Regarding the pronunciation of the single letters, as given above, it is to be born in mind, that surds ka, da + pa are uttered without the least admixture of an aspiration, viz. as k, t, p are pronounced in the words skate, stale, spear; the aspirates kha, tha + pha forcibly, rather harder than the same in Kate, tale, peer; the sonants ga, da + ba like g, d, b in gate, dale, beer.
nga is the English ng in sing, but occurs in Tibetan often in the commencement of a sylable.
In the Eastern dialects of Eastern or Chinese-Tibet, however, the soft consonants ga, da, ba, ja + dza, when occurring as initials, ar pronounced with an asipiration, similar to the Hindi character omitted, character omitted, character omitted + character omitted, or indeed so that they often scarcely differ from the common English k, t, p, ch; also zha and za are more difficult to distinguish from sha and sa than in the Western provinces (Exceptions s. && 7.8).
Click here to go to the front page of the Second Edition of H.A. Jaeschke's 'Tibetan Grammar'