zhes

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ཞེས
this (referring back to a citation / quote) [RY]

so called, so it says, which is to say, thus [R] [IW]

quote-unquote [RY]

so called, so it says, which is to say, thus [IW]

indicates commentary is coming up, zhes pa ltar means "as it was said" and zhes gsungs so means "thus it was said". so called. thus [occurs after final g, d, b) and ces after all other, end of quotation; ces/ shes-bya-ba - termed/ referred to as. to refer to/ denote [RY]

so called, so it says, which is to say, thus [indicates commentary is coming, [occurs after final g, d, b) and ces. after all other, end of quotation, nga na ma ' ra la dang, mtha' med bcas kyi rjes dang, rtogs pa'i don gyi shes pa dang mi nor ba'i ched du dmigs bsal sa mthar yang sbyar rgyu tshig gzhan 'dren byed kyi phrad gzhan dbang can zhig [[zhi ba myang 'das - peace beyond suffering; peace, nirvana [nyon mongs spangs pa'i 'gog bden [IW]

so, thus, respect, quotation marker [JV]

refers la zer [RY]