tshad ma

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ཚད་མ།

Valid cognition; authentic (standard)/ standard of authenticity. [RB]

Genuine. Authority. [IW]

Reliable epistemic warrant. (Wayman)

Instrument of correct knowing. (Coseru)

1) true, non-deceptive; 2) pramāṇa; 2) logic, science of valid cognition. [IW]

In terms of a genre or area of study: Epistemology. (van der Kuijp)

Generally there are said to be two, three or four kinds of tshad ma: (1) Direct Valid Cognition and (2) Inferential Valid Cognition; those two plus Scriptural (3) or exremely hidden (secret) knowing; or those three plus (4) correct knowing through example. The entry from [IW] below that says there are another three pramanas discussed is missleading. Those three, "manifest" mngon gyur, "hidden" lkog gyur and "very hidden" shin tu lkog gyur are levels of analysis related to the objects of one of the four tshad ma, not tshad ma's themesleves.

1) true, non-deceptive (smras pa tshar mar bzung ba; 2) pramana - rang yul la mi bslu ba'i shes pa pa ste rang yul gsar du rtogs pa'i blo mngon sum yang dag dang, rjes dpag yang dag rnams so); 2) logic, science of valid cognition - (rig gnas che ba lnga'i ya gyal, tshad ma rig pa'o) authenticity, validity, proof, pramana, logic, ideal, dialectics, epistemology, valid [cognition/ understanding], proof [of knowledge]. three kinds. direct perception (mngon sum). inference, indirect (rjes su dpag pa). trustworthy scripture or testimony (yid ches pa'i lung). the study of pramana [in a monastic college]. authentic, genuine, convincing. right cognition/ understanding [free from illusion]. valid source of knowledge, true knowledge, reasoning, ('thad pa), (rigs pa). there are three pramanas, direct perception, inference and scripture. Sometimes the following three pramanas are discussed, direct (mngon gyur), hidden (lkog gyur) and very hidden (shin tu lkog gyur). the (shin tu lkog gyur). pramana in the buddhist sense has to be known through the Buddha's teaching., since ultimately valid cognition comes down to the buddhas' perception of things as they are. [tse] [IW]

logic, (valid means of, genuine, correct) cognition, valid, epistemology, dialectics, logical basis, valid means of knowing, (prime, valid) cognizer, normal perception that is either direct or indirect, measure, rule, model, argument, proof, logical work, authority. [JV]

reasoning, 'thad pa, rigs pa. [RY]

true, proven, genuine; ideal, validity, valid cognition; authentic (standard)/ standard of authenticity; valid cognizer [when related to cognition]; validating; authenticity, validity, proof, pramana, logic, ideal, dialectics, epistemology, valid [cognition / understanding], proof [of knowledge]. three kinds. direct perception (mngon sum) inference, indirect (rjes su dpag pa) trustworthy scripture or testimony (yid ches pa'i lung) the study of pramana [in a monastic college]. authentic, genuine, convincing. right cognition / understanding [free from illusion]. valid source of knowledge, true knowledge, reasoning, ('thad pa), (rigs pa). There are three pramanas, direct perception, inference and scripture. Sometimes the following three pramanas are discussed, direct (mngon gyur), hidden (lkog gyur) and very hidden (shin tu lkog gyur). The (shin tu lkog gyur) pramana has to be known through the Buddha's teaching. reasoning, 'thad pa, (rigs pa). [RY]

valid cognition, validity. [thd]

genuine. [RY]