had mastered [RY]
to know with certainty [RY]
nges pa, nges pa, nges pa intr. v.; ascertainment, certainty, definiteness, definite, determine, certain, true, sure, firm, bound to, sureness, should be, devoted to one aim only, certain understanding, to be specific, specified; fixed, solid [RY]
certain/ sure; to define (with certainty)/ ascertain/ make certain; - to determine/ establish; to define [RB]
certainty, ascertain, certify [RY]
duration; definite/ to materialize [RY]
certainty; ascertainment [ggd] [RY]
certain factor, feature, definitive ascertainment, certainty, authenticity, 1 of 27 coincidences in astrology, SA sbyor ba nyer bdun, certain, true, sure, firm, reality, conviction, indispensable [JV]
(Tha mi dad pa,, 1) determine, decide, ascertain[ment], certain understanding; 2) remain/ be remembered/ assimilated in mind; 3) certain[ty], confidence,, sure[ness]; 4) [be] specific, a certain, specified; 5) true, non-deceptive, authentic[ity]; 6) certain[ty]; 7) definite[ness], firm, bound to; 8) should be; 9) devoted to 1 aim only] ? [IW]
(Tha mi dad pa),, 1) determine, decide, ascertain[ment]; 2) remain/ be remembered/ assimilated in mind [Sems la gsal por nges pa,...Bslab bya ma nges pa]; 3) certainty, confidence Las 'gan legs 'grub kyi nges pa med; 4) [one of the Sbyor ba nyer bdun]; 5) specific, a certain [Dus tshod nges pa can,...Sa gnas nges pa can...'Bad brtson nges pa nyid du byed pa] (6) true, non-deceptive, certainty, definite[ness], determine, certain[ty], true, firm, bound to, sure[ness], should be, devoted to 1 aim only, certain understanding, [be] specific, specified, authenticity [IW]
ascertain, certainty, certify [thd]
nges pa means to recognize or realize, and by extension definite or certain. In Tibetan texts, nges pa is said to be equivalent to rtogs pa, to realize. nges pa refers to the mental cognition that definitely and unmistakenly recognizes or realizes an object. For instance, when we see a vase we might think, "That's a vase." In such an example, in the first instant there is an eye consciousness that sees the vase, but does not give it any name or particularly recognize it. In the second instant there is a sixth mental consciouness that thinks, "That's a vase." That recognition in the second instant is called nges pa. Nges pa is always a thought in the sixth consciousness that follows on the heel of another valid perception or thought.
By extension, nges pa means certain or definite, because when something has been realized or nges pa, then it must definitely be true, and something cannot be said to be definite or true unless there is a subject that validly realizes it.
Some say that nges pa means to ascertain or determine. This is not quite right; ascertaining means, according to the OED, "To find out or learn for a certainty by experiment, examination, or investigation; to make sure of, get to know." This process is by nature still indefinite--otherwise there would be no need to ascertain. When the process of ascertainment leads to an unmistaken recognition, then it is nges pa. In that way, the past participle, ascertained, can sometimes be a correct translation. [David Karma Choephel]