba mngon par skye ba *** /Existence of the Bodhisattva as Svetaketu, 2) Moving /Descent ('pho ba) from Tushita, 3) Entering the womb at Kapilavistu, 4) Taking birth at Lumbini /Birth of the Bodhisattva, 5) Becoming skilled in crafts /Acts of dexterity, 6) Enjoying his retinue of queens /Life in the circle of noble women, 7) Renouncing the world /Departure from home, Kapilavistu to Vaisali, to Rajagrha, 8) Practicing austerities on the banks of Nairanjana River, 9) Going to the essence of awakening *** (byang chub snying por gshegs pa) /Victory over Mara, 10) Defeating the maras and attaining perfect enlightenment /Attaining enlightenment, 11) Turning the Wheel of Dharma /1) at Sarnath 2) at Rajagrha 3) at Vaisali and other places, 12) Departing in the Parinirvana at Kusinagara. [MR]

Twelve and a Half Happy Generations (skyid pa'i gdung rabs phyed dang bcu gsum) [LW1] [RY]

twelve ascetic virtues (sbyangs pa'i yon tan bcu gnyis), see NS, vol.2 p.169. [MR-ShabkarNotes] twelve ascetic virtues (sbyangs pa'i yon tan bcu gnyis). 1) To wear clothing found in a garbage heap (phyag dar khrod pa), 2) to own only three monastic robes (chos gos gsum pa), 3) to wear clothes and boots made of felt (phying pa ba), 4) to eat one's meal at a single sitting (stan gcig pa), 5) to live only on alms (bsod snyoms pa), 6) not to eat after midday (zas phyis mi len pa), 7) to live in secluded places (dgon pa ba), 8) to live under trees (shing drung ba), 9) to live in the open air (bla gab med pa), 10) to live in cemeteries (dur khrod pa), 11) to sleep in a sitting posture (tsog pu ba), and 12) to stay wherever one happens to be (gzhi ji bzhin pa). See TC p.2023. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

twelve aspects of ascertainment (nges 'byed bcu gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

Twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis). The twelve main divisions of the Buddhist Canon: General Discourses (mdo sde); Proclamations in Song (dbyangs su bsnyad pa); Prophecies (lung du bstan pa); Poetic Pronouncements (tshigs su bcad pa); Special Aphorisms (mched du brjod pa); Declarations (gleng gzhi); Narratives (rtogs pa brjod pa); Parables (de lta bu byung ba); Succession of Former Lives (skyes pa'i rabs); Extensive Sayings (shin tu rgyas pa'i sde); Marvels (rmad du byung ba); Established Doctrines (gtan la dbab pa). [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis); listing [LW1] [RY]

Twelve aspects of interdependence (rten 'byung yan lag bcu gnyis). The twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance, karmic formations, consciousness, name and form, six sense bases, contact, sensation, craving, grasping, becoming, birth, old age and death. [RY]

Twelve Branches of Scriptures {gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis}. They correspond to twelve types of text, which are: 1) condensed {mdo sde}, 2) melodious {dbyangs bsnyan}, 3) prophetic {lung bstan}, 4) verse {tshigs bcad}, 5) spoken with a purpose {ched brjod}, 6) conversatory {gleng gzhi}, 7) concerning his past lives {skyed rab}, 8) marvelous {rmad byung}, 9) establishing a truth {gtan babs}, 10) biographical {rtogs brjod}, 11) historical {de ltar byung}, and 12) very detailed {shin tu tgyas pa}. [RY]

Twelve buddhas of the maha ati lineage. [RY]

Twelve Deeds (mdzad pa bcu gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

twelve deeds performed by an enlightened buddha (mdzad pa bcu gnyis). 1) Descending from Tusita Heaven (dga' ldan gnas nas 'pho ba), 2) entering the womb of his mother (lhums su bzhugs pa), 3) taking birth (sku bltams pa), 4) becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess (bzo la mkhas par ston pa dang gzhon nu'i rol rtsed), 5) enjoying his retinue of queens (btsun mo'i 'khor gyis rol pa), 6) renouncing the world (rab tu 'byung ba), 7) practicing austerities and renouncing them (dka' ba spyad pa), 8) going to the Bodhi-tree (byang chub snying por gshegs pa), 9) subduing Mara (bdud btul), 10) attaining full enlightenment (mngon par sangs rgyas pa), 11) turning the Wheel of the Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo bskor), 12) passing into the ultimate peace beyond suffering (Skt. parinirvana, Tib. mya ngan las 'das pa). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

twelve deeds performed by fully enlightened Buddhas (mdzad pa bcu gnyis): 1) Descending from Tushita Heaven (dga' ldan gnas nas 'pho ba). 2) Entering the womb of his mother (lhums su bzhugs pa). 3) Taking birth (sku bltams pa). 4) Becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess (bzo la mkhas par ston pa dang gzhon nu'i rol rtsed). 5) Enjoying his retinue of queens (btsun mo'i 'khor gyis rol pa). 6) Renouncing the world (rab tu 'byung ba). 7) Practicing austerities and then renouncing them (dka' ba spyad pa). 8) Going to the Bodhi-tree (byang chub snying por gshegs pa) 9) Subduing Mara (bdud btul). 10) Attaining full enlightenment (mngon par sangs rgyas pa). 11) Turning the Wheel of the Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo bskor). 12) Passing into the ultimate peace beyond suffering (Skt, parinirvana, Tib. mya ngan las 'das pa). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Twelve Kyongma Goddesses (skyong ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]

Twelve links of dependent origination (rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba). The twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance (ma rig pa) gives rise to karmic formations ('du byed), which gives rise to consciousness (rnam par shes pa), which gives rise to name and form (ming dang gzugs), which give rise to the six sense bases (skye mched drug), and so on through contact (reg pa), ('tshor ba), craving (sred pa), grasping (nye bar len pa), becoming (srid pa), birth (skye ba), and old age and death (rga shi). See also 'dependent origination.' [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Twelve Links of Dependent Origination (Skt. Pratityasamutpada, rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba) the twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance (ma rig pa) which gives rise to karmic dispositions ('du byed) which gives rise to consciousness (rnam par shes pa) which gives rise to name and form (ming dang gzugs) which give rise to the six senses (skye mched drug) which give rise to contact (reg pa) which gives rise to feeling ('tshor ba) which gives rise to craving (sred pa) which gives rise to grasping (Nye bar len pa) which gives rise to existence (Srid pa) which gives rise to birth (skye ba) which gives rise to old age and death (rga shi). [RY]

twelve links of dependent origination; in relation to the four syllables [LW1] [RY]

Twelve main aspects (gtso bo bcu gnyis) They are also called 'the twelve manifestations' (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis) They are twelve different forms of Guru Rinpoche as a 'magical net' of emanations to tame beings according to their needs. Inner cycle: 1. rgyal ba'i gdung 'dzin: east. 2. smra ba'i seng ge south: 3. skyes mchog tshul bzang: west. 4. bdud kyi gshed chen: north. Outer cycle: 5. 'dzam gling rgyan mchog: east. 6. padma 'byung gnas: south. 7. khyad par 'phags pa'i rig 'dzin: west. 8. rdzu 'phrul mthu chen: north. Intermediate directions: 9. rig 'dzin rdo rje drag rtsal: south east. 10. skal ldan 'dren mdzad: south west. 11. raksha thod phreng: north west. 12. bde chen rgyal po: north east. [RY]

Twelve main aspects (gtso bo bcu gnyis). See 'twelve manifestations' (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis). They are twelve different forms of Guru Rinpoche as a 'magical net' of emanations to tame beings according to their needs. [RY]

Twelve manifestations (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis). [RY]

Twelve qualities (yan lag bcu gnyis). The 12 aspects of the Excellent Speech of the Buddha. [RY]

twelve related causes of inner dependent origination; listing of [LW1] [RY]

Twelve sections of Sutra. These are also known as the twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis) and are the twelve main divisions of the Buddhist Canon: General Discourses (mdo sde); Proclamations in Song (dbyangs su bsnyad pa); Prophecies (lung du bstan pa); Poetic Pronouncements (tshigs su bcad pa); Special Aphorisms (mched du brjod pa); Declarations (gleng gzhi); Narratives (rtogs pa brjod pa); Parables (de lta bu byung ba); Succession of Former Lives (skyes pa'i rabs); Extensive Sayings (shin tu rgyas pa'i sde); Marvels (rmad du byung ba); Established Doctrines (gtan la dbab pa). [EMP] [RY]

twelve sense bases. See also aggregates, elements, and sense bases; listing of [LW1] [RY]

Twelve sense-bases (skye mched bcu gnyis). The five senses and the mental faculty, and the five sense objects and mental objects. [RY]

twelve sense-bases. The five senses and the mental faculty, and the five sense objects and mental objects.[Primer] [RY]

Twelve Tenma Goddesses (brtan ma bcu gnyis). Important female protectors of the Nyingma lineage, semi-mundane semi-wisdom protectors. [ZL] [RY]

Twelve times one hundred qualities (yon tan brgya phrag bcu gnyis). At the level of the first bodhisattva bhumi one is able to simultaneously manifest one hundred nirmanakayas for the benefit of beings. There are eleven other such sets of one hundred abilities. See the Abhisamayalamkara by Maitreya. [RY]

twelve times one hundred qualities [LW1] [RY]

Twelve Yama Goddesses (ya ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]

Twelvefold Kilaya Tantra (ki la ya bcu gnyis). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Tantras with similar titles are found in Vol. DZA and HA of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]

Twenty (nyi shu pa) [LW1] [RY]

Twenty defects of bustle ('du rdzi'i skyon gsum). The Sutra Requested by Superior Intention says: "Maitreya, there are twenty defects of bustle. What are these twenty? Maitreya, they are no to have controlled one's body, not to have controlled one's speech, not to have controlled one's mind,to have great desire, to have great hatred, to have great dullness, to be tainted by mundane conversation, to have completely strayed away from supramundane conversation, to associate with people who do not respect the Dharma, to have fully cast away the Dharma, to consequently be harmed by the maras, to associate with people who are careless, to be careless oneself, to be dominated by conception (rtog pa) and discernment (dpyod pa), to completely stray away from great learning, to fail to achieve shamatha and vipashyana, to fail quickly to become brahmacharin, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Buddha, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Dharma, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Sangha. Maitreya, these twenty should be understood as the defects of taking delight in bustle. A bodhisattva after having applied examination will take delight in solitude and never become completely saddened. [RY]

twenty defects of distraction [LW1] [RY]

twenty subsidiary disturbances [LW1] [RY]

Twenty Thousand (nyi khri) [LW1] [RY]

Twenty Thousand [verses of Prajnaparamita]. (nyi khri) [RY]

Twenty Verses; Vimshatika-karika; (nyi shu pa'i rab tu byed pa); Vasubandhu, 4th or 5th century. [PK] [RY]

twenty-eight ishvaris [LW1] [RY]

Twenty-eight shvari goddesses (dbang phyug ma nyer brgyad). Wrathful emanations of the four female gate keepers among the 42 peaceful deities in the mandala of Magical Net; seven for each of the four activities. [ZL] [RY]

Twenty-five disciples. [RY]

Twenty-five great sacred places. [RY]

Twenty-five Main Disciples of Padmasambhava (rje 'bangs nyer lnga)- in various lists these include Vairotsana; Mandarava; Ye shes mTsho rgyal; rGyal ba mchog dbyangs; Nam mkha'i snying po;dPal gyi seng ge; ye shes dbyangs; Ye shes sde; dPal gyi rdo rje; Khri srong lde'u btsan; mKhar chen dpal gyi *dbang phyug; gYu sgra snying po; dPal gyi seng ge; rMa rin chen mchog; Sangs rgyas ye shes; rdo rje bdud 'joms; rGyal ba blo gros; lDan ma rtse mang; sKa ba dPal brtsegs; 'O bran dbang phyug; Jnanakumaravajra; Sog po lHa dpal gzhon nu; Lang gro dKon mchog 'byung gnas; rGal ba byang chub; Dran pa nam mkha' dbang phyug; Khye'u chung mKha' lding; Cog ru Klu'i rgyal mtshan; Ting nge 'dzin bzang po. [RY]

Twenty-five Panditas (mkhas pa nyer lnga). 25 masters in the Dzogchen lineage from Garab Dorje to Guru Rinpoche, Vimalamitra and Vairocana who brought these teachings to Tibet. [RY]

twenty-five qualities of fruition; listing of [LW1] [RY]

Twenty-five tantras (rgyud nyi shu rtsa lnga). Dzogchen tantras belonging to the Mind Section and possibly also the Space Section, taught by Shri Singha to Vairotsana and Lekdrub. Listed in Chapter Fourteen. [ZL] [RY]

Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen kyi rgyud nyi shu rtsa lnga). twenty-five tantras, belonging to the Mind Section and possibly also the Space Section, taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. Listed in Chapter 14. [ZL] [RY]

twenty-four great sacred places (gnas chen nyer gzhi). According to the Hevajra Tantra (see Snellgrove, 1959, 1:70) these are: Jalandhara, Oddiyana, Paurnagiri, Kamarupa, Malaya, Sindhu, Nagara, Munmuni, Karunyapataka, Devikota, Karmarapataka, Kulata, Arbuta, Godavari, Himadri, Harikela, Lampaka, Kani, Saurasta, Kalinga, Kokana, Caritra, Kosala, and Vindhyakaumarapaurika. Other sources, such as the sadhana (sgrub thabs) of the Queen of Great Bliss (yum bka' bde chen rgyal mo) from the Longchen Nyingthig (see Tulku Thondup, 1985), give a different enumeration of these twenty-four sacred places. They abide on the vajra-body inherent in every sentient being, which is symbolized here by the body of Vajrayogini. These twenty-four are divided in three groups: a) Eight celestial abodes (Skt. khagacharya, Tib. mkha' spyod): 1) The crown of the head is Jalandhara, 2) in between the eyebrows is Pulliramalaya, 3) the nape is Arbuta, 4) the urna (the hair at the center of the forehead) is Rameshvara, 5) the right ear is Oddiyana, 6) the left ear is Godavari, 7) the eyes are Devikota, and 8) the shoulders are Malava. b) Eight earthly abodes (Skt. gocharya, Tib. sa spyod): 9) the throat is Lampaka, 10) the underarms and kidneys are Kamarupa, 11) the two breasts are Odra, 12) the navel is Trishanku, 13) the nose-tip is Koshala, 14) the palate is Kalinga, 15) the heart is both Kanchika and 16) Himalaya (Himavat). c) Eight underground abodes (Skt. bhugarbha, Tib. sa 'og gi gnas brgyad), 17) the genitals are Pretapuri, 18) the anus is Grihadeva, 19) the thumbs and big toes are Maru, 20) the thighs are Saurashtra, 21) the calves are Suvarnadvipa, 22) the sixteen other fingers and toes are Nagara, 23) the knees are Kulata, and 24) the ankles are Sindhu. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

twenty-four major places (gnas chen nyer bzhi) [LW1] [RY]

Twenty-one Adepts (mkhas pa nyer gcig). Masters of the Mind Section and Space Section of Dzogchen. [RY]

Twenty-one Chogdungs (cog brdung nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]

Twenty-one Genyen (dge bsnyen nyi shu rtsa gcig). A group of powerful spirits indigenous to Tibet. They were converted by Padmasambhava are commanded to serve Buddhism. Today, they are still called upon along with Nyenchen Tanglha and Machen Pomra during Vajrayana rituals in order to guard the doctrine of the Buddha, elevate the status of the Precious Ones, expand the community of the Sangha, increase the life and splendor of the practitioners, raise the banner of fame, blow the conch of renown, and increase our following and prosperity. [ZL] [RY]

Twenty-one Male and Female Yakshas (gnod sbyin pho mo nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]

Twenty-one Mother Deities (ma mo nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]

twice-born - Birds are said to be "twice-born," because they are "born" first in an egg and then a second time from the egg. Similarly, religious practitioners are "twice-born," having had both bodily and spiritual births. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Twin Buddhas (sangs rgyas kyi zhal skyin mched) [LW1] [RY]

Twin Buddhas (sangs rgyas kyi zhal skyin mched) means the representatives of the Buddha; the two Jowo Shakyamuni statues in Lhasa. [RY]

Two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit and of wisdom. [RY]

Two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit with concepts and the accumulation of wisdom beyond concepts. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

TWO ACCUMULATIONS (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit with concepts and the accumulation of wisdom beyond concepts. [AL] [RY]

two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulations of merit (bsod nams) and wisdom (ye shes), which lead to the realization of the two bodies or kayas of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

two accumulations [LW1] [RY]

two accumulations of merit and wisdom (bsod nams and ye shes kyi tshogs) lead respectively to the realization of the two kayas, the dharmakaya (chos sku, absolute body) and the rupakaya (gzugs sku, manifested body) of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Two accumulations of merit and wisdom (bsod nams dang ye shes kyi tshogs). [RY]

two benefits (don gnyis). The present and ultimate benefit of self and others. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

two bodies or kayas (sku gnyis). The dharmakaya (chos kyi sku), or absolute body, and the rupakaya (gzugs kyi sku), or body of form. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Two Chariots (shing rta gnyis); listing; of bodhisattva precepts [LW1] [RY]

two congregations of the Sangha (dge bdun gyi sde gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

two crowned buddhas (jo bo rnam gnyis). The Jowo Rinpoche (jo bo rin po che), or Jowo Sakyamuni, which is in the Jokhang, the main temple of Lhasa (also known as ra sa 'phrul snang gtsug lag khang); and the Jowo Mikyö Dorje (jo bo mi bskyod rdo rje), which is kept in the temple of Ramoche (ra mo che). These statues, the most venerated in Tibet, were brought to Lhasa by the two wives of Songtsen Gampo, the Nepalese princess Bhrikuti (Tib. lha gcig khri btsun), who founded the Jokhang, and the Chinese princess Wengchen Kungchu, who founded Ramoche. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Two Jamgöns. [RY]

Two kayas (sku gnyis). Dharmakaya and Rupakaya. [RY]

Two kayas (sku gnyis). Dharmakaya realized for the benefit of self and rupakaya manifested for the welfare of others. [RY]

two kayas [LW1] [RY]

two kinds of self-entity (bdag gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

two obscurations (sgrib gnyis). The obscuration of disturbing emotions and the cognitive obscuration. [AL] [RY]

two obscurations; listing of [LW1] [RY]

Two profound stages (zab mo'i rim pa gnyis). The development stage and the completion stage. [RY]

Two rupakayas (gzugs sku gnyis). Sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. [RY]

Two sections of the sangha (sde gnyis). Refers to monks and ngakpas. [RY]

Two Segments (brtag gnyis), the king of the Sarma Tantras, [RY]

Two Segments (brtag gnyis). The condensed version of the Hevajra Tantra.[EMP] [RY]

Two Segments (brtags pa gnyis pa) [LW1] [RY]

Two stages (rim gnyis). See 'development stage' and 'completion stage.' [ZL] [RY]

Two stages (rim gnyis). The development stage (bskyed rim) during which one visualizes deities and recites their mantras, followed by the completion stage (rdzogs rim), with or without formal representations. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

two stages. See development and completion [LW1] [RY]

two supreme ones (mchog gnyis). Nagarjuna and Asanga, two among the Six Ornaments of the World. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Two supreme shravakas (nyan thos mchog gnyis). Shariputra and Maudgalaputra. Two close disciples of Buddha Shakyamuni. [RY]

Two Truths (bden gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

two truths (bden pa gnyis). Absolute truth and relative truth. Absolute truth (don dam bden pa) is beyond concepts and definitions. Relative truth (kun rdzob bden pa) is considered as deceptive and devoid of any true existence; or, according to the Mantrayana, as the display of innate wisdom, the infinite purity of all phenomena. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Two truths (bden pa gnyis). Relative truth and ultimate truth. Relative truth describes the seeming, superficial and apparent mode of all things. Ultimate truth describes the real, true and unmistaken mode. These two aspects of reality are defined by the Four Philosophical Schools as well as the tantras of Vajrayana in different ways, each progressively deeper and closer to describing things as they are. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

TWO TRUTHS (bden pa gnyis). Relative truth and ultimate truth. Relative truth describes the seeming, superficial and apparent mode of all things. Ultimate truth describes the real, true and unmistaken mode. These two aspects of reality are defined by the Four Philosophical Schools as well as the tantras of Vajrayana in different ways, each progressively deeper and closer to describing things as they are. [AL] [RY]

two truths; definition [LW1] [RY]

two types of potential (rigs gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

two types of potential (rigs gnyis); explanation in terms of ground, path and fruition [LWx] [RY]

two vehicles; causal and resultant [LW1] [RY]

two veils (sgrib gnyis) which prevent one from achieving enlightenment are the veil created by the obscuring emotions, and the veil masking ultimate knowledge. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

two veils (sgrib gnyis). The veil created by the obscuring emotions (nyon mongs pa'i sgrib), and the veil masking ultimate knowledge (shes bya'i sgrib). They prevent one from achieving enlightenment. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

two waters and the five enjoyments. The "two waters and five enjoyments" are the usual shrine offerings of bowls, two containing water (one for the mouth and one for the feet), and the five enjoyments are flowers, incense, light, scent and food. The light is usually a metal oil-lamp without a bowl, and an extra bowl is added sometimes to represent flowers as a boundary marker, though Thrangu Rinpoche says that is not necessary here. This extra bowl is often misinterpreted as being the music offering, while in fact the actual musical instruments that one plays fulfill that purpose. [Peter Roberts]

twofold egolessness [LW1] [RY]

Twofold knowledge (mkhyen pa gnyis). The wisdom of knowing the nature as it is and the wisdom of perceiving all that exists. Knowledge of conventional and ultimate phenomena. [RY] twofold purity (dag pa gnyis) [LW1] [RY]

Twofold purity (dag pa gnyis). Inherent or primordial purity and the purity of having removed all temporary obscurations. [RY]

Twofold selflessness (bdag med gnyis). The inherent absence of a self-entity in the individual person as well as in all phenomena. [RY]

Twofold siddhis (dngos grub rnam gnyis). See 'supreme and common siddhis.' [RY]

twofold thought of enlightenment (byang chub kyi sems gnyis). Bodhicitta, the thought or mind of enlightenment, is defined as the intention to achieve Buddhahood for the sake of all beings. It has two aspects, relative and absolute. The relative mind of enlightenment (kun rdzob byang chub kyi sems) is itself divided into two steps: the wish to attain ultimate perfection to become able to free all beings from suffering (smon pa'i sems bskyed), and the entry into spiritual practice in order to actualize this wish ('jug pa'i sems bskyed). The absolute mind of enlightenment (don dam byang chub kyi sems) is the realization of emptiness and the recognition that the Buddha-nature abides in every sentient being. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

twofold welfare; listing of [LW1] [RY]


The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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