Difference between revisions of "Highest Limit of Reality"

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three types of pure nirvana. See also three levels of enlightenment [LW1] [RY]
 
three types of pure nirvana. See also three levels of enlightenment [LW1] [RY]
  
three vajras - Our essence, nature and capacity are the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. They are also the three vajras — the vajra body, speech and mind of all the buddhas — which we are supposed to achieve. This real and authentic state is, in itself, empty, which is dharmakaya. Its cognizant quality, isn't that sambhogakaya? Its unconfined unity, isn't that nirmanakaya? This indivisible identity of the three kayas is called the 'essence body,' svabhavikakaya. when we have cut through karma and obscurations and habitual patterns, then the nature of the three vajras is primordially and spontaneously present already within us. Unless we had these how could we produce the three vajras. Its because the three vajras are present within the ground as the vajra body, vajra speech and vajra mind and which is primordially present in all sentient beings as well. [Primer] [RY]
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'''[[T continued - T3]]'''
 
 
three vajras (rdo rje gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
three vajras (rdo rje gsum). The three Vajras: The vajra (i.e. indestructible) body, speech and mind of Buddhahood. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
three valleys (ljong gsum), listing of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Three vehicles (theg pa gsum). Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana. [RY]
 
 
 
three vows (sdom gsum). The pratimoksa vows of the Hinayana, which concern all the lay and monastic precepts of conduct taught by Lord Buddha in the Vinaya, the Bodhisattva vows of the Mahayana, which are embodied in the generation, cultivation and preservation of the twofold thought of enlightenment, or Bodhicitta, and the samayas, which are the precepts and commitments of the Vajrayana. Samayas formalize and acknowledge the all-important bonds with one's guru, one's fellow disciples and one's practice. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Three Vows (sdom pa gsum) are the Pratimoksha vows, the Bodhisattva precepts, and the Vajrayana samayas. See Appendix 1. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Three vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara. [RY]
 
 
 
Three vows;, (sdom gsum). The pratimoksa vows concern all the lay and monastic precepts of conduct taught by Lord Buddha in the Vinaya. The bodhisattva vows are in essence the wish to generate, cultivate and preserve the vow to dedicate all one's thoughts, words and actions solely to the benefit of others. Relatively, this means the exercise of loving kindness, compassion, and the six paramitas, ultimately leading all beings to complete enlightenment. The samaya vows are the sacramental links created when a disciple attends a spiritual master and receives from him an initiation. Although it is said that there are one hundred thousand samayas in the Mantrayana, they can be condensed into the samayas related to the body, speech and mind of the guru. [MR]
 
 
 
Three ways of pleasing the spiritual master {nyes pa gsum}, by making substantial offerings, offerings of service and offering of one's spiritual practice. [RY]
 
 
 
three wheels or activities of a buddha ('khor lo rnam gsum). The wheel of study and reflection (thos bsam); the wheel of meditation (sgom pa); and the wheel of activity (phrin las). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
three wheels or activities of a Buddha ('khor lo rnams gsum): the wheel of study and reflection (thos bsam), the wheel of meditation (sgom pa), and the wheel of activity (phrin las). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
three whites (dkar gsum). Milk, curd, and butter. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
three whites and the three sweets. The three whites are butter, curd and milk. The three sweets are honey, molasses and sugar. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
three whites are milk, curd, and butter; the three sweets are sugar, honey and molasses. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Three worlds - Meaning above the earth, on the earth, and below the earth, respectively the realms of the gods, human beings, and nagas. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Three worlds ('jig rten gsum). The three spheres of gods, humans, and nagas. [RY]
 
 
 
three worlds (khams gsum). The world of desire ('dod pa'i khams), the world of form (gzugs kyi khams), and the world of no-form (gzugs med kyi khams). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Three Yanas (theg pa gsum). The three levels of Buddhist teaching; Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana. [RY]
 
 
 
Three Yogas (rnal 'byor gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Three Yogas of Continual Practice (khyer so gsum gyi rnal 'byor). Perceiving appearances as deities and pure lands, sounds as mantra and thoughts as wisdom. [RY]
 
 
 
Three Yogas. See also Three Inner Tantras [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
three Yogas: the utpatti (generation phase), the sampanna (completion phase) and the mahasandhi (the great completion). Also known as the Mahayoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga, the names that will shortly be used for them. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
three Zurpa masters [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
three-cornered, red "glorious-food" torma, encircled by a retinue of five tormas the same as itself and by dough triangles. dpal-bshos, more commonly known as a "Paltor" ("Glorious Torma"), this one being described as red with a lotus-petal base but with a projecting sharp-edged "waist" that forms points at three corners, unlike the rounded form of the guru-torma. The Karseh Kongtrül tradition follows Tsewang Norbu's use of eight surrounding lesser tormas instead of the five in this text [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
Threefold Confidence (yid ches gsum ldan), a life story of Padmasambhava by Taranatha according to Indian sources. Tibetan title: slob dpon pad-ma'i rnam thar rgya gar lugs yid ches gsum ldan. Included by Jamgön Kongtrül in the Rinchen Terdzö, Vol. KA. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold Division of Ngari in Tö (stod mnga' ris skor gsum): According to CN, they are: 1) The Dharma Land of Mang Yul (mang yul chos kyi skor); 2) The Auspicious Bönpo Land of Guge (gu ge g.yung drung bon gi skor); and 3) The Snow Land of Purang (pu rang /spu hreng gangs kyi skor). Alternately, these three have been defined as 1) Guge Ya'i Kor (gu ge g.ya' yi skor), the Slate Land of Guge; 2) Purang Khang gi Kor (pu hrang gangs kyi skor), the Snow Land of Purang; 3) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thob chab kyi skor) the Water Land of Ruthop. According to AC, Vol I, p.3, the three divisions are: 1) Purang, Mang Yul, and Zanskar (spu hreng, mang yul, zangs dkar), making the first division; 2) Li, Gilgit, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second division; and 3) Shang Shung, Triteh and Lower Tö (zhang zhung, khri te /bri ste, stod smad), making the third division. Tö (stod) and Latö (la stod) are sometimes confused. Tö refers traditionally to the western part of Tibet at large, as opposed to U-Tsang (dbu gtsang) and Domey (mdo smad), and is the same as Ngari. Latö is the western part of Tsang and includes the districts of Nyanang (gnya' nang), Tingri (ding ri), Pungrong (spung rong), and Shelkar (shel dkar). People from Latö call themselves Töpas (stod pa), "people of Tö", which adds to the confusion, but they are not considered as such by inhabitants of Ngari. One also distinguishes North Latö (byang la stod) and South Latö (lho la stod, see TC, p. 2745), which were two of the thirteen divisions of Tibet (bod khri skor gcu sum). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
threefold equality (mnyam pa nyid gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold equality, (mnyam pa nyid gsum), means being equal to all the buddhas 1) in having perfected the accumulations, 2) in being enlightened, and 3) in accomplishing the welfare of beings. [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold Excellence (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhicitta, the excellent main part of nonconceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedication. Also called the three excellencies. [RY]
 
 
 
THREEFOLD EXCELLENCE (dam pa gsum). The excellent beginning of bodhichitta, the excellent main part without conceptualization and the excellent conclusion of dedication. Also called the three excellencies. For a detailed explanation, see Repeating the Words of the Buddha (Rangjung Yeshe Publ.).[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold faith (dad pa gsum). Admiring, yearning and trusting faith. [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold Knowledge (rig gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold miraculous actions (cho 'phrul rnam gsum). [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold Praise (skabs gsum pa) is a ritual text of praise in use in the Geluk tradition. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Threefold Purity ('khor gsum rnam dag). Absence of fixation on subject, object, and action. [RY]
 
 
 
threefold purity; expl. [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum) is the ripening of nature, faculty, and thought (khams dbang po bsam pa) or strong ripening: The nature is ripened through having trained in the Dharma and the path during many former lives. By the power of that, the faculties are ripened since the five faculties of perfection (rnam byang) have become extremely sharp. By the power of that, discriminating knowledge (shes rab) has ripened from the present intelligence (shes rab) obtained at birth. [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold ripening of disciples (gdul bya smin pa gsum). The ripening of nature, faculty, and thought (khams dbang po bsam pa). [RY]
 
 
 
Threefold vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara. [RY]
 
 
 
threefold wisdom (ye shes rnam gsum), of Ati Yoga; expl. [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Three-pronged vajra mudra {rdo rje rtse gsum kyi phyag rgya}. Mudra where the fingers are arranged in the form of a three-pronged vajra. This mudra is used while throwing out the stale breath at the beginning of the preliminary practice before each session. [RY]
 
 
 
Three-storied Three Crescents (zla gam gsum pa bang rim gsum pa). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Three-thousandfold universe (stong gsum gyi 'jig rten gyi khams). The world system of Mount Sumeru and the four continents multiplied a thousand times a thousand times a thousand, adding up to one billion. [RY]
 
 
 
Thub pa'i dbang po'i bstod pa leags bshad snying po, more well knows as rten 'brel bstod pa;, Praise to the Interdependent Links, in 58 stanzas, composed by Tsongkhapa while doing a solitary retreat at Olkha, in Central Tibet, following a dream in which he meet, Nagarjuna, Shantideva, Chandrakirti, Aryadeva and other great Indian panditas, the chief expounders of the [[Madhyamaka]] philisophy. At the end of the dream [[Buddhapalita]] stood up and blessed Tsongkhapa with a volume of his commentary on [[Madhyamakalankara]]. Following this dream Tsongkhapa achieved a high degree of understanding of the ultimate reality while reading a verse of Bhudhapalita which says that, "the self is neither different nor identical to the aggregates." The same day, Tsongkhapa wrote this praise to Lord Buddha, the Awakened One who first realized this truth. [MR]
 
 
 
Thubten Chökyi Dorje, the 5th Dzogchen Rinpoche: 1872- [MR]
 
 
 
Thukje Chenpo Gyutrul Drawa. [RY]
 
 
 
Thunder of the Drum of Brahma (tshangs pa'i rnga sgra); sambhogakaya realm of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Thunder of the Drum of Perfection. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tibet and Kham [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tibet Guide, The, by Stephen Bachelor, published by Wisdom Publications, London, 1987, pp. 466 [MR]
 
 
 
Tibet is often called the "Land to the North," referring to the prediction of Buddha Sakyamuni that his teachings would spread to the north. When passing into Parinirvana, the Buddha laid his head toward the north. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tibet, a Political History, by Tsepon, W.D. Shakabpa, Potala Publications, New York, 1984, pp.369 Potala Publications, Rm. 703, 801 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10017 USA [MR]
 
 
 
Tibet; explanation of the spiritual quality of the place [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tibetan army defeat the Chinese Emperor, and invades China upto Thranhen: 763 [MR]
 
 
 
Tibetan army defeat the Chinese Emperor, and invades China upto Thranhen: 763. [RY]
 
 
 
Tibetan Book of the Dead, The: The Great Liberation Through Hearing in the Bardo. Trns. by Franscesca Fremantle and Chögyam Trungpa, Shambhala Publications, Boston. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tibetan calendar is based on a sixty year cycle, based on twelve different animal signs combined with five elements. In addition, each year of this cycle also has a specific name of its own.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tibetan coins and measures. These measures correspond to quantities of silver and gold since banknotes were issued only at the beginning of the twentieth century. In Shabkar's times one sho (zho) was the equivalent of 3.7 g. of silver and nine sho were roughly equivalent to one sang (srang). Various Nepalese coins (called tamka, Tib. tangka, from a Muslim name) equivalent to one-and-half sho circulated in Tibet at the same value, although some were made of pure silver and some of 50 percent alloy. The issue of debased coins caused repeated conflicts with Nepal (see chap. 13, note 46). Chinese coins of fine silver equivalent to one sho were also common. The karma (skar ma) is the smallest monetary unit and is roughly equivalent to one-tenth of a sho. A che-gye (phyed brgyad) is half of a cut tanka. A dotse (rdo tshad = stone-size) is the weight, or collection of fifty sangs. A Chinese tamik (rta rmig = horse hoof) is a silver ingot cast in the shape of a horse's hoof. There are two sizes: a large one weighing 165 tolas of silver (that is, about 2 kg.) and a small one weighing about 500 gms. On the development of currency in Tibet, see Rhodes (1990). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tibetan History (bod kyi srid don rgyal rabs), by Tsepon, W.D. Shakabpa, published by Shakabpa House, Kalimpong, Indian, 1976, Vol. I and II. [MR]
 
 
 
Tibetan Schools of Buddhism - these come under the two general headings of rNying ma (the ancient ones) and gSar ma (the new ones). [RY]
 
 
 
TIDRO CAVE AT SHOTÖ (sho stod sti sgro). Sacred place of Padmasambhava and Yeshe Tsogyal near Drigung Til in Central Tibet. Opened by Padmasambhava for future practitioners, this important pilgrimage site also has hot springs with healing properties. [AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tidro Gang (ti sgro gangs) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tidro. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tiger's Nest. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tika (thig le). Essence; sphere. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tika. A commentary (esp. on another commentary). [RY]
 
 
 
Tilaka (thig le). Essence; sphere. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tilopa (10th-11th century) Naropa (active in the middle of the 11th century), Marpa (mar pa chos kyi blo gros, 1012-97) and Rechung Dorje Drakpa (ras chung rdo rje grags pa, 1084-1161) are the first patriarchs of the Kagyu Lineage. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tilopa (Skt.). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa, and father of the Kagyu lineage. [RY]
 
 
 
Tilopa (til li pa). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa and father of the Kagyü lineage. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
Tilopa. (988-1069). Indian mahasiddha, the guru of Naropa and father of the Kagyü lineage.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Tilopa: 988-1069 [MR]
 
 
 
Tilopa: 988-1069. [RY]
 
 
 
Times of decline. =Degenerate age. [RY]
 
 
 
Times, the three (dus gsum). Past, present, future. [RY]
 
 
 
Ting Od Barma (mthing 'od 'bar ma). The consort of Raksha Tötreng. [RY]
 
 
 
Tingri Langkhor (ding ri glang 'khor), which lies west of Tingri Dzong, was established in 1097 by the Indian yogin Padampa Sangye (d. 1117). See Aziz (1980). The relics and belongings of the saint were preserved there. Most of these were saved from the devastation brought on by the Cultural Revolution and are presently preserved by Dza Trulshik Rinpoche in Nepal. The Langkhor monastery, now in process of restoration, was built above the cave where Padampa meditated. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tingri Langkhor; (ding ri glang 'khor) Tingri Langkhor, which lies West of Tingri Dzong, was established in 1097 by the Indian yogin Padampa Sangye (-1117). The Langkor monastery, now in process of restoration, was built above the cave where Padampa meditated. [MR]
 
 
 
Tingshag (ting shags), tiny, thick cymbals with a high-pitched sound. They are often made of bell-metal and are mostly used in Kriya Tantra rites, water torma offering (chu gtor), and burnt offerings (gsur) made to the starving spirits. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tingting Tinglomen (ting ting ting lo sman). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tiny pearl-like relics (ring bsrel). See chap.6, note 11. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tipitaka - Pali term for the Tripitaka: Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma, with Tantra sometimes regarded as a fourth pitaka [RY]
 
 
 
Tirahuti. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tirthapuri; A sacred place with a cave blessed by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, where one can see granite rock with their embedded foot-prints. One also finds hot springs and a geyser. [MR]
 
 
 
Tirthika (mu stegs pa) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tirthika (mu stegs pa). Non-Buddhist teachers of philosophy adhering to the extreme views of eternalism or nihilism. [RY]
 
 
 
Tirthika (mu stegs). An adherent of a non-buddhist religion, esp. a Hindu, Jain or Lokyata (materialist) [RY]
 
 
 
Tirthikas (mu stegs pa). Non-Buddhist teachers of philosophy adhering to the extreme views of eternalism or nihilism.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Ti-se - Sacred mountain in western Tibet; also known as Kailasa. [Tarthang]
 
 
 
Tisey / (ti se) - Sacred mountain in western Tibet; also known as Kailash [RY]
 
 
 
Tishi Repa (ti shi ras pa). One of the masters in the Barom Kagyu lineage. [RY]
 
 
 
Tobden. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tob-yig (thob yig) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tögal (thod rgal) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing.' Dzogchen has two main sections: Trekchö and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub).[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing' or 'passing above.' Dzogchen, mahasandhi, has two main sections: trekcho and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub). [RY]
 
 
 
Tögal (thod rgal). 'Direct crossing.' Dzogchen has two main sections: Trekchö and Tögal. The former emphasizes primordial purity (ka dag) and the latter spontaneous presence (lhun grub). [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
Tögal vision (thod rgal gyi snang ba). The four 'visions' or stages of experience on the path of Tögal are 'manifest dharmata,' 'increased experience,' 'awareness reaching fullness,' and 'exhaustion of dharmas beyond concepts.' [RY]
 
 
 
Tokharia? - Central Asia Dharma language associated with the areas of Kucha and Turfan; usually divided into two branches [RY]
 
 
 
tol bu, pronounced "tolhu;" is the calf born from a dzomo (the hybrid offspring of a bull and dri, the female of the yak). The tolhu is a feeble animal, useless for domestic purposes, and is often killed or left to starve to death. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tolung Tsurphu. [RY]
 
 
 
Tölung Valley (stod lung). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tölung Valley [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tong-len (gtong len). See 'giving and taking.' [RY]
 
 
 
Torch of the Three Ways (tshul gsum sgron me) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Torch That Illuminates the Graded Path (lam rim gsal ba'i sgron me); see Appendix 5. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tori Nyenshel [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Torma (gtor ma) is a symbolic ritual object often made of flour, wood, or precious metal, which, depending on circumstances, can be visualized as an offering, as the deity, as a blessing, or as a weapon hurled against negative forces. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Torma (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
TORMA (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits. [AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Torma (gtor ma). An implement used in tantric ceremonies. Can also refer to a food offering to protectors of the Dharma or unfortunate spirits.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Torma {gtor ma}. Ritual objects in different shapes made of flour or clay which symbolize deities or offerings. [RY]
 
 
 
Torma. "continuous tormas", the "temporary tormas" and the "fixed-duration tormas". The three kinds of torma: The "continuous torma" is one that remains upon the shrine throughout the practice, either as offerings or as representations of the deity. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
tormas for the obstacle-makers. In this practice the torma offered in the preliminary practice for pacifying obstacle makers is called sha-gzugs-ma "the flesh-shape torma", which represents a bent leg, the thigh upon the ground and the foot in the air against the sole of which a butter disc is pressed. This is said to represent the leg that Padmakara manifested, while in meditation, and hurled to obstacle-makers to pacify them. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
Tossing the flower - This refers to the section of the empowerment ceremony in which one throws a flower onto the mandala to determine the meditation deity with which one has the closest karmic links or affinity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Total purity of the three concepts ('khor gsum rnam dag). Absence of fixation on subject, object and action. [RY]
 
 
 
totalities, ten (zad par bcu). See ten totalities [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tötreng Tsal (thod phreng rtsal). The secret name of Guru Rinpoche and also the long Guru Rinpoche mantra in the context of Trinley Nyingpo. [RY]
 
 
 
To-yor Nagpo (tho yor nag po). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tra Düntse (pra dun rtse). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Traditions of the Two Chariots (shing rta gnyis). See Two Chariots [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Training, threefold, tri-shiksa, (bslab pa gsum). The trainings relating to Morality, to Concentration, and to Wisdom. [RY]
 
 
 
Trainings (bslab pa). See Three Trainings [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Trak Yerpa 1.;, (brag yer pa) Drak Yerpa (brag yer pa) is the holy place of Guru Padmasambhava related to the speech aspect. In this place of great scenic beauty there are over 80 caves where many great beings from all lineages meditated. On the top are the caves of Guru Padmasambhava (brag gi yang bgrod dka') and of Yeshe Tsogyal (gsang phug). Below is Drubthop Phug (grub thob phug) the great cave where the 80 siddhas of Yerpa (Guru Padmasambhava's disciples) meditated together. There is also Lord Atisha's cave (rten 'brel phug, or Atisa'i gzim phug). There is also Dawa Phug (zla ba phug), a cave blessed by Guru Padmasambhava who left an imprint of his foot in the rock). Padampa Sangye, too, meditated in this cave. Nyima Phug (nyi ma phug) is another cave, uphill, blessed by Guru Rinpoche. Dorje Phug (rdo rje phug) is the cave where Lhalung Palkyi Dorje is said to have hid himself after assassinating King Langdarma in 842. Chögyal Phug (chos rgyal phug) is the cave where King Songtsen Gampo meditated. [RY]
 
 
 
Trak Yerpa 2. Chanag Dorje Phug (Phyag na rdo rje'i phug) comprise a serie of four south-facing caves. At the invitation of Ngok Changchup Dorje, Jowo Atisha, accompanied by Drom Tönpa, came in 1047 and taught extensively at Yerpa, and established there the second Kadampa Monastery, Yerpa Drubde (yer pa sgrub sde). At the very top of the cliff are Utse Phug (dbu rtse phug) and Pukar Rabsel (phug dkar rab gsal). [MR]
 
 
 
Trakar Taso (brag dkar rta so) between Kyirong and Dzongka (see MI) is one of the most important meditation places of Milarepa. There he spent nine, or according to others twelve, years in continuous meditation, beginning in 1083. At that location is Milarepa's cave known as the Central Citadel (dbu ma rdzong). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Trakar Taso Tulku Chökyi Wangchuk (brag dkar rta so sprul sku chos kyi dbang phyug, 1775-1837) was an influential master in the areas along the Nepal-Tibet border. He was a disciple of Trinley Dudjom Gön Nang Chöje (phrin las bdud 'joms mgon gnang chos rje, 1726-89), himself a disciple of Kathog Rigdzin Tsewang Norbu (kah thog rig 'dzin tshe dbang nor bu, 1698-1755). His reply to Shabkar's letter, as well as a reply to a second letter from Shabkar is found in Vol. Tha of Trakar Taso Tulku's Collected Writings, pp. 749-54. (Communicated by Franz-Karl Ehrhard). Shabkar's second letter, as well the letters mentioned above, is found in DOL 3, folio 88b and in TS 4, p.694. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Trakpa Choyang, Gyaltsap V: 1617-1658 [MR]
 
 
 
Traktung Pawo (khrag 'thung dpa' bo). The name of Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje. [RY]
 
 
 
Tralep Kyamgon. [RY]
 
 
 
Trambu Forest (gram bu'i tshal). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tramdruk. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tramen (phra men). Goddesses with human bodies and animal heads. 'Tramen' means 'hybrid' or
 
'alloy.' [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
tramen (phra men); eight goddesses [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tranh-nhan Ton - Vietnamese king who founded a school that sought to integrate Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian ideals [RY]
 
 
 
Tranpo Tertön Sherab Özer *(?? po gter ston shes rab 'od zer). The heart disciple of ?? [RY]
 
 
 
Transcendent Knowledge (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa), prajnaparamita. Intelligence that transcends conceptual thinking. 'Transcendent' literally means 'gone to the other shore' in the sense of having departed from 'this shore' of dualistic concepts. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
Transcendent Knowledge (shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa, prajnaparamita). Intelligence that transcends conceptual thinking. [RY]
 
 
 
Transcendent Knowledge. See Prajnaparamita, knowledge [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Transcendental actions (pha rol tu phyin pa'i spyod pa). See 'paramita.' [RY]
 
 
 
transference (pho ba); about ignorance; habitual tendency of; level of subtlety; obscuration of; tendencies for the three experiences of; three experiences of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Transference. [RY]
 
 
 
transference; about ignorance; habitual tendency of; level of subtlety; obscuration of; obscuration of ('pho sgrib); obscuration of ('pho sgrib), expl.; tendencies for the three experiences of (snang gsum 'pho ba'i bags chags); tendencies of the three experiences of (snang gsum 'pho ba'i bag chags), expl.; three experiences of [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Transformation (sprul bsgyur): a meditation practice in which a practitioner visualizes himself or herself going through all possible transformations. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Transitory collection ('jig tshogs). Refers to the continuity of the five aggregates. [RY]
 
 
 
Translated Treatises. See Tengyur [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Translated Words. See Kangyur [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Translation Temple (sgra sgyur gling). A temple at Samye. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Translator ('jig rten mig gcig). The Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word Locava [lotsawa]. [RY]
 
 
 
Translator from Langdro (lang gro lo tsa ba). One of the 25 disciples of Guru Rinpoche. [RY]
 
 
 
Transmission (dbang lung),/ (ngo sprod). 1) A name covering both empowerment and reading transmission. 2) Same as the 'pointing-out instruction.' [RY]
 
 
 
Transmission Lineages - After the Great Dharma King Ral pa can was killed by anti-Buddhist factions of the government, his brother, Glang dar ma, took the throne. During his reign, traditional studies were halted, monks forced to return to lay life, and monasteries closed. Esoteric practitioners continued secretly, and all lineages were preserved. The Vinaya transmission was maintained in the East through gYo, Rab, and dMar, Bla chen, and Klu mes, who returned to Central Tibet; the Abhidharma transmission was maintained in the East through lHa lung dPal gyi rdo rje and his disciples; the Prajnaparamita transmission was maintained through sKu ba dPal brtsegs, Cog ro Klu'i rgyal mtshan, and Ye shes sde; the Tantra transmission was maintained through gNyags Jnanakumara, gNubs chen Sangs rgyas ye shes, and the Three Zur. [RY]
 
 
 
Transmission of the Earthen Pot {rdza ma'i lung}. Name of a transmission from the Dharma of transmission. [RY]
 
 
 
Transmission of the four rivers of Secret Mantra (gsang sngags chu bo bzhi'i bka' babs) Tantra, vajra master, life and awareness. [RY]
 
 
 
Transmission of the Leather Bag {sgro ba'i lung}. Name of a transmission from the Dharma of transmission. [RY]
 
 
 
transmission, four special (bka' babs bzhi) The transmissions that Tilopa received from his four main teachers. These four transmissions were passed from Tilopa to Naropa and then to Marpa. They are the yogas of the illusory body, dream, luminosity, and candali. [Rain of Wisdom]
 
Travels of Fa-Hsien: 399-414 [MR]
 
 
 
Treasure letters (gter yig) possessing physical form are nirmanakayas. They are also speech for u [RY]
 
 
 
treasure letters (gter yig). See also dakini script [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Treasure lineages (gter brgyud). The transmission of teachings, hidden as treasures, to be revealed in the future to destined students by a tertön, treasure-revealer. [RY]
 
 
 
Treasure lords (gter bdag). The guardians of the terma teachings. [RY]
 
 
 
treasure master; expl.; [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Treasure of Abhidharma; Abhidharmakosha; (mngon pa mdzod) - Vasubandhu, 4th or 5th century. [PK] [RY]
 
 
 
Treasure revealer (gter ston). The master who reveals a terma teaching. [RY]
 
 
 
treasure. See terma [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
treasure. Terma. The transmission through concealed treasures hidden, mainly by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, to be discovered at the proper time by a 'tertön,' a treasure revealer, for the benefit of future disciples. It is one of the two chief traditions of the Nyingma School, the other being 'Kama.' This tradition is said to continue even long after the Vinaya of the Buddha has disappeared.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
treasures; listing of different types [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Treasury Commentary (mdzod tik) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Treasury of Abhidharma (chos mngon pa mdzod) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Treasury of Mahayana Sutras [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
TREASURY OF PRECIOUS TERMAS (rin chen gter mdzod). See under 'Rinchen Terdzö.'[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Treasury of the Nonarising Jewel (skye med rin po che'i mdzod) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Treatises (bstan bcos), shastra. Scriptures composed by accomplished or learned masters. [RY]
 
 
 
treatises (shastra) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tregu Cave of Chimphu (mchims phu bre gu dge'u). A cave at Samye Chimphu. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Trekchö (khregs chod) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Trekcho (khregs chod) See 'Cutting Through.' One of the two main aspects of Dzogchen practice, the other being Tögal. [RY]
 
 
 
Trekchö (khregs chod). 'Cutting through' the stream of delusion, the thoughts of the three times, by revealing naked awareness devoid of dualistic fixation. To recognize this view through the oral instructions of one's master and to sustain it uninterruptedly throughout all aspects of life is the very essence of Dzogchen practice.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Trekchö (khregs chod). 'Cutting through' the stream of delusion, the thoughts of the three times, by revealing naked awareness devoid of dualistic fixation. To recognize this view through the oral instructions of one's master and to sustain it uninterruptedly throughout all aspects of life is the very essence of Dzogchen practice. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
Trekchö; and Thögal;, (khregs chod; and thod rgal). The practices of cutting through the solidity of clinging and of direct vision, these two relating respectively to primordial purity (ka dag) and spontaneous accomplishment (lhun grup). [MR]
 
 
 
Tri Changchup Chöpel Rinpoche (khri byang chub chos 'phel, 1756-1838), the first Trijang Rinpoche, and the sixty-ninth holder of the throne of Ganden. He became tutor of the ninth Dalai Lama. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tri Gya, the Hundred Instructions; (khrid brgya), one hundred meditative instructions from all traditions collected and arranged by Jonang Jetsün Kunga Drolchog, 1507-1566. (Can be found in the gdams ngag mdzod, vol.18) [MR]
 
 
 
Tri Ralpachen (khri ral pa can). See Ralpachen. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
triangular "red-torma" as a basis for the visualisation of Singhamukha, encircled by four tormas the same as itself and by dough triangles. This red torma, which is traingular and comes to a point at the tip, like an elongated pyramid, and is known as a "sharp-pointed red torma" (dmar-gtor rtse-rno), and is also known as a "Tun-tor" (thun-gtor "magic-weapon torma") as opposed to the "blunt-ended" red tormas. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
Trichiliocosm {stong gsum gyi stong chen po 'jig rten gyi 'khams}. Three-thousandfold universe. [RY]
 
 
 
Trident. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tridey Tsugten (khri lde gtsug rten). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
trikaya (sku gsum; three bodies) The three bodies of buddhahood. The dharmakaya (chos kyi sku; [RY]
 
 
 
Trikaya Guru (sku gsum bla ma). Literally, the master of the three bodies; the master who is the embodiment of dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya. In the context Lamey Tukdrub Barchey Kunsel, it can also refer to the gurus of the three kayas, i.e. Amitabha as the dharmakaya, Avalokiteshvara as the sambhogakaya, and Padmakara as the nirmanakaya. [RY]
 
 
 
Trilogy of Commentaries by Bodhisattvas (sems 'grel skor gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Trinley Drodul Tsal (phrin las 'gro 'dul rtsal). Another name of Chokgyur Lingpa [RY]
 
 
 
Trinley Nyingpo (phrin las snying po). The Essence Practice. The short version of the guru sadhana of Barchey Kunsel. [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka - The three collections of the Buddha's tea [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka - The three collections of the Buddha's teachings: Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma, with Tantra sometimes regarded as a fourth pitaka. [Tarthang]
 
 
 
Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of teachings; vinaya, sutra, and abhidharma. [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni: Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma. Their purpose is the development of the three trainings of discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge while their function is to remedy the three poisons of desire, anger and delusion. The Tibetan version of the Tripitaka fills more than one hundred large volumes, each with more than 600 pages. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka (sde snod gsum). The three collections of the teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni: Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma. Their purpose is the development of the three trainings of discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge while their function is to remedy the three poisons of desire, anger and delusion. The Tibetan version of the Tripitaka fills more than one hundred large volumes, each with more than 600 large pages. In a wider sense all of the Dharma, both Sutra and Tantra, is contained within the three collections and three trainings. To paraphrase Khenpo Ngakchung in his Notes to the Preliminary Practices for Longchen Nyingtig: "The three collections of Hinayana scriptures, namely Vinaya, Sutra, and Abhidharma, respectively express the meaning of the training in discipline, concentration and discriminating knowledge. The teachings describing the details of precepts for the bodhisattva path belong to the Vinaya collection while the meaning expressed by these scriptures are the training in discipline. The sutras expressing the gateways to samadhi are the Sutra collection while their expressed meaning, reflections on precious human body and so forth, are the training in concentration. The scriptures on the sixteen or twenty types of emptiness are the Abhidharma collection while their expressed meaning is the training in discriminating knowledge. Scriptures expounding the details of the samayas of Vajrayana are the Vinaya collection while their expressed meaning is the training in discipline. The scriptures teaching the general points of development and completion belong to the Sutra collection, while their expressed meaning is the training in samadhi. All the scriptures expressing the Great Perfection belong to the Abhidharma collection, while their expressed meaning is the training in discriminating knowledge."[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka (Three Collections) (sde snod gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka {sde snod gsum}. The three collections of the Buddhist teachings, Vinaya {'dul ba}, Sutra {mdo}, and Abhidharma {mngon pa}. [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka. [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tripitaka: the three baskets of Vinaya, Sutra and Abhidharma. The are all included in the Tibetan canonical collection called Kangyur (bka' 'gyur). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tripitaka; expl.; see also 'Three Collections'; [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Triple Gem - the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. [RY]
 
 
 
Triple Gem (tri ratna, dkon mchog gsum). The Buddha, Dharma and Sangha Refuges. [RY]
 
 
 
Triple Refuge (skyabs gnas gsum). Same as the Three Jewels. [RY]
 
 
 
triple sangha [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Triple-storied Central Temple (dbu rtse rigs gsum) / (rim gsum). The central structure at the temple complex of Samye. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Triple-vow vajra-holder (sdom gsum rdo rje 'dzin pa). A master who can keep the vows of each of the three vehicles simultaneously and without conflict. [RY]
 
 
 
triplistic conceptualisation. The conceptualisation of subject, action and object. Dualistic conceptualisation being that of subject and object, or self and other. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
Trisang Lhalö (khri bzang lha lod). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Trisang Yablhag (khri bzang yab lhag). A minister of King Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Trishö Gyalmo (khri shod rgyal mo) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Trishok Gyalmo - The Mother is the Blue Lake, Trishok Gyalmo, and her mantle is the ice that covers the lake during the winter and allows one to cross from the mainland to the islands. The holy place and the palace mentioned below refer to Tsonying Island. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Trisong Detsen: 790-844 /or 718 (Buton) or 730 (in Bee kar) [MR]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche. [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. Panditas and lotsawas translated many texts, and large numbers of practice centers were established. [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. In The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, Jamgön Kongtrül date Trisong Deutsen as being born on the eighth day of the third month of spring in the year of the Male Water Horse (802). Other sources state that year as his enthronement upon the death of his father. Until the age of seventeen he was chiefly engaged in ruling the kingdom. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. He arranged for panditas and lotsawas to translate innumerable sacred texts, and he established a large number of centers for teaching and practice. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen (khri srong de'u btsan). (790-844) The second great Dharma king of Tibet who invited Guru Rinpoche, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. In The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, Jamgön Kongtrül dates Trisong Deutsen as being born on the eighth day of the third month of spring in the year of the Male Water Horse (802). Other sources state that year as his enthronement upon the death of his father. Until the age of seventeen he was chiefly engaged in ruling the kingdom. He built Samye, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri, established Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. He arranged for panditas and lotsawas to translate innumerable sacred texts, and he established a large number of centers for teaching and practice. Among his later incarnations are Nyang Ral Nyima Özer (1124-1192), Guru Chöwang (1212-1270), Jigmey Lingpa (1729-1798), and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820-1892).[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen (khri srong lde'u btsan); details of [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen / Khri srong lde btsan - Tibetan Dharma king regarded as an incarnation of Manjushri; invited Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita to Tibet [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen / Khri srong lde'u btsan (8th century) second great Dharma King, who invited to Tibet Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita, Vimalamitra, and many other Buddhist teachers including Jinamitra and Danashila. With the aid of Shantarakshita and Padmasambhava, he built bsam yas, the great monastery and teaching center modeled after Odantapuri. he proclaimed Buddhism the religion of Tibet, and during his reign the first monks were ordained. Panditas and lotsawas translated many texts, and large numbers of practice centers were established. He was succeeded by: Mu ne and Khri lde srong btsan (Sad na legs) [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen. See King Trisong Deutsen [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen: 790- 844 /or 718 (Buton) or 730 (in Bee kar). [RY]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen; (790-844), (Khri srong ldeu btsan), The great dharma king who invited from India the abbot Santarakshita (tib. Shiwatso) - also known as Khanchen Bodhisatto - and Guru Padmasambhava, to build the monastery of Samye, and establish Buddhism in Tibet. He then invited one hundred and eight great Indian panditas, led by Vimalamitra, to translate all the Buddhist scriptures into Tibetan, together with the same number of Tibetan panditas led by Vairotsana. With the other of the twenty five main disciples of Guru Rinpoche he received the first empowerment given by Guru Rinpoche in Tibet, at Samye Chimphu. Later, he took successive rebirths as many great saints and tertöns, among them Rigdzin Jigme Lingpa himself, and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. [MR]
 
 
 
Trisong Deutsen; initiation name [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Trodrel (spros bral). The second stage in the practice of Mahamudra. [RY]
 
 
 
TRÖMA NAGMO (khros ma nag mo). A wrathful black form of the female buddha Vajra Yogini. Tröma Nagmo means 'Black Lady of Wrath.'[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
True all-ground of application (sbyor ba don gyi kun gzhi). [RY]
 
 
 
True Dharma, sad-dharma, (dam chos). The Law of the Buddhas. [RY]
 
 
 
True Goal, bhuta-koti, (yang dag pa'i mtha'). Ultimate Truth, Emptiness. [RY]
 
 
 
True Image Mind-Only School (sems tsam rnam bden pa). [RY]
 
 
 
True Image Mind-Only School of Equal Number Perceiver and Perceived (bzung 'dzin grangs mnyam sems tsam rnam bden pa). [RY]
 
 
 
True Joy (mngon par dga' ba). The pure realm of Buddha Akshobhya. [RY]
 
 
 
True luminosity (don gyi 'od gsal). Same as empty luminosity. [RY]
 
 
 
True meaning (nges don). The definitive meaning as opposed to the expedient or relative meaning. The teachings of Prajnaparamita and the Middle Way. [RY]
 
 
 
True meaning (nges don). The definitive meaning as opposed to the expedient or relative meaning. The teachings of Prajnaparamita and the Middle Way. In his Treasury of Knowledge, Jamgön Kongtrül the Great defines the true /definitive meaning in the following way: The topics taught to exceptional disciples that the nature of all phenomena is profound emptiness devoid of constructs such as arising and ceasing, and, that the innate real condition of things is by nature luminos wakefulness and lies beyond words, thoughts and description. Moreover, it is the words of the Buddha expounding this meaning as well as the commentaries upon them. [RY]
 
[[True Nature]] ([[dharmata]], [[chos nyid]]; also [[gnas lugs]]). ditto. [RY]
 
 
 
[[True wisdom]] ([[don gyi ye shes]]). The [[wisdom]] which is the [[unity of awareness and emptiness]] introduced through the fourth empowerment. [RY]
 
 
 
Trülnang ('phrul snang). One of two important temples in Lhasa built by King Songtsen Gampo and housing a statue of Buddha Shakyamuni. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Trulshig Senge Gyabpa:1243-1303 [MR]
 
 
 
Trülshik Rinpoche [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Truly high (mngon mtho) The three higher realms of humans, demigods and gods. [RY]
 
 
 
Truly High (mngon mtho). Refers to a rebirth in the three higher realms within samsara: humans, demigods and gods. [RY]
 
 
 
truth (bden pa); of cessation; four aspects of; of origin; four aspects of; of suffering; four aspects of; of the path; four aspects of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
truth of cessation [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
truth of cessation; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
truth of origin; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
truth of suffering; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
truth of the path; four aspects of [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Truths, the two (satya, bden). Ultimate and conventional. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsagong of Tsari (tsa ri tsa gong). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsa-lung (rtsa rlung). Nadi and prana, the channels and energies. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsamchok. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsami Lotsawa Sangye Trak (tsa mi lo tsa ba sangs rgyas grags). Born in the eastern Tibetan province of Minyak, he travelled to India and studied with the famous pandita Abhayakara. He was acclaimed throughout India as the most learned of panditas and a fully realized mahasiddha, and was the only Tibetan ever to hold the thrones of Vajrasana and Nalanda. (See BD, IV, p.280). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsampa (rtsam pa) is a flour made of roasted barley. It is the staple food among Tibetans. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsandra Rinchen Drak (tsa 'dra rin chen brag) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsandraghirti (Chandrakirti) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsang (gtsang). See also Ü and Tsang; clan; province [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsang Khenchen (gtang mkhan chen 'jam dbyangs dpal ldan rgya mtsho): 1610-1684 [MR]
 
 
 
Tsang Nyön Heruka (gtsang smyon he ru ka rus pa'i rgyan can): 1452-1507 [MR]
 
 
 
Tsangma Shangton (founder of Sagpa line of Shangpa Kagyu): 1234-1309 [MR]
 
 
 
Tsangpa Gyare (gtsang pa rgya ras ye shes rdo rje): 1161-1211 [MR]
 
 
 
Tsangpa Gyarey (gtsang pa rgya ras) (1161-1211). Early master in the Drukpa Kagyü lineage, also known as Yeshe Dorje (ye shes rdo rje). Chief disciple of Lingje Repa and founder of Druk Gönpa after which Drukpa Kagyü got its name. It was during his time that a saying appeared, "Half the people are Drukpas, half the Drukpas are mendicant beggars, and half the mendicants are siddhas."[EMP] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangpa Lhai Metok, 'divine flower of Brahma.' (tshangs pa lha'i me tog). Name of King Trisong Deutsen [Daki] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangpa Lhayi Metok. See King Trisong Deutsen [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangpo (gtsang po), Skt. Brahmaputra. The river flowing by Samye. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar Chimey Dorje (tshang gsar 'chi med rdo rje). The father of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche and brother of Samten Gyatso. For details, see The Life and Teachings of Chokgyur Lingpa, Rangjung Yeshe Publications. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar family. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar Lhai Dung-gyu (tshang gsar lha'i gdung rgyud). The 'divine blood-line of the Tsangsar family which is said to originate from a deva descending on earth. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar Lumey Dorje (tshang gsar lus med rdo rje). One of the masters in the Barom Kagyu lineage. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar Nargon. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar Ngaktrin Lama (gtsang gsar ngag phrin bla ma). Son of the daughter of Chokgyur Lingpa and root guru of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, also known as Samten Gyamtso. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar Ngaktrin. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangsar Sönam Yeshe. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsangtsen Dorje Lekpa (gtsang btsan rdo rje legs pa). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsa-nyag Lama Sherab [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsarchen Losal Gyatso: 1502- 1565 [MR]
 
 
 
Tsari - The two thousand and eight hundred deities who dwell on the central mountain of Tsari, which resembles a large crystal "Stupa with Many Doors of Auspiciousness" (bkra shis sgo mang mchod rten). An explanation on how to calculate that number is given in Pema Karpo's description of Tsari.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsari - There are three levels at which one can circumambulate the holy mountain of Tsari: upper, intermediate and lower. The last one, known as Tsari Rong Khor, the Circumambulation of the Ravines of Tsari (tsari rong bskor), is exceedingly difficult and was done only once every twelve years, in the Monkey Year. Because of its blessing and rarity, this event attracted tens of thousands of pilgrims. These were confronted by many difficulties. The southern part of the pilgrimage led through low altitudes and the pilgrims had to travel under the cover of tropical forests so thick that the sky could not be seen for hours on end. The humidity, moreover, was so intense that their woollen and felt clothing, suited to the dry, cold climate of the highlands, would rot. Sometimes the pilgrims had to walk along dangerous cliffs and cross turbulent rivers on vertiginous ladders or on bridges made from the slippery trunks of trees. Another danger came from the savage Lhopa tribes scattered throughout the forest, who would attack unaccompanied travelers with poisoned arrows, and often kill them. In an attempt to prevent such incidents, every twelve years, the Tibetan government would send up to a hundred loads of gifts and offer incentives to the Lhopas to pacify them while the pilgrimage was taking place. After an agreement had been reached, a swearing ceremony was held (See House of the Turquoise Roof, pp.90-91, summarized below). A gate made of bamboo was erected and the meat of two freshly killed yaks was tied to the post on each side. The Lhopas' representatives would show their good faith by passing under the gate. In passing, each Lhopa would cut a small piece of raw meat from one the carcasses and eat it. But even then they could not be trusted completely, and the government had to send soldiers to protect the pilgrims and guides to lead them on their hazardous journey. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsari Dakpa Shelri. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsari is a mountain in southern Tibet sacred to the deity Chakrasamvara (see chap.10). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsari is identified as both Caritra and Devikota, two of the twenty-four great sacred places described in the tantras. For an analysis of the identification of Tsari as these two sacred places, see Huber (1992, vol.2). For a summary of the guidebook to Tsari by the eight Drukchen, Chökyi Nangwa, see Filibeck (1988). There are four main gateways to the [[Pure Crystal Mountain of Tsari]] ([[dag pa shel ri]]): the eastern one is that of [[Manjusri]]; the southern, of [[Vajrapani]]; the western, of [[Tara]]; and the northern, of [[Avalokitesvara]]. According to Kunkhyen Pema Karpo (see Bibliography), the general sequence of human entry into the Tsari mandala is as follows: Guru Padmasambhava entered through the southern door and remained seven years in the [[Magnificent Secret Cave]] ([[zil chen gsang phug]], see JK, vol. Da, p.104). [[Vimalamitra]], too, traveled miraculously to Tsari. [[Lawapa]] ([[la ba pa]], or Kambalapada, tenth century), a teacher of [[Atisha]], entered through the eastern door with his disciple Bhusuku, and later departed to the [[Buddhafield of Khechara]] ([[mkha' spyod]]), without leaving his physical body behind. [[Kyebu Yeshe Dorje]] ([[skyes bu]], also spelled [[skye bo]], [[ye shes rdo rje]], twelfth century, an incarnation of [[Nyang Ben Tingdzin Zangpo]] (see TN p.515), tried thrice to enter Tsari according to the prediction of [[Gampopa]], his teacher (see JK, vol. Da, p.104). The third time, Yeshe Dorje was able to enter through the western door and reached the [[Turquoise Lake]] ([[g.yu mtsho]]). He also opened the door to the [[Lake of the Black Mandala]] ([[mtsho mandal nag po]]), in Dagpo; there, together with [[Gampopa]], he concealed as [[terma]] the [[Teaching on Mind, the Wish-fulfilling Gem]] ([[sems khrid yid bzhin nor bu]]). [[Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje]] ([[gtsang pa rgya ras ye shes rdo rje]], 1161-1211, not to be confused with [[Kyebu Yeshe Dorje]]) went to Tsari, following a prediction given to him in a vision by [[Gyalwa Lorepa]] ([[rgyal ba lo ras pa]], 1187-1250). After Tsangpa Gyare had opened the door of the sacred place he had a vision at the [[Turquoise Lake Palace]], in which [[Chakrasamvara]] told him, "You will become the Buddha known as [[The Young Aspirant]] ([[chung mos pa]]), the youngest of the 1002 Buddhas of this kalpa, and your teachings will spread far and wide from here, to the distance of eighteen days of an vulture's flight." [[Drigung Jigten Gonpo]] ([['jig rten mgon po]], 1143-1217) sent to Tsari first three of his main disciples, headed by [[Nyö Gyalwa Lhanangpa]] ([[gnyos rgyal ba lha nang pa]]), and then a great number of hermits (see chap. 11, note 10). Finally [[Sonam Gyaltsen]] ([[bsod nams rgyal mtshan]]), from Ralung, entered through the northern door. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsari-like Jewel Rock. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsarong (tsha rong): this noble family, whose estate was near Sakya, descends from the famous Tibetan physician, Yuthok Yontan Gonpo. (See Petech, 1973, pp.134-8) [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsasum Drildrub (rtsa gsum sgril sgrub) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsa-tsa (tshva tshva). A small clay image of a buddha stamped from a mold. [RY]
 
 
 
tsa-tsa [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsa-tsas are small stupas molded in clay or other material. When made for the sake of a dead person, funeral ashes are mixed with the clay, and later the tsa-tsas are deposited in holy places or in a clean natural environment. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsawa Ridge [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsechik (rtse gcig). The first stage in the practice of Mahamudra. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsechok Ling Yongdzin Pandita Kachen Yeshe Gyaltsen (tshe mchog gling yong 'dzin bka' chen ye shes rgyal mtshan, 1713-1793), a learned and accomplished sage who lived most of his life as a renunciate and was the founder of Samten Ling Monastery in Kyirong. he was, as well, the tutor of the eighth Dalai Lama, Jampel Gyatso ('jam dpal rgya mtsho, 1758-1804). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsechu Cham. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsedrub Dorje Trengwa. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsegyal. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsegyeh Gonpa (rtse brgyad dgon pa), the only monastery on the banks of Rakkas Tal Lake. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsele Natsog Rangdrol (1608-?) [MR]
 
 
 
Tsele Natsok Rangdröl (rtse le sna tshogs rang grol). (b. 1608) Important master of the Kagyü and Nyingma schools. He is also the author of Mirror of Mindfulness and Lamp of Mahamudra, both Shambhala Publications. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tseleh Rinpoche. Tseleh Rinpoche: (rtse-le sna-tshogs rang-grol) Tseleh Natsok Rangdrol (born 1608), was one of Rigdzin Jatson Nyingpo's principal pupils. Works by him presently available in English are "The Lamp of Mahamudra" and "The Mirror of Mindfulness". [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
Tsemang of Denma (ldan ma rtse mang). Important early Tibetan translator of the Tripitaka. Extremely well-versed in writing, his style of calligraphy is continued to the present day. Having received transmission of Vajrayana from Padmasambhava, he had realization and achieved perfect recall. He is said to be the chief scribe who wrote down many termas including the Assemblage of Sugatas connected to the Eight Sadhana Teachings. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsemon Ling Ngawang Tsultrim regent until his death 1791 [MR]
 
 
 
TSEN (btsan). A type of evil spirit.[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
tsen [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsen spirits (btsan). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsenthang temple in Yarlung (yar klung btsan thang gi lha khang). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsering Yangtso. [RY]
 
 
 
Tseringma. [RY]
 
 
 
Tseten Dorje ovethrows the Rinpungpa, begins the 76 years rule of the Tsangpas: 1566 [MR]
 
Tsewang Chokdrub Palbar (tshe dbang mchog grub dpal 'bar). The name of Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsewang Chokdrub Palbar; See Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsewang Drakpa (tshe dbang grags pa). Son of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsewang Drakpa [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsewang Norbu (tshe dbang nor bu). Son of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsewang Norbu [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsewong Norbu. (tshe dbang nor bu) Holder of the Khatok Nyingma lineage, eighteenth century. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
Tsi Temple (rtsis kyi lha khang). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsibri of Gyal (rgyal gyi rtsib ri). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsikey Monastery [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsilung (rtsis lung). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsimara. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsitta Sangphuk. [RY]
 
 
 
Tso Mapham (mtsho ma pham); same as Lake Manarasovar [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsogdruk Rangdrol (tshogs drug rang grol). 'Self-liberated six collections' of cognitions. It is also the name of Lama Shabkar. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsognyi Rinpoche (grub dbang tshogs gnyis): 1789-1844 [MR]
 
 
 
Tsogyal (mtsho rgyal). Also known as Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the close disciple of Guru Rinpoche who compiled the major part of his teachings. [RY]
 
 
 
TSOGYAL (mtsho rgyal). See under 'Yeshe Tsogyal.'[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsogyal (mtsho rgyal). See Yeshe Tsogyal. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsogyal. See Yeshe Tsogyal [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsokye Nyingtig (mtsho skyes snying thig); secret sadhana (gsang sgrub) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsong-kha-pa - Fifteenth century founder of dGe-lugs-pa school. [Tarthang]
 
 
 
Tsongkhapa - The twenty-fifth of the tenth lunar month is the anniversary of Je Tsongkhapa's nirvana. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsongkhapa / (tsong kha pa) – (1357-1419) Fifteenth century founder of dGe lugs pa school [RY]
 
 
 
Tsongkhapa: [MR]
 
 
 
Tsopema. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsuglag Trengwa (gtsug la 'phreng ba) (1504-1566). The Second Pawo Rinpoche. Disciple of the Mikyö Dorje, the eighth Karmapa, known for his writings on astrology and religious history.[EMP] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsuklag Chokyi Gyalpo. [RY]
 
 
 
tsulpas (tshul pa) were local people from Tsari villages outside the Ravines, who used to help the pilgrims going to Tsari. They would set rest houses (tshul khang) along the pilgrimage route and provide the pilgrims with water and fuel, but rarely provisions. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tsultrim Nyima. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsurphu (tshur phu). The seat of H.H. the Karmapa in Tolung, Central Tibet. [RY]
 
 
 
Tsurphu [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tsurphu. [RY]
 
 
 
TUKDRUB BARCHEY KÜNSEL (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). A cycle of teachings revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa together with Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo consisting of about ten volumes of texts. Belong to the principle of Guru Vidyadhara. For details, see foreword to The Great Gate (Rangjung Yeshe Publ.). Tukdrub means 'Heart practice,' Barchey Künsel means 'dispeller of all obstacles.'[AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Barchey Kunsel (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). See 'Barchey Kunsel.' [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Barchey Künsel (thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel); see also 'Four Cycles of Guru Sadhana'; [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Barchey Künsel. See Barchey Künsel [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Barchey Künsel; [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Deshek Dupa. [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Gongpa Kundu. [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Sampa Lhundrup. [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Yishin Norbu. [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Yishin Norbu. See Sampa Lhündrub [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tukdrub Yishin Norbu; Sampa Lhündrub (bsam pa lhun grub) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku (sprul sku). Literally, 'apparitional body.' Can refer to an incarnated bodhisattva who works for the welfare of sentient beings, or to the nirmanakaya manifested by a buddha. [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku (sprul sku). Nirmanakaya. Can refer to an incarnated bodhisattva who works for the welfare of sentient beings, or to the nirmanakaya manifested by a buddha.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Chokyi Nyima. [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Jigmey Khyentse [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Jigmey. [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Pema Wangyal [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Thondup [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
[[Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche]] ([[sprul sku o rgyan rin po che]]). A contemporary master of the [[Kagyü] and [[Nyingma lineage]s, who lives at [[Nagi Gompa]] in Nepal. [AL] [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, expl. of his lineage for Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
[[Tulku Urgyen Tsewang Chokdrup Rinpoche]] ([[sprul sku u rgyan tshe dbang mchog grub rin po che]]). The long name of [[Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche]]. [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Urgyen. [RY]
 
 
 
Tulku Urgyen: 1919- [MR]
 
 
 
Tumi Sambhota [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tummo - One of the Six Yogas, tummo (gtum mo), which corresponds to the Sanskrit candali, means literally the "wild one." It refers to the practice of the inner heat, which is related to the mastery of the spiritual channels, energies and essences (rtsa, rlung, and thig le).  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Tummo (gtum mo, chandali). A practice to develop inner heat and bliss to consume obscurations and realize emptiness. One of the Six Doctrines of Naropa.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Tummo (gtum mo, chandali). One of the Six Doctrines of Naropa. [RY]
 
 
 
Tummo / gTum mo ()- practice to develop the mystic inner heat in one type of tantric yoga. [RY]
 
 
 
Tun-huang - The eastern terminus of the silk Route; location of extensive Buddhist cave temples and site of important manuscript finds [RY]
 
 
 
Turfan - Ancient Buddhist center in Central Asia; location where many Buddhist manuscripts were found [RY]
 
 
 
Turning the Wheel of Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo skor ba). Figurative expression for giving Dharma teachings. [RY]
 
 
 
Turquoise Lion Lake (seng ge g.yu mtsho). [RY]
 
 
 
Turquoise Roof Bridge (g.yu thog zam pa), a famous bridge in Lhasa erected by Yutok Yönten Gönpo, the famous luminary of Tibetan medicine. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
[[Tushita]] ([[dga' ldan]]). 'The Joyous', n. of the Pure Land of the thousand Buddhas of this [[aeon]], inhabited only by [[Bodhisattvas]] and [[Buddhas]]. [RY]
 
 
 
Tushita [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Tushita Heaven (dga' ldan). The heavenly realm in which lord Maitreya resides awaiting his appearance in this world as the next buddha. [RY]
 
 
 
Tutelary deity (thugs dam), (yi dam). Enlightened deity on whom one's Tantric practice is centered. [RY]
 
 
 
Tutob Namgyal [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve acts of Buddha Shakyamuni (mdzad pa bcu gnyis). According to NG 61: 1) Descending from Tushita Heaven, ('pho ba)., 2) Entering the mother's womb, (lhum zhugs)., 3) Taking birth, (bltams pa)., 4) Becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess, (bzo dang)., 5) Enjoying a retinue of queens, (rol rtse)., 6) Renouncing the world, (nges 'byung)., 7) Practicing austerities and renouncing them, (dka' spyad drug)., 8) Going to the essence of awakening (Going towards the Bodhi Tree), (gshegs), 9) Defeating Mara, (bdud sde bcom)., 10) Attaining total enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree, (byang chub)., 11) Turning the Wheel of the Dharma, (chos 'khor)., 12) Departing for the ultimate peace of parinirvana, (myang 'das). [MR]
 
 
 
Twelve acts of Buddha Shakyamuni 1.; (mdzad pa bcu gnyis): (/second set according to Tarthang T.'s Kangyur Karchag, third set according to Namdrang Gyatso):,, 1) skye ba mngon par skye ba *** /Existence of the Bodhisattva as Svetaketu, 2) Moving /Descent ('pho ba) from Tushita, 3) Entering the womb at Kapilavistu, 4) Taking birth at Lumbini /Birth of the Bodhisattva, 5) Becoming skilled in crafts /Acts of dexterity, 6) Enjoying his retinue of queens /Life in the circle of noble women, 7) Renouncing the world /Departure from home, Kapilavistu to Vaisali, to Rajagrha, 8) Practicing austerities on the banks of Nairanjana River, 9) Going to the essence of awakening *** (byang chub snying por gshegs pa) /Victory over Mara, 10) Defeating the maras and attaining perfect enlightenment /Attaining enlightenment, 11) Turning the Wheel of Dharma /1) at Sarnath 2) at Rajagrha 3) at Vaisali and other places, 12) Departing in the Parinirvana at Kusinagara. [MR]
 
 
 
Twelve and a Half Happy Generations (skyid pa'i gdung rabs phyed dang bcu gsum) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
twelve ascetic virtues (sbyangs pa'i yon tan bcu gnyis), see NS, vol.2 p.169. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
twelve ascetic virtues (sbyangs pa'i yon tan bcu gnyis). 1) To wear clothing found in a garbage heap (phyag dar khrod pa), 2) to own only three monastic robes (chos gos gsum pa), 3) to wear clothes and boots made of felt (phying pa ba), 4) to eat one's meal at a single sitting (stan gcig pa), 5) to live only on alms (bsod snyoms pa), 6) not to eat after midday (zas phyis mi len pa), 7) to live in secluded places (dgon pa ba), 8) to live under trees (shing drung ba), 9) to live in the open air (bla gab med pa), 10) to live in cemeteries (dur khrod pa), 11) to sleep in a sitting posture (tsog pu ba), and 12) to stay wherever one happens to be (gzhi ji bzhin pa). See TC p.2023.  [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
twelve aspects of ascertainment (nges 'byed bcu gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis). The twelve main divisions of the Buddhist Canon: General Discourses (mdo sde); Proclamations in Song (dbyangs su bsnyad pa); Prophecies (lung du bstan pa); Poetic Pronouncements (tshigs su bcad pa); Special Aphorisms (mched du brjod pa); Declarations (gleng gzhi); Narratives (rtogs pa brjod pa); Parables (de lta bu byung ba); Succession of Former Lives (skyes pa'i rabs); Extensive Sayings (shin tu rgyas pa'i sde); Marvels (rmad du byung ba); Established Doctrines (gtan la dbab pa). [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis); listing [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve aspects of interdependence (rten 'byung yan lag bcu gnyis). The twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance, karmic formations, consciousness, name and form, six sense bases, contact, sensation, craving, grasping, becoming, birth, old age and death. [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve Branches of Scriptures {gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis}. They correspond to twelve types of text, which are: 1) condensed {mdo sde}, 2) melodious {dbyangs bsnyan}, 3) prophetic {lung bstan}, 4) verse {tshigs bcad}, 5) spoken with a purpose {ched brjod}, 6) conversatory {gleng gzhi}, 7) concerning his past lives {skyed rab}, 8) marvelous {rmad byung}, 9) establishing a truth {gtan babs}, 10) biographical {rtogs brjod}, 11) historical {de ltar byung}, and 12) very detailed {shin tu tgyas pa}. [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve buddhas of the maha ati lineage. [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve Deeds (mdzad pa bcu gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
twelve deeds performed by an enlightened buddha (mdzad pa bcu gnyis). 1) Descending from Tusita Heaven (dga' ldan gnas nas 'pho ba), 2) entering the womb of his mother (lhums su bzhugs pa), 3) taking birth (sku bltams pa), 4) becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess (bzo la mkhas par ston pa dang gzhon nu'i rol rtsed), 5) enjoying his retinue of queens (btsun mo'i 'khor gyis rol pa), 6) renouncing the world (rab tu 'byung ba), 7) practicing austerities and renouncing them (dka' ba spyad pa), 8) going to the Bodhi-tree (byang chub snying por gshegs pa), 9) subduing Mara (bdud btul), 10) attaining full enlightenment (mngon par sangs rgyas pa), 11) turning the Wheel of the Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo bskor), 12) passing into the ultimate peace beyond suffering (Skt. parinirvana, Tib. mya ngan las 'das pa). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
twelve deeds performed by fully enlightened Buddhas (mdzad pa bcu gnyis):  1) Descending from Tushita Heaven (dga' ldan gnas nas 'pho ba).  2) Entering the womb of his mother (lhums su bzhugs pa).  3) Taking birth (sku bltams pa).  4) Becoming skilled in worldly arts and demonstrating physical prowess (bzo la mkhas par ston pa dang gzhon nu'i rol rtsed).  5) Enjoying his retinue of queens (btsun mo'i 'khor gyis rol pa).  6) Renouncing the world (rab tu 'byung ba).  7) Practicing austerities and then renouncing them (dka' ba spyad pa).  8) Going to the Bodhi-tree (byang chub snying por gshegs pa)  9) Subduing Mara (bdud btul).  10) Attaining full enlightenment (mngon par sangs rgyas pa).  11) Turning the Wheel of the Dharma (chos kyi 'khor lo bskor).  12) Passing into the ultimate peace beyond suffering (Skt, parinirvana, Tib. mya ngan las 'das pa). [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Twelve Kyongma Goddesses (skyong ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve links of dependent origination (rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba). The twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance (ma rig pa) gives rise to karmic formations ('du byed), which gives rise to consciousness (rnam par shes pa), which gives rise to name and form (ming dang gzugs), which give rise to the six sense bases (skye mched drug), and so on through contact (reg pa), ('tshor ba), craving (sred pa), grasping (nye bar len pa), becoming (srid pa), birth (skye ba), and old age and death (rga shi). See also 'dependent origination.' [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve Links of Dependent Origination (Skt. Pratityasamutpada, rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba) the twelve-fold cycle of causal connections which binds beings to samsaric existence and thus perpetuates suffering: ignorance (ma rig pa) which gives rise to karmic dispositions ('du byed) which gives rise to consciousness (rnam par shes pa) which gives rise to name and form (ming dang gzugs) which give rise to the six senses (skye mched drug) which give rise to contact (reg pa) which gives rise to feeling ('tshor ba) which gives rise to craving (sred pa) which gives rise to grasping (Nye bar len pa) which gives rise to existence (Srid pa) which gives rise to birth (skye ba) which gives rise to old age and death (rga shi). [RY]
 
 
 
twelve links of dependent origination; in relation to the four syllables [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve main aspects (gtso bo bcu gnyis) They are also called 'the twelve manifestations' (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis) They are twelve different forms of Guru Rinpoche as a 'magical net' of emanations to tame beings according to their needs. Inner cycle: 1. rgyal ba'i gdung 'dzin: east. 2. smra ba'i seng ge south: 3. skyes mchog tshul bzang: west. 4. bdud kyi gshed chen: north. Outer cycle: 5. 'dzam gling rgyan mchog: east. 6. padma 'byung gnas: south. 7. khyad par 'phags pa'i rig 'dzin: west. 8. rdzu 'phrul mthu chen: north. Intermediate directions: 9. rig 'dzin rdo rje drag rtsal: south east. 10. skal ldan 'dren mdzad: south west. 11. raksha thod phreng: north west. 12. bde chen rgyal po: north east. [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve main aspects (gtso bo bcu gnyis). See 'twelve manifestations' (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis). They are twelve different forms of Guru Rinpoche as a 'magical net' of emanations to tame beings according to their needs. [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve manifestations (rnam 'phrul bcu gnyis). [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve qualities (yan lag bcu gnyis). The 12 aspects of the Excellent Speech of the Buddha. [RY]
 
 
 
twelve related causes of inner dependent origination; listing of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve sections of Sutra. These are also known as the twelve aspects of excellent speech (gsung rab yan lag bcu gnyis) and are the twelve main divisions of the Buddhist Canon: General Discourses (mdo sde); Proclamations in Song (dbyangs su bsnyad pa); Prophecies (lung du bstan pa); Poetic Pronouncements (tshigs su bcad pa); Special Aphorisms (mched du brjod pa); Declarations (gleng gzhi); Narratives (rtogs pa brjod pa); Parables (de lta bu byung ba); Succession of Former Lives (skyes pa'i rabs); Extensive Sayings (shin tu rgyas pa'i sde); Marvels (rmad du byung ba); Established Doctrines (gtan la dbab pa). [EMP] [RY]
 
 
 
twelve sense bases. See also aggregates, elements, and sense bases; listing of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve sense-bases (skye mched bcu gnyis). The five senses and the mental faculty, and the five sense objects and mental objects. [RY]
 
 
 
twelve sense-bases. The five senses and the mental faculty, and the five sense objects and mental objects.[Primer] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve Tenma Goddesses (brtan ma bcu gnyis). Important female protectors of the Nyingma lineage, semi-mundane semi-wisdom protectors. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve times one hundred qualities (yon tan brgya phrag bcu gnyis). At the level of the first bodhisattva bhumi one is able to simultaneously manifest one hundred nirmanakayas for the benefit of beings. There are eleven other such sets of one hundred abilities. See the Abhisamayalamkara by Maitreya. [RY]
 
 
 
twelve times one hundred qualities [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelve Yama Goddesses (ya ma bcu gnyis). Retinue of the Twelve Tenma Goddesses. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twelvefold Kilaya Tantra (ki la ya bcu gnyis). Tantra belonging to the Sadhana Section of Mahayoga. Tantras with similar titles are found in Vol. DZA and HA of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty (nyi shu pa) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty defects of bustle ('du rdzi'i skyon gsum). The Sutra Requested by Superior Intention says: "Maitreya, there are twenty defects of bustle. What are these twenty? Maitreya, they are no to have controlled one's body, not to have controlled one's speech, not to have controlled one's mind,to have great desire, to have great hatred, to have great dullness, to be tainted by mundane conversation, to have completely strayed away from supramundane conversation, to associate with people who do not respect the Dharma, to have fully cast away the Dharma, to consequently be harmed by the maras, to associate with people who are careless, to be careless oneself, to be dominated by conception (rtog pa) and discernment (dpyod pa), to completely stray away from great learning, to fail to achieve shamatha and vipashyana, to fail quickly to become brahmacharin, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Buddha, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Dharma, to completely stray away from rejoicing in the Sangha. Maitreya, these twenty should be understood as the defects of taking delight in bustle. A bodhisattva after having applied examination will take delight in solitude and never become completely saddened. [RY]
 
 
 
twenty defects of distraction [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
twenty subsidiary disturbances [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty Thousand (nyi khri) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty Thousand [verses of Prajnaparamita]. (nyi khri) [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty Verses; Vimshatika-karika; (nyi shu pa'i rab tu byed pa); Vasubandhu, 4th or 5th century. [PK] [RY]
 
 
 
twenty-eight ishvaris [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-eight shvari goddesses (dbang phyug ma nyer brgyad). Wrathful emanations of the four female gate keepers among the 42 peaceful deities in the mandala of Magical Net; seven for each of the four activities. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-five disciples. [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-five great sacred places. [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-five Main Disciples of Padmasambhava (rje 'bangs nyer lnga)- in various lists these include Vairotsana; Mandarava; Ye shes mTsho rgyal; rGyal ba mchog dbyangs; Nam mkha'i snying po;dPal gyi seng ge; ye shes dbyangs; Ye shes sde; dPal gyi rdo rje; Khri srong lde'u btsan; mKhar chen dpal gyi *dbang phyug; gYu sgra snying po; dPal gyi seng ge; rMa rin chen mchog; Sangs rgyas ye shes; rdo rje bdud 'joms; rGyal ba blo gros; lDan ma rtse mang; sKa ba dPal brtsegs; 'O bran dbang phyug; Jnanakumaravajra; Sog po lHa dpal gzhon nu; Lang gro dKon mchog 'byung gnas; rGal ba byang chub; Dran pa nam mkha' dbang phyug; Khye'u chung mKha' lding; Cog ru Klu'i rgyal mtshan; Ting nge 'dzin bzang po. [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-five Panditas (mkhas pa nyer lnga). 25 masters in the Dzogchen lineage from Garab Dorje to Guru Rinpoche, Vimalamitra and Vairocana who brought these teachings to Tibet. [RY]
 
 
 
twenty-five qualities of fruition; listing of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-five tantras (rgyud nyi shu rtsa lnga). Dzogchen tantras belonging to the Mind Section and possibly also the Space Section, taught by Shri Singha to Vairotsana and Lekdrub. Listed in Chapter Fourteen. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-five Tantras of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen kyi rgyud nyi shu rtsa lnga). twenty-five tantras, belonging to the Mind Section and possibly also the Space Section, taught by Shri Singha to Vairochana. Listed in Chapter 14. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
twenty-four great sacred places (gnas chen nyer gzhi). According to the Hevajra Tantra (see Snellgrove, 1959, 1:70) these are: Jalandhara, Oddiyana, Paurnagiri, Kamarupa, Malaya, Sindhu, Nagara, Munmuni, Karunyapataka, Devikota, Karmarapataka, Kulata, Arbuta, Godavari, Himadri, Harikela, Lampaka, Kani, Saurasta, Kalinga, Kokana, Caritra, Kosala, and Vindhyakaumarapaurika. Other sources, such as the sadhana (sgrub thabs) of the Queen of Great Bliss (yum bka' bde chen rgyal mo) from the Longchen Nyingthig (see Tulku Thondup, 1985), give a different enumeration of these twenty-four sacred places. They abide on the vajra-body inherent in every sentient being, which is symbolized here by the body of Vajrayogini. These twenty-four are divided in three groups: a) Eight celestial abodes (Skt. khagacharya, Tib. mkha' spyod): 1) The crown of the head is Jalandhara, 2) in between the eyebrows is Pulliramalaya, 3) the nape is Arbuta, 4) the urna (the hair at the center of the forehead) is Rameshvara, 5) the right ear is Oddiyana, 6) the left ear is Godavari, 7) the eyes are Devikota, and 8) the shoulders are Malava. b) Eight earthly abodes (Skt. gocharya, Tib. sa spyod): 9) the throat is Lampaka, 10) the underarms and kidneys are Kamarupa, 11) the two breasts are Odra, 12) the navel is Trishanku, 13) the nose-tip is Koshala, 14) the palate is Kalinga, 15) the heart is both Kanchika and 16) Himalaya (Himavat). c) Eight underground abodes (Skt. bhugarbha, Tib. sa 'og gi gnas brgyad), 17) the genitals are Pretapuri, 18) the anus is Grihadeva, 19) the thumbs and big toes are Maru, 20) the thighs are Saurashtra, 21) the calves are Suvarnadvipa, 22) the sixteen other fingers and toes are Nagara, 23) the knees are Kulata, and 24) the ankles are Sindhu. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
twenty-four major places (gnas chen nyer bzhi) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-one Adepts (mkhas pa nyer gcig). Masters of the Mind Section and Space Section of Dzogchen. [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-one Chogdungs (cog brdung nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-one Genyen (dge bsnyen nyi shu rtsa gcig). A group of powerful spirits indigenous to Tibet. They were converted by Padmasambhava are commanded to serve Buddhism. Today, they are still called upon along with Nyenchen Tanglha and Machen Pomra during Vajrayana rituals in order to guard the doctrine of the Buddha, elevate the status of the Precious Ones, expand the community of the Sangha, increase the life and splendor of the practitioners, raise the banner of fame, blow the conch of renown, and increase our following and prosperity. [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-one Male and Female Yakshas (gnod sbyin pho mo nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Twenty-one Mother Deities (ma mo nyi shu rtsa gcig). [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
twice-born - Birds are said to be "twice-born," because they are "born" first in an egg and then a second time from the egg. Similarly, religious practitioners are "twice-born," having had both bodily and spiritual births. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Twin Buddhas (sangs rgyas kyi zhal skyin mched) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twin Buddhas (sangs rgyas kyi zhal skyin mched) means the representatives of the Buddha; the two Jowo Shakyamuni statues in Lhasa. [RY]
 
 
 
Two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit and of wisdom. [RY]
 
 
 
Two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit with concepts and the accumulation of wisdom beyond concepts. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
TWO ACCUMULATIONS (tshogs gnyis). The accumulation of merit with concepts and the accumulation of wisdom beyond concepts. [AL] [RY]
 
 
 
two accumulations (tshogs gnyis). The accumulations of merit (bsod nams) and wisdom (ye shes), which lead to the realization of the two bodies or kayas of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
two accumulations [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two accumulations of merit and wisdom (bsod nams and ye shes kyi tshogs) lead respectively to the realization of the two kayas, the dharmakaya (chos sku, absolute body) and the rupakaya (gzugs sku, manifested body) of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Two accumulations of merit and wisdom (bsod nams dang ye shes kyi tshogs). [RY]
 
 
 
two benefits (don gnyis). The present and ultimate benefit of self and others. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
two bodies or kayas (sku gnyis). The dharmakaya (chos kyi sku), or absolute body, and the rupakaya (gzugs kyi sku), or body of form. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Two Chariots (shing rta gnyis); listing; of bodhisattva precepts [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two congregations of the Sangha (dge bdun gyi sde gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two crowned buddhas (jo bo rnam gnyis). The Jowo Rinpoche (jo bo rin po che), or Jowo Sakyamuni, which is in the Jokhang, the main temple of Lhasa (also known as ra sa 'phrul snang gtsug lag khang); and the Jowo Mikyö Dorje (jo bo mi bskyod rdo rje), which is kept in the temple of Ramoche (ra mo che). These statues, the most venerated in Tibet, were brought to Lhasa by the two wives of Songtsen Gampo, the Nepalese princess Bhrikuti (Tib. lha gcig khri btsun), who founded the Jokhang, and the Chinese princess Wengchen Kungchu, who founded Ramoche. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Two Jamgöns. [RY]
 
 
 
Two kayas (sku gnyis). Dharmakaya and Rupakaya. [RY]
 
 
 
Two kayas (sku gnyis). Dharmakaya realized for the benefit of self and rupakaya manifested for the welfare of others. [RY]
 
 
 
two kayas [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two kinds of self-entity (bdag gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two obscurations (sgrib gnyis). The obscuration of disturbing emotions and the cognitive obscuration. [AL] [RY]
 
 
 
two obscurations; listing of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Two profound stages (zab mo'i rim pa gnyis). The development stage and the completion stage. [RY]
 
 
 
Two rupakayas (gzugs sku gnyis). Sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. [RY]
 
 
 
Two sections of the sangha (sde gnyis). Refers to monks and ngakpas. [RY]
 
 
 
Two Segments (brtag gnyis), the king of the Sarma Tantras, [RY]
 
 
 
Two Segments (brtag gnyis). The condensed version of the Hevajra Tantra.[EMP] [RY]
 
 
 
Two Segments (brtags pa gnyis pa) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Two stages (rim gnyis). See 'development stage' and 'completion stage.' [ZL] [RY]
 
 
 
Two stages (rim gnyis). The development stage (bskyed rim) during which one visualizes deities and recites their mantras, followed by the completion stage (rdzogs rim), with or without formal representations. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
two stages. See development and completion [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two supreme ones (mchog gnyis). Nagarjuna and Asanga, two among the Six Ornaments of the World. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Two supreme shravakas (nyan thos mchog gnyis). Shariputra and Maudgalaputra. Two close disciples of Buddha Shakyamuni. [RY]
 
 
 
Two Truths (bden gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two truths (bden pa gnyis). Absolute truth and relative truth. Absolute truth (don dam bden pa) is beyond concepts and definitions. Relative truth (kun rdzob bden pa) is considered as deceptive and devoid of any true existence; or, according to the Mantrayana, as the display of innate wisdom, the infinite purity of all phenomena. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
Two truths (bden pa gnyis). Relative truth and ultimate truth. Relative truth describes the seeming, superficial and apparent mode of all things. Ultimate truth describes the real, true and unmistaken mode. These two aspects of reality are defined by the Four Philosophical Schools as well as the tantras of Vajrayana in different ways, each progressively deeper and closer to describing things as they are. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]
 
 
 
TWO TRUTHS (bden pa gnyis). Relative truth and ultimate truth. Relative truth describes the seeming, superficial and apparent mode of all things. Ultimate truth describes the real, true and unmistaken mode. These two aspects of reality are defined by the Four Philosophical Schools as well as the tantras of Vajrayana in different ways, each progressively deeper and closer to describing things as they are. [AL] [RY]
 
 
 
two truths; definition [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two types of potential (rigs gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two types of potential (rigs gnyis); explanation in terms of ground, path and fruition [LWx] [RY]
 
 
 
two vehicles; causal and resultant [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
two veils (sgrib gnyis) which prevent one from achieving enlightenment are the veil created by the obscuring emotions, and the veil masking ultimate knowledge. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
two veils (sgrib gnyis). The veil created by the obscuring emotions (nyon mongs pa'i sgrib), and the veil masking ultimate knowledge (shes bya'i sgrib). They prevent one from achieving enlightenment. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
two waters and the five enjoyments. The "two waters and five enjoyments" are the usual shrine offerings of bowls, two containing water (one for the mouth and one for the feet), and the five enjoyments are flowers, incense, light, scent and food. The light is usually a metal oil-lamp without a bowl, and an extra bowl is added sometimes to represent flowers as a boundary marker, though Thrangu Rinpoche says that is not necessary here. This extra bowl is often misinterpreted as being the music offering, while in fact the actual musical instruments that one plays fulfill that purpose. [Peter Roberts]
 
 
 
twofold egolessness [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twofold knowledge (mkhyen pa gnyis). The wisdom of knowing the nature as it is and the wisdom of perceiving all that exists. Knowledge of conventional and ultimate phenomena. [RY]
 
twofold purity (dag pa gnyis) [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
Twofold purity (dag pa gnyis). Inherent or primordial purity and the purity of having removed all temporary obscurations. [RY]
 
 
 
Twofold selflessness (bdag med gnyis). The inherent absence of a self-entity in the individual person as well as in all phenomena. [RY]
 
 
 
Twofold siddhis (dngos grub rnam gnyis). See 'supreme and common siddhis.' [RY]
 
 
 
twofold thought of enlightenment (byang chub kyi sems gnyis). Bodhicitta, the thought or mind of enlightenment, is defined as the intention to achieve Buddhahood for the sake of all beings. It has two aspects, relative and absolute. The relative mind of enlightenment (kun rdzob byang chub kyi sems) is itself divided into two steps: the wish to attain ultimate perfection to become able to free all beings from suffering (smon pa'i sems bskyed), and the entry into spiritual practice in order to actualize this wish ('jug pa'i sems bskyed). The absolute mind of enlightenment (don dam byang chub kyi sems) is the realization of emptiness and the recognition that the Buddha-nature abides in every sentient being. [MR-ShabkarNotes]
 
 
 
twofold welfare; listing of [LW1] [RY]
 
 
 
 
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'''[[The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity]]''' (Front Cover)
 
'''[[The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity]]''' (Front Cover)

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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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Three hidden valleys. [Daki] [RY]

Three higher realms (mtho ris gsum). The worlds of human beings, demigods or asuras, and gods or devas. These realms are more pleasant than the lower realms of animals, hungry ghosts and hell beings, but are not places of lasting happiness since even the highest realms of the gods are still within samsara. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Three Hundred and Sixty Sacred Incantations (gzungs sum brgya drug cu). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Three incalculable aeons (bskal pa grangs med gsum). Incalculable refers to the number ten followed by 52 zeros. [RY]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). Maha, Anu, and Ati Yoga. [RY]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). Mahayoga, Anu Yoga, and Ati Yoga. These three sections of tantra are the special characteristics of the Nyingma School of the Early Translations. According to Jamgön Kongtrül the First, "The Three Inner Tantras are also known as the 'Vehicles of the Methods of Mastery' because they establish the way to experience that the world and beings are the nature of mind manifest as kayas and wisdoms, that everything is the 'indivisibility of the superior two truths,' and hereby ensuring that the practitioner will become adept in the method of gaining mastery over all phenomena as being great equality." The Three Inner Tantras are, respectively, also renowned as 'development, completion, and great perfection' or as 'tantras, scriptures, and instructions.' According to Mipham Rinpoche, the Three Inner Tantras reached Tibet through six different lines of transmission: 1) As perceived by ordinary people in Tibet, Padmakara, the Second Buddha, taught only the Instruction on the Garland of Views but bestowed both the profound and extensive empowerments and instructions of all of the Three Inner Tantras to his exceptional disciples including Sangye Yeshe, Rinchen Chok, Lui Wangpo of Khön, and many others, the oral lineages of which have continued unbroken until this very day. Moreover, the major part of his teachings were sealed as terma treasures for the benefit of followers in future generations. 2) When the great translator Vairochana extensively had received the profound teachings of the Great Perfection from the Twenty-five Panditas, especially from Shri Singha, he returned to Tibet and imparted the Mind Section five times, as well as the oral lineage of the Space Section, both of which are continued uninterruptedly. 3) The great pandita Vimalamitra arrived in Tibet and taught the Instruction Section chiefly to Tingdzin Sangpo of Nyang. This lineage was transmitted both orally and through terma treasures. 4) Sangye Yeshe of Nub received from four masters in India, Nepal and Drusha innumerable teachings headed by the important scriptures of Anu Yoga and Yamantaka. His lineage of the Scripture of the Embodiment of the Realization of All Buddhas is still unbroken. 5) Namkhai Nyingpo received the transmission of the teachings of Vishuddha from the Indian master Hungkara which he then spread in Tibet. 6) During following generations, incarnations of the king and the close disciples of Padmasambhava have, and still continue to do so, successively appeared, as great masters who at opportune times reveal the profound teachings that had been concealed as terma treasures, in order to ensure the supreme welfare of people in Tibet and all other countries, both temporarily and ultimately. [ZL] [RY]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). See also tantras, statements, and instructions; definition of sugata essence; listing of [LW1] [RY]

three inner tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum). The tantras of Mahayoga, Anuyoga, and Atiyoga. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Inner Tantras (nang rgyud sde gsum); definition of sugata essence; listing of [LWx] [RY]

Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, the Precious Dharma and the Precious Sangha. [ZL] [RY]

THREE JEWELS (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, the Precious Dharma and the Precious Sangha. In The Light of Wisdom (Shambhala Publ.), Jamgön Kongtrül explains: "The Buddha is the nature of the four kayas and five wisdoms endowed with the twofold purity and the perfection of the twofold welfare. The Dharma is what is expressed, the unconditioned truth of total purification comprised of cessation and path, and that which expresses, the two aspects of statement and realization appearing as the names, words and letters of the teachings. The Sangha consists of the actual Sangha, the sons of the victorious ones abiding on the noble bhumis who are endowed with the qualities of wisdom and liberation, and the resembling Sangha who are on the paths of accumulation and joining as well as the noble shravakas and pratyekabuddhas."[AL] [RY]

Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum); expl. of qualities; in the context of the lesser vehicles; objects of refuge; Precious Ones of Vajrayana [LW1] [RY]

Three Jewels (dkon mchog gsum); guru as theThree Precious Ones [LW1] [RY]

Three Jewels {dkon mchog gsum}. The Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. [RY]

three Jewels and three Roots. The Three Roots: The Tantric equivalent, or essence of the Three Jewels. They are the Guru, the Yidam Deity and thirdly, the Dakas, Dakinis and Dharma-Protectors. [Peter Roberts]

Three Kayas - The Mahayana recognizes the three aspects (Trikaya) of the Buddha: Dharmakaya (Chos kyi sku), lit. 'Dharma body'; Sambhogakaya (Longs spyod kyi sku), lit. 'Enjoyment body'; and Nirmanakaya (sPrul sku), lit. 'Representation body'. Dharmakaya is voidness and its realization, beyond time and space, and is pure transcending awareness. The Sambhogakaya, the pure enjoyment aspect of the Dhyanibuddhas, also represents the aspect of communication. The Nirmanakaya forms are embodiments taken by Buddhas among earthly beings in order to clarify the way to enlightenment. Rupakaya - The Sambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya are sometimes known together as the Rupakaya (gZugs sku), lit. 'Form body'; all three kayas are sometimes considered aspects of a fourth body, called the Svabhavikakaya (Ngo bo nyid sku). [RY]

three kayas (sku gsum) are the dharmakaya (chos kyi sku), or absolute body; the sambhogakaya (longs spyod kyi sku), or body of enjoyment; and the nirmanakaya (sprul sku), or manifested body. They correspond respectively to the void, the luminous, and the compassionate aspects of a Buddha. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya (chos sku) is the first of the three kayas, which is devoid of constructs, like space. The 'body' of enlightened qualities. Should be understood in three different senses, according to ground, path and fruition. Sambhogakaya (longs spyod rdzogs pa'i sku) means the 'body of perfect enjoyment.' In the context of the 'five kayas of fruition,' sambhogakaya is the semi-manifest form of the buddhas endowed with the 'five perfections' of perfect teacher, retinue, place, teaching and time which is perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the ten levels. Nirmanakaya (sprul sku) means 'emanation body' or 'form of magical apparition' and is the third of the three kayas. This aspect of enlightenment that can be perceived by ordinary beings. [Primer] [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the levels; and the nirmanakaya which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. In the context of this book, the three kayas are sometimes Buddha Amitabha, Avalokiteshvara, and Padmasambhava. [ZL] [RY]

Three kayas (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and capacity'; as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya, which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya, which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas; and the nirmanakaya, which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

THREE KAYAS (sku gsum). Dharmakaya, sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya. The three kayas as ground are 'essence, nature, and expression,' as path they are 'bliss, clarity and nonthought,' and as fruition they are the 'three kayas of buddhahood.' The three kayas of buddhahood are the dharmakaya which is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the 'twenty-one sets of enlightened qualities;' the sambhogakaya which is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the levels; and the nirmanakaya which manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [AL] [RY]

three kayas (sku gsum); of buddhahood; expl.; threefold wisdom [LW1] [RY]

Three kayas of buddhahood (sangs rgyas sku gsum). The dharmakaya is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the '21 sets of enlightened qualities.' Sambhogakaya is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the bhumis. The nirmanakaya manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [RY]

Three kayas of fruition ('bras bu'i sku gsum). The dharmakaya is free from elaborate constructs and endowed with the '21 sets of enlightened qualities.' Sambhogakaya is of the nature of light and endowed with the perfect major and minor marks perceptible only to bodhisattvas on the bhumis. The nirmanakaya manifests in forms perceptible to both pure and impure beings. [RY]

three kindnesses (bka' drin gsum) according to the Mantrayana, of a spiritual master are as follows: to mature the disciple with an empowerment (dbang bskur), to expound the tantras (rgyud bshad), and to bestow pith instructions (man ngag ston). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three kindnesses of a spiritual master (bka' drin gsum). To mature the disciple with an empowerment (dbang bskur), to expound the tantras (rgyud bshad), and to bestow pith instructions (man ngag ston). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three kinds of celestial beings (lha gsum). The gods of the realms of desire, form, and no-form. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three kinds of ignorance (ma rig pa rnam gsum). Single identity ignorance, coemergent ignorance and conceptual ignorance. [RY]

three kinds of knowledge (shes rab rnam gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three kinds of mental nonvirtues. See ten nonvirtues [LW1] [RY]

Three kinds of miraculous powers (cho 'phrul gsum). The perfect deeds of a nirmanakaya buddha enacted through his body, speech and mind. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Three kinds of obscurations (sgrib pa gsum). The obscuration of disturbing emotions, the obscuration of dualistic knowledge, and the obscuration of tendencies or habitual patterns. [RY]

three kinds of physical nonvirtues. See ten nonvirtues [LW1] [RY]

Three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum) are to please by means of material things, service, and practice. The last is the most eminent of the three. The two first perfect the accumulation of merit and the latter the accumulation of wisdom. [RY]

Three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum). To please one's teacher by means of material things, service, and practice. [RY]

three kinds of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum); expl. [LWx] [RY]

Three levels of enlightenment (byang chub gsum). The attainment of the nirvana of an arhant, pratyekabuddha, and of a fully perfected buddha. [RY]

three levels of enlightenment (byang chub gsum); listing of [LW1] [RY]

Three levels of existence (srid pa gsum). Usually the same as the 'three realms.' [RY]

three levels of impure existence [LWx] [RY]

Three levels of wisdom; (shes rab gsum): 1) Conventional, worldly wisdom: Is basically the four traditional sciences, which are healing, logic, languages and crafts. 2) Ultimate, transworldly wisdom: Is the inner science based on the teachings of the sravakas and the pratyekabuddhas, and leads to recognition that physical aggregates are unclean, necessarily involve suffering, are impermanent and devoid of inherent existence. 3) The wisdom of realization: Is based upon the Mahayana teachings and leads to the thorough experiential understanding of the empty nature of phenomena, which are unoriginated, baseless and rootless. There are three other aspects to wisdom: the wisdom that realizes relative truth, and that is perfect knowledge of the whole phenomenal world and the way it manifests; the wisdom that realizes absolute truth, and that knows the empty nature of all phenomena; and the wisdom that unerringly accomplishes the welfare of beings. [MR]

three lineages (brgyud pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three lower realms (ngan song gsum). The realms of the denizens of the hells, of the tormented spirits, and of the animals. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three lower realms (ngan song gsum). The worlds of hell beings, hungry ghosts, and animals. [RY]

Three Main Points of the Path (lam gyi gtso bo rnam gsum), a short text by Tsongkhapa, belonging to the pith instruction section of the Kadampa teachings. The three main points are, as Jamgön Kongtrul says in his commentary, "The gold foundation of renunciation, on which rises the fabulously arranged Mount Meru and continents of Bodhicitta, upon which shines the brilliant sun of the wisdom of the perfect view." (See DZ, Vol. 4., pp. 435-88). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three mind poisons (dug gsum). Attachment, anger, and delusion. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

Three mudras (phyag rgya gsum) are karma mudra (las kyi phyag rgya), samaya mudra (dam tshig gi phyag rgya) and jnana mudra (ye shes kyi phyag rgya), a mental consort. [RY]


Three mysteries (gsang ba gsum). The Vajra Body, Speech and Mind. [RY]

Three natures (rang bzhin gsum) (mtshan nyid gsum). The aspects of phenomena as set forth by the Cittamatra and Yogachara schools: the 'imagined,' the 'dependent,' and the 'absolute.' The imagined (kun brtags) is the two kinds of self-entity. The dependent (gzhan dbang) is the eight collections of consciousness. The absolute (yongs grub) is the empty nature of things, suchness. [RY]

three natures (rang bzhin gsum); among the Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma [LW1] [RY]

three notions ('du shes gsum); in regards to a master [LW1] [RY]

Three outer tantras (phyi rgyud gsum). Kriya, Upa, and Yoga. [RY]

Three Outer Tantras (phyi rgyud sde gsum); definition of sugata essence; listing of; of Mantrayana [LW1] [RY]

Three outer Tantras are the Kriya, Charya, and the Yoga Tantras. () The Kriya Tantras emphasize purification of body and speech through ritual and cleansing activities, establishing a relationship between the deity and the practitioner similar to the relationship of master and servant. Realization can be gained within sixteen human lifetimes. [RY]

three permissive conditions," see Appendix 5, note 6, and Shabkar's Emanated Scriptures of Compassion (snying rje sprul pa'i glegs bam). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three places (sa gsum) are the realms of celestial beings above the earth, of human beings upon the earth, and of the nagas below the earth. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three places (sa gsum). The realms of the celestial beings above the earth; of human beings upon the earth and of the nagas below the earth. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three planes; (sa gsum) : The realms of celestial beings above the earth, of human beings upon the earth, and of the nagas below the earth. [MR]

Three poisonous emotions (nyon mongs pa dug gsum). Attachment, anger, and delusion. [RY]

Three poisons (dug gsum). Desire, anger, and delusion. [RY]

three poisons or klesas (dug gsum). Desire, hatred, and confusion. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Precious Ones (dkon mchog gsum). The Precious Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. [RY]

Three Precious Ones. See Three Jewels [LW1] [RY]

Three profound empowerments (zab mo'i dbang gsum). They are also called "the three supreme empowerments" (mchog dbang gsum) and are the secret empowerment (gsang dbang), the wisdom empowerment (sher dbang) and the word empowerment (tshig dbang). [RY]

Three Protectors (rigs gsum mgon po) Avalokiteshvara, Vajrapani, and Manjushri. [RY] three pure bhumis; bodhichitta; summary of path [LW1] [RY]

Three pure conditions for eating meat;: That one does not kill an animal for meat, or ask someone to kill it, or take the meat of an animal that has been killed for oneself even though one did not ask for it. [MR]

three ranges of dokham (smad mdo khams sgang gsum). 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham, Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad); and 3) Gyi Thang in Tsongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Ranges of Dokham (smad mdo khams sgang gsum): are 1) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham; Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad) Domey; and 3) Gyi Thang in Tsongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three realms (khams gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three realms (khams gsum). The samsaric realms of Desire, Form and Formlessness. [RY]

Three realms (khams gsum). The samsaric realms of Desire, Form and Formlessness. [ZL] [RY]

Three rituals (cho ga gsum). Three steps in visualization of a deity: seat with seed syllable, attribute, and deity. [RY]

Three Roots - lama, yidam, dakini. The guru is the root of all blessing, the yidam is the root of all siddhi, and the dakini is the root of Buddha activity. [RY]

Three roots (rtsa ba gsum). Guru, Yidam and Dakini. The Guru is the root of blessings, the Yidam of accomplishment, and the Dakini of activity. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

THREE ROOTS (rtsa ba gsum). Guru, Yidam and Dakini. The Guru is the root of blessings, the Yidam of accomplishment, and the Dakini of activity. [AL] [RY]

three roots (rtsa ba gsum). The guru (bla ma); deva, or meditational deity (yi dam); and the dakini (mkha' 'gro). They are the roots, respectively, of blessings, of spiritual accomplishment, and of enlightened activity. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three Roots (rtsa ba gsum); expl. the special Precious Ones; listing of; objects of refuge [LW1] [RY]

three Roots. The Peaceful Guru (Padmabhasajvala), the Wrathful Guru (Guru Drakpo) and Singhamukha, as the Guru, Yidam and Dakini, who are the roots of blessing, siddhi and activity. [Peter Roberts]

Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. [RY]

Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. The samadhi of suchness is to rest in the composure of the innate emptiness of all phenomena, as pointed out by one's root master, or simply to imagine that all things are empty like space. The samadhi of illumination is let natural compassion manifest like sunlight illuminating the sky, or simply to generate compassion for all the beings who fail to realize the nature of things. The samadhi of the seed-syllable is the innate unity of emptiness and compassion manifesting in the form of a syllable that is the 'seed' or source from which the deity and the entire mandala will appear during the practice. These three samadhis are the indispensible framework for the development stage of Vajrayana practice. In his Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo, Padmasambhava says, "The main part begins with the profound and vast samadhis Which purify the manner of death, bardo, and rebirth: The great emptiness space of suchness is pure like the sky. Rest evenly in this space of the undivided two truths. Emanate the magic of compassion, an all-illuminating cloud of awareness, filling the space, radiant yet without fixation. The single mudra in the manner of a subtle syllable Is the causal seed which produces everything. Keep this changeless wisdom essence, manifests in space, one-pointedly in mind and bring its vivid presence to perfection. [RY]

Three samadhis (ting nge 'dzin gsum). The samadhi of suchness, of illumination and of the seed-syllable. They form the framework for the development stage. [Bardo Guide 91] [RY]

three samadhis. The Thatness samadhi, the Manifestation samadhi and the Causal samadhi. They are represented by the syllables Om Ah and Hum. They are essentially emptiness and the Dharmakaya; compassion and the Sambhogakaya; the deity's symbolic form and the Nirmanakaya. They are also described, within this text, in the instructions on the outer practice, just before the description of Padmakara. [Peter Roberts]

three samadhis. These are described in detail in the longer commentary. In brief, they are the "thatness-samadhi" of great emptiness. The "Total-manifestation samdhi" of compassion and illusion, and the "Causual samadhi" of the mudra, the deity's body. They are represented respectively by the three syllables "Om ah hum"recited in the sadhana before the description of the empty nature of phenomena. Hrih is then recited before the description of the appearance of the deity. Some western editions of the sadhana have mistakenly taken the Hrih to be the last syllable of the preceding mantra of the emptiness of phenomena: dharmadhatu svabhava ah hum. [Peter Roberts]

Three seats of completeness (gdan gsum tshang ba'i dkyil 'khor). The three seats (gdan gsum) are the aggregates and elements as the seat of male and female tathagatas, the sense-bases as the seat of the male and female bodhisattvas, and the actions and faculties as the seat of the male and female wrathful ones. [RY]

three secrets (gsang ba gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three secrets (gsang ba gsum). Same as the three mysteries. [RY]

three secrets (gsang ba gsum). The vajra body, vajra speech and vajra mind of an enlightened being. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three secrets (gsang gsum) [LWx] [RY]

three secrets. The three secrets: The body, speech and mind of the Gurus, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. They are called secret because they are inconceivable to ordinary beings. [Peter Roberts]

Three sections (sde gsum) The three divisions of Dzogchen: Mind Section, Space Section and Instruction Section. Also the name of an important terma of Chokgyur Lingpa. [RY]

Three Sections of Dzogchen (rdzogs chen sde gsum). After Garab Dorje established the six million four hundred thousand tantras of Dzogchen in the human world, his chief disciple, Manjushrimitra, arranged these tantras into three categories: the Mind Section emphasizing luminosity, the Space Section emphasizing emptiness, and the Instruction Section emphasizing their inseparability. [ZL] [RY]

Three Sections of Dzogchen. Garab Dorje entrusted these teachings to his main disciple, Manjushrimitra, who then classified them into the Three Sections of Dzogchen: Mind Section, Space Section, and Instruction Section. [RY]

three sets of precepts (sdom gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three sets of precepts (sdom gsum). See three vows. [RY]

three sets of vows (sdom pa gsum). The Hinayana vows of individual liberation, the Mahayana trainings of a bodhisattva, and the Vajrayana samayas of a vidyadhara, a tantric practitioner. [AL] [RY]

three solitudes of body, speech, and mind (lus ngag yid kyi dben gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three sorts of laziness; (le lo gsum): Indolence, which is to be prone to sleep and idleness. Faint-heartedness, which is to be discouraged before even beginning to strive, thinking, "Someone like me will never reach enlightenment, however much I may try." Laziness of neglecting true priorities, which is to be stuck in non-virtuous ways of acting and be only concerned only with affairs limited to this life. [MR]

three special qualities of the terma treasures; listing of [LW1] [RY]

three special qualities of transmission; of the Nyingma School, listing of [LW1] [RY]

Three special trainings {lhag pa'i bslab pa gsum}. The training of moral discipline, the training of contemplation and the training of discriminative awareness. [RY]

Three spheres ('khor gsum). The three 'spheres' or concepts of subject, object and action. [RY]

three spheres ('khor gsum); conceptualizing [LW1] [RY]

Three spheres {'khor gsum}. Subject, object and their interaction. [RY]

Three spheres of concepts ('khor gsum gyi dmigs pa). Subject, object and action. [RY]

Three Stages (rim gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three strengths of the lion (seng ge'i rtsal gsum). Miraculous transformations (rdzu 'phrul), swiftness (myur mgyogs), and the possession of wings made of wind (rlung gshog). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three strengths or faculties of the lion (seng ge'i rtsal gsum). These three have been suggested: miraculous transformations (rdzu 'phrul), swiftness (myur mgyogs), and the possession of wings made of wind (rlung gshog). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three successive Dharma Wheels of the causal teachings of the philosophical vehicles [LWx] [RY]

Three sufferings (sdug bsngal gsum). The suffering upon suffering, the suffering of change, and the all-pervasive suffering of formations. [RY]

three sufferings (sdug bsngal rnam pa gsum). The suffering upon suffering (as when losing one's parents and then falling very sick); the suffering of change (as when going to a happy picnic and being bitten by a snake); and the all-pervading, latent suffering inherent in all forms of conditioned existence. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

three sufferings (sdug bsngal rnam pa gsum): the suffering upon suffering (e.g. losing one's parents and then falling very sick); the suffering of change (e.g. going to a pleasant picnic and being bitten by a snake); and the all-pervading, latent suffering inherent in all forms of conditioned existence. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three supreme image mandalas (lhag pa gzugs brnyan gyi dkyil 'khor gsum) are made of colored powder (rdul tshon), painted cloth (ras bris) and heaps (tshom bu). [RY]

three sweets (mngar gsum). Sugar, honey and molasses. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three things to carry (khyer so gsum). Regarding sights, sounds, and thoughts as being deity, mantra, and wisdom. [RY]

Three thousand fold universe. [RY]

Three Trainings (bslab pa gsum), in regard to the six paramitas; under the ten bhumis [LW1] [RY]

three trainings (bslab pa gsum). Ethical discipline (tshul khrims), contemplation (ting nge 'dzin), and wisdom (shes rab). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three trainings (bslab pa gsum). The trainings of discipline, concentration, and discriminating knowledge. [ZL] [RY]

Three trainings (bslab pa gsum): discipline, contemplation and wisdom. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Three transmissions of the teachings (bka'i brgyud pa gsum). Buddhas' Mind Transmission, Vidyadharas' Sign Transmission and Great Masters' Oral Transmission. [RY]

three transmutations. The three transmutations are form into the deity or guru, sound into the mantra, and the automatic liberation of thought. [Peter Roberts]

Three Turnings - Aspects of the Buddha's teachings (Turnings of the Wheel of the Dharma), presented at different times and in different locations [RY]

Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma. See Dharma Wheels [LW1] [RY]

Three types of "tantra of words" (tshig rgyud gsum): a] Tantra manifest as sound (sgrar snang ba'i rgyud) is is mind transmission or both the transmission of mind and symbol. b] Tantra uttered as sound (sgrar grags pa'i rgyud) is oral transmission of great masters. c] Tantra turned into symbols (brdar gyur pa'i rgyud) is the letter characters of the scriptures. For example, the terma teachings belong to the category of the three types of tantra of words; the mind transmission is to keep in mind what he initially have heard, the oral transmission he uttered it to the King and the subjects as the spontaneous sound of dharmata, and the Word Transmission of Yellow Parchment (shog ser tshig brgyud) is the teaching written down on the yellow parchment. [RY]

three types of emancipation. See emancipation [LW1] [RY]

Three types of ignorance (ma rig pa gsum). The ignorance of single identity, coemergent ignorance, and conceptual ignorance. [RY]

three types of individuals (skyes bu gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Three types of knowledge (shes rab gsum). The understanding and insight resulting from learning, reflection and meditation practice. [RY]

Three types of liberation (thar pa gsum). The three types of emancipation of the shravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva. [RY]

three types of pleasing actions (mnyes pa gsum) [LW1] [RY]

three types of pure nirvana. See also three levels of enlightenment [LW1] [RY]

T continued - T3


The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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