Five Dry Skulls

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(thod skam lnga) Skulls of bdud, Mara. Demon or demonic influence that creates obstacles for practice and enlightenment. Mythologically said be a powerful god who dwells in the highest abode in the Realm of Desire; the master of illusion who attempted to prevent the Buddha from attaining enlightenment at Bodhgaya. For the Dharma practitioner, Mara symbolizes one's own ego-clinging and preoccupation with the eight worldly concerns. Generally, there are four maras or obstructions to practice of the Dharma: those of defilements, death and the aggregates, and the godly mara of seduction. Sometimes the four maras are mentioned by name; Lord of Death, Godly Son, Klesha and Skandha [RY]

srin po, Raksha / rakshasa. 1) One of the eight classes of gods and demons. Also the cannibal savages inhabiting the southwestern continent of Chamara. At times 'raksha' refers to the unruly and untamed expression of ignorance and disturbing emotions. 2) An evil being or demon [RY]

btsan, tsen. A type of evil spirit. Tsen spirits [RY]

rgyal po,gyalpo spirits. A type of mischievous spirit, sometimes counted among the 'eight classes of gods and demons.' When subdued by a great master, they can also act as guardians of the Buddhadharma [RY]

mu stegs, extremist, forder, non-Buddhist, heretic, those who hold extreme views [RY] [MR]