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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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labelling-basis for confusion; as synonym for the all-ground [LW1] [RY]

labelling-basis for confusion; as synonym for the all-ground [LWx] [RY]

Lachen Gongpa Rabsel / (bla chen dgongs pa rab gsal) - Tibetan Vinaya master who preserved the Vinaya lineage during the period of disruption in ninth century [RY]

Lachen Gongpa Rabsel: 893- [MR]

Lachi 1. was blessed successively by Guru Rinpoche, the Great Yuthokpa (g.yu thog pa chen po) Jetsün Milarepa, and later by many Drigungpa masters. /274/5 Caves of Jetsün Mila: Brag dkar rta so where he stayed 12 years before going to Lachi. (On the way are brag dmar po mtho mchong lung nyi ma rdzong and bring spo ze la, which leads to gnya' nang mthong la and to the door of Lachi, gnya nang bkra shis sgang) /292 Drigung Jigten Gonpo (see his biography by dbon shes rab 'byung gnas) had a dream in which the guardian deities of the Three Holy Places (lha btsan for Kailash, zhing skyong for Lachi and zhing skyongs ? for Tsari) prostrated themselves and requested him to come and bless the place. Jigten Gonpo said he would send their great meditators. Accordingly he sent first 80 hermits to each of these sites. [RY]

Lachi 2. A few years later he sent 900 hermits to each and finally 55525 Dharma practitioners to each, lead by pan chen gy ya sgang pa to Kailash, by dge bshes gi yag ru dpal grags to Lachi, and by rdor 'dzin mgo bo che to Tsari. dge bshes gi yag ru dpal grags established himself in Lachi and under his inspiration many practice centers were established all around, in Gyalgi Shri, Nyanang, Mangyul, tsum ku thang, etc,. For 686 years (until the Iron Female Ox year of the 15th rabjung) there was an ininterrupted succession of Drigung masters in the area. Lachi is said to be a "triple triangle"; the sky above is triangular ", the earth below is triangular, and the waters in between are triangular. /313/2 South of Dingri is bring spo ze la on top of which Jetsün Milarepa flew. South of Lachi is mthon mthin rgyal mo; a high snow peak in triangular shape which is the Tseringma's palace. [MR]

Lady (bhagavati, bcom ldan 'das ma). A title of female Buddhas. [RY]

Lady Angchung of Gya (rgya bza' ang chung). [ZL] [RY]

Lady Angchung of Mashang (ma shang bza' ang cung). [ZL] [RY]

Lady Gyalmo Tsün of Pho-gyong (pho gyong bza' rgyal mo btsun). One of the queens of king Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]

Lady Jangchub Men of Tro ('bro bza' byang chub sman). One of the queens of king Trisong Deutsen. [ZL] [RY]

Lady Jangchubma of Drom ('brom bza' byang chub ma). [ZL] [RY]

Lady Kharchen (mkhar chen bza'). See Yeshe Tsogyal. [ZL] [RY]

Lady Margyen of Tsepang (tshe spang bza' dmar rgyan). One of the queens of king Trisong Deutsen. Reputed to have been a major troublemaker. [ZL] [RY]

Lady Tsogyal (jo mo mtsho rgyal). Also known as Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the close disciple of Guru Rinpoche who compiled the major part of his teachings. [RY]

Lady Tsogyal of Kharchen (mkhar chen bza' mtsho rgyal). See Yeshe Tsogyal. [ZL] [RY]

Lake Danakosha (dha na ko sha'i mtsho), Skt. dhana kosha. [ZL] [RY]

Lake Maldro (mal gro mtsho). [ZL] [RY]

Lake Manasarovar; South of Kailash, across the great plain of Barga, at the base of the Mount Gurla Mandhata are the two lakes of Mapham Yutso (Manasarovar, 330 sq kms) and Lhanag Tso (Rakshas Tal, 224 sq kms), the Manasarovar being the highest body of fresh water in the world (4558 m). The two lakes are connected by a channed called the Ganga chu. [MR]

Lake of Splendor (dpal mo dpal mtsho). [ZL] [RY]

Lake Trishok Gyalmo - Description of Trakar Drel Dzong (brag dkar sprel rdzong gi dkar chag), by Drigung Chötrak ('bri gung chos grags, 1597-1659) speaks of Guru Padmasambhava blessing Lake Trishok Gyalmo. The Guide to Tsonying Island (mtsho snying ma ha de wa'i gnas yig), written by Orgyen Samten Lingpa (O rgyan bsam gtan gling pa) according to a vision he had, says that 108 great spiritual treasures (gter ma) were concealed by Guru Padmasambhava and Vairocana on this blessed island. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lake-born Guru (mtsho skyes bla ma). Same as Guru Rinpoche. [RY]

Lake-born Vajra (mtsho skyes rdo rje). One of the names of Guru Rinpoche. [RY]

Lake-born Vajra [LWx] [RY]

Lake-born Vajra Holder (mtsho skyes rdo rje 'chang). Same as Guru Rinpoche. [RY]

Lake-Born Vajra Holder (mtsho skyes rdo rje 'chang). See Padmasambhava [LW1] [RY]

Lake-Born Vajra Holder, Padmasambhava [LW1] [RY]

Lake-born Vajra" (mtsho skyes rdo rje) is one of Guru Padmasambhava's names. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lake-Menmo round white-torma that carries a child. A "Menmo torma that carries a child" is an offering to one of a particular type of native Tibetan goddess called "sman mo", who was a local deity of Homdrang, the place where the Könchok Chidu terma was discovered. The Menmo form sisterhoods, such as four of the twelve guardian goddesses of Tibet (the Tenma). Menmo are also found to be consorts of important mountain deities, such as Yarlha Shampo, Machen Pomra and Nyenchen Tanglha. There is a multiplicity of these kinds of goddesses, each with their own description, locality and liturgy, originating from the native religious tradition of Tibet. Lake-Menmo are those who inhabit lakes, but there is a number of these and I have not been able to determine which one is being specifically referred to here. The torma offered is white and rounded as the goddess offered to is of peaceful aspect, and the torma is said to be given the appearance of carrying a child, because that is an attribute of the goddess. The "child" projects from the lap and butter discs upon the front of the mother and child's bodies, indicate that they are facing each other. This is said to be the traditional way that a mother carries her child in Tibet. The torma is thus offered to both the mother and the child. [Peter Roberts]

Laksashva - King in Western India; early patron of the Mahayana [RY]

Laksasva - King in Western India; early patron of the Mahayana. [Tarthang]

Lakshmikara [LW1] [RY]

Lakshmikara [LWx] [RY]

lalana (rgyang ma) The main left nadi. See also nadi, prana,a and bindu. [Rain of Wisdom]

Lalitaditya - Greatest kind of the Kashmiri Karkota dynasty; renowned patron of the Dharma. [RY]

Lalitavistara [LW1] [RY]

Lalitavistara, (rgya cher rol pa) [MR]

Lalitavistara; quotation from [LWx] [RY]

Lama (bla ma, guru). A spiritual teacher and in particular, the vajra master. [RY]

Lama Dampa Sönam Gyaltsen: 1312-1375 (3nd son of Sangpo Pal's 6th spouse) (held the throne 1345-1349) [MR]

Lama Gongdü (bla ma dgongs 'dus) [LW1] [RY]

Lama Gongdü (bla ma dgongs 'dus) [LWx] [RY]

LAMA GONGDÜ (bla ma dgongs 'dus). Cycle revealed by Sangye Lingpa (1340-96) in 18 volumes of approximately 700 pages each. Lama Gongdü means 'embodiment of the master's realization.'[AL] [RY]

Lama Gongdü cycle of teachings. [Daki] [RY]

Lama Gongpa Düpa (bla ma dgongs pa 'dus pa). [EMP] [RY]

Lama Kalu Rinpoche: 1905-1989 [MR]

Lama Khyenno (bla ma mkhyen no). "Master, think of me!" [RY]

Lama Mipham (mi pham spyogs las rnam rgyal), also known as Mipham Jamyang Gyatso (mi pham 'jam dbyangs rgya mtsho) and Jampal Gyepai Dorje ('jam dpal gyes pa'i rdo rje): 1846-1912 [MR]

Lama Ngödrub Gyamtso (bla ma dngos grub rgya mtsho) [LWx] [RY]

Lama Ngödrub Gyatso (bla ma dngos grub rgya mtsho) [LW1] [RY]

Lama Sangdü (bla ma gsang 'dus). A terma discovered by Guru Chöwang (1212-1270), one of the earliest and most important tertöns. It focuses on the guru principle as Padmasambhava's sambhogakaya form of the fivefold mandala of Tötreng Tsal. Lama Sangdü means 'embodiment of the master's secrets.'[AL] [RY]

Lama Sangdu. The bla-ma gsang-'dus, a terma discovered by Guru Chöwang 1212-1270, one of the earliest and most important Tertöns. In the longer commentary Kongtrül gives it many other names such as gsang-thems "Secret Document". The relevant lines being refered to are: "This quintessential mantra of the union of the Sugatas is the practice of the entire union of all the Buddhas". [Peter Roberts]

Lama Sang-ngak. [RY]

Lama Shang, Yudrak Tsöndru Trakpa (zhang g.yu brag brtson 'grus grags pa, 1123-1193), an influential teacher who founded the Tsalpa Kagyu (tshal pa bka' brgyud) lineage. He was a disciple of Dagpo Gomtsul Tsultrim Nyingpo (dwags po sgom tshul tshul khrims snying po, 1116-1169), Gampopa's nephew. See BA pp. 771ff. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lama Shang; Tsondru Trakpa (bla ma shang btson grus grags pa) 1123-1193: Disciple of founder of Tsalpa Kagyu and disciple of Dakpo Gomtsul;, Wöngom Tsultrim Nyingpo. [MR]

Lama Tendzin Chögyal [LW1] [RY]

Lama Tennyi Korsum (bla ma bstan gnyis skor gsum); terma treasure by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo [LW1] [RY]

Lama Tennyi Korsum (bla ma bstan gnyis skor gsum); terma treasure by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo [LWx] [RY]

Lama Yangthig {bla ma yang thig}. Writings by Longchenpa on the innermost unsurpassed cycle of pith instructions of Atiyoga. [RY]

Lama Yangtik (bla ma yang thig). [RY]

Lamdrey (lam 'bras) [LW1] [RY]

Lamdrey (lam 'bras). Path and Result. The main teaching of the Sakya school. [RY]

Lamdrey [LWx] [RY]

Lamenting Apology of Rudra (ru dra sme bshags). Extracted from the Immaculate Confession Tantra. [RY]

Lamey Tukdrub Barchey Künsel (bla ma'i thugs sgrub bar chad kun sel). The main cycle of terma teachings revealed by Chokgyur Lingpa. See 'Barchey Künsel.' [RY]

Lamey Tukdrub Dorje Draktsal; See Dorje Drakpo Tsal [LW1] [RY]

Lamp for the Path of Enlightenment (lam sgron, byang chub lam sgron) [LW1] [RY]

Lamp For the Path of Enlightenment; quotation from; [LWx] [RY]

Lamp of the Three Modes {tshul gsum sgron me}. Skt. Nayatrayapradipa. Written by Tripitakamala. [RY]

Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment; Bodhipathapradipa; (byang chub lam sgron); Atisha, 982-1054. [PK] [RY]

Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo (lam rim ye shes snying po); defining the scope of the scripture from the title; details of first revelation; details of revelation by Tekchok Tenphel; details of revelation by the second Chokgyur Lingpa; details of the first propagation by Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche; existence in major collections of Vajrayana scriptures; Jamgön Kongtrül's reason for writing the commentary; Jamgön Kongtrül's summary; Padmasambhava's entrustment to his disciples; placement among the Dharma treasures of Chokgyur Lingpa; story of its revelation by Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche; summary by Padmasambhava; three major summations [LW1] [RY]

Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo. [RY]

lamrim; definition of [LW1] [RY]

lamrim; definition of; [LWx] [RY]

Land of Snow (gangs can gyi yul). Same as Tibet. [RY]

Land of Snow. Same as Tibet [LW1] [RY]

Land of Snow; [LWx] [RY]

Lang Dharma: 803-. [RY]

Lang Dharma's persecution: 901-906, assasinated by Palgi Dorje, 906 [MR]

Langdarma (glang dar ma). Brother of the great Dharma king Ralpachen and the persecutor of the Sangha in central Tibet during a five year reign. During his brief reign, he almost succeeded in eradicating Buddhism in Tibet. [ZL] assasinated by Palgi Dorje, 906 [RY]

Langdarma / Glang dar ma - Brother of Ral pa can who persecuted the Sangha in central Tibet during a five year reign, initiating a period of anarchy and disruption [RY]

Langdro Lotsawa (glang 'gro lo tsa ba). One of the twenty-five disciples of Guru Rinpoche. [RY]

Langri Tangwa (glang ri thang ba) Dorje Senge: 1054-1123 [MR]

Langtsang (lang tsang). [ZL] [RY]

Lanka Mound (lan ka brtsegs); charnel ground [LW1] [RY]

Lankapuri (Skt.). [ZL] [RY]

Lankavatara Sutra (lang kar gshegs pa'i mdo). A sutra of the third turning of the Wheel of the Dharma. Used as basis for Yogachara and Chittamatra. [RY]

Lankavatara-sutra, Tib. lang kar gshegs pa'i mdo, T 107. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lanlap Changchub Dorje: 12- [MR]

Lapchi - There are several Tibetan guidebooks to Lapchi, among which the most extensive was written by Drigung Chungtsang Konchog Tendzin (1829-1906; see chap.11, note 10), hereafter quoted as GL. A clear and detailed description of the site of Lapchi and its history, with translation of large parts of the guide mentioned above, has been presented by Toni Huber, (1989, hereafter quoted as LNY). Among the twenty-four holy places (see chap.11, note 10), Lapchi corresponds to Godhavari. Several other locations are also known as Godhavari, perhaps the most ancient one of which is situated in central India (see LNY, note 2). Another one is located in the Kathmandu Valley, near a spring said to be the womb of Vajravarahi. It must be remembered that sacred geography does not follow the same criteria as ordinary geography. Kyabje Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche (1910-91), for instance, said that within any single valley one can identify the entire set of the twenty-four sacred places. Kyabje Dudjom Rinpoche (1903-87) also said that sacred places, such as Uddiyana, can shrink and even disappear when conditions are no longer conducive to spiritual practice. The twenty-four sacred places are also present in the innate vajra body of each being. Among these, Godhavari, or Lapchi, is the left ear. It is said that Lapchi was first ruled by a malicious and fierce gandharva (dri za) couple, Suravarina and his consort Viramati, who took Mahadeva as their object of refuge. Following the subjugation of Mahadeva (see chap.11, note 10), the Bodhisattva Vajrapani (phyag na rdo rje) and his consort Vetali (ro lang ma) subdued Suravarina and his consort. The Bodhisattva and his consort took possession of the spirits' abode and ornaments. The Bodhisattva transformed them respectively into a celestial palace and into divine attributes. He and his consort enjoyed the meat and drink in which the spirits reveled, as the sacramental substances of ganachakra feast offerings. They blessed the lingam symbol of Mahadeva as the mandala of the sixty-two deities of the Chakrasamvara mandala. Lapchi was also blessed by Guru Padmasambhava and by the great physician Yuthok Yonten Gonpo (g.yu thog yon tan mgon po), but it became especially famous after the great saint Jetsun Milarepa (1040-1123) spent many years there in solitary meditation. Milarepa "opened" the sacred place by subjugating the local deities and negative forces adverse to the Dharma. Later many other masters came to meditate at Lapchi. Those from the Drigung lineage in particular exerted their spiritual influence on the place over centuries down to the present day (see chap.11, note 10, as well as GL and Petech, 1978). The central site of Lapchi is said to be a "triple triangle"; the sky above is seen as a triangle, the earth below is triangular, and the rivers in between form a triangle. Among the many sacred mountains around, the central one is said to be the palace of Chakrasamvara. Three other mountains are considered to be the palaces of Avalokitesvara, Vajrapani, and Manjusri. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lapchi, caves - the Hidden One (sbas pa, see GL, p.51, and LNY, p.55). There are two caves, the upper and the lower Hidden Caves (sbas pa gong 'og) where Jetsun Milarepa meditated and had a vision of the mandala of Chakrasamvara that dissolved into him. There too, meditated Tertön Changchub Lingpa (byang chub gling pa, fourteenth century, who came from the place known as Many Birds, bya mang po, and attained the rainbow body). According to GL, p.54/b, Shabkar stayed in the upper cave, the Revelation of All Secrets (sbas pa kun gsal). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lapis lazuli, rajavarta (mu men) (meaning confirmed by Jackson and Jackson) [RY]

Later 17 and 21 disciples. [Daki] [RY]

Later Meditation Tantra (bsam gtan phyi ma'i rgyud). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga. [ZL] [RY]

Later Translation Schools (phyi 'gyur). Same as Sarma, the New Schools. [RY] Lay follower, layman, Upasaka, (dge bsnyen). One who has taken Refuge in the Three Jewels and vows of pure moral conduct to abandon killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and drinking alcohol. [RY]

League, yojana, (dpag tshad). [RY]

Learning, reflection and meditation (thos bsam sgom gsum). 'Learning' means receiving oral teachings and studying scriptures in order to clear away ignorance and wrong views. 'Reflection' is to eradicate uncertainty and misunderstanding through carefully thinking over the subject. 'Meditation' means to gain direct insight through applying the teachings in one's personal experience. [Bardo Guide 91] [ZL] [RY]

LEARNING, REFLECTION AND MEDITATION (thos bsam sgom gsum). 'Learning' means receiving oral teachings and studying scriptures in order to clear away ignorance and wrong views. 'Reflection' is to eradicate uncertainty and misunderstanding through carefully thinking over the subject. 'Meditation' means to gain direct insight through applying the teachings in one's personal experience. [AL] [RY]

learning, reflection and meditation; expl. [LWx] [RY]

learning, reflection, and meditation (thos bsam sgom gsum) [LW1] [RY]

Legden (legs ldan) [LW1] [RY]

Legend of the Great Stupa [LW1] [RY]

Legend of the Great Stupa [LWx] [RY]

Legend of the Great Stupa, The; Dharma Publishing, Berkeley. [ZL] [RY]

leisure and wealth" for Dharma practice. Leisures and wealths: The ten leisures are freedom from the non-human existences of the hells, the pretas (spirits), the animals, and long-living deities, and freedom from such human existences as being in a world where the Buddhas teachings have not appeared, being in a barbaric land, having wrong views, and having impaired faculties. The ten wealths:- Five that come from oneself: a human existence, all faculties complete, being in a land where the Dharma exists, to have not carried out the worst kind of actions, and to have faith in the Dharma. The five wealths that come from others; The appearance of a Buddha in this world, the Buddha having given his teachings, the continued existence of the teachings, the existence of followers of the teachings, and the existence of a spiritual friend who will teach you. [Peter Roberts]

Leisureless states, the eight a-ksana, (mi khom pa). The states in which there is no opportunity to practice the Dharma, namely being born in hell, as an animal, as a preta, among the long-lived gods, or in a barbaric country where there are no Buddhist monastics or lay followers; being dull-witted, deaf and dumb; being addicted to perverse views such as disbelief in rebirth or Liberation; and when no Buddha has appeared and taught the Dharma. [RY]

Lekdrub (legs grub). See Lekdrub of Tsang. [ZL] [RY]

Lekdrub of Tsang (gtsang legs grub). The companion of Vairochana on his journey to India. Lekdrub received half of the transmission of Dzogchen from Shri Singha, departed early and died on his way back to Tibet. He was reborn as Yudra Nyingpo. [ZL] [RY]

Lekdrub of Tsang [LW1] [RY]

Lekjin Nyima (legs byin nyi ma). Tibetan translator. [ZL] [RY]

Leksher (legs gzher). [ZL] [RY]

Leksher Palmo (legs gzher dpal mo). [ZL] [RY]

Lelag (le lag) [LW1] [RY]

Lelag (le lag); expl.; quotation from; [LWx] [RY]

lesser and greater vehicles. See Hinayana, Mahayana, vehicles [LW1] [RY]

Letter 'A'. A sutra says, calling out: "Shubhuti, the letter transcending superficial convention is ultimately unborn natural state, the nonarising essence of 'A' endowed with the threefold emancipation. The empty essence of this 'A' is itself the luminous nature of mind; it utterly transcends all confines of constructs such as the permanence of being concrete or the discontinuance of being inconcrete." [RY]

Letter of Dispelling Sorrow (mya ngan bsal ba'i spring yig). A text of advices composed by Nagarjuna. [RY]

Letter to a Friend (bshes spring) [LW1] [RY]

Letter to a Friend (bshes spring); quotation from [LWx] [RY]

Letter to a Friend (Skt. Suhrllekha, Tib. bshes pa'i spring yig, T 4182) of Nagarjuna. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Letter to a Friend; Suhrllekha; (bshes spring); Nagarjuna, 1st-2nd century. [PK] [RY]

Leulag Magical Net (sgyu 'phrul le'u lag) [LW1] [RY]

Leulag Magical Net (sgyu 'phrul le'u lag) [LWx] [RY]

Leulag Magical Net (sgyu 'phrul le'u lag). A Mahayoga scripture. Vol. PHA of the Nyingma Gyübum. [ZL] [RY]

Level (sa). The levels or stages a bodhisattva traverses on the journey to complete enlightenment. [ZL] [RY]

Level of omniscience (thams cad mkhyen pa). Same as complete buddhahood. [RY]

levels of experience, four (nyams rim pa bzhi) See yogas, four. [Rain of Wisdom]

Leykyi Wangmo (las kyi dbang mo), Skt. Karma Indranila, Karmeshvari. The dakini who transmitted the Eight Sadhana Teachings to the Eight Vidyadharas and later the Assemblage of Sugatas to Padmasambhava. See also 'Kungamo.' [ZL] [RY]

Lha Thothori. [RY]

Lhagong Lupal [LW1] [RY]

Lhagyari kings are considered to be of celestial origin. See chap.10, note 5. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lhalung of Senge Go (senge mgo lha lung). [ZL] [RY]

Lhalung Palgyi Dorje (lha lung dpal gyi rdo rje). Born in Upper Drom, he was first a border guard but developed renunciation and received ordination from Vimalamitra, together with his two brothers. He received the bodhisattva vow from Padmasambhava as well as empowerment and oral instructions in Vajrayana. He practiced meditation in White Gorge of Tsib and at Yerpa where he reached the accomplishment of being able to traverse freely through solid rock. Years later he assassinated the evil king Langdarma. [ZL] [RY]

Lharje Deshek Zurpoche: 945-1012 [MR]

Lharu [LW1] [RY]

Lhasa (lha sa). 'Abode of the Gods.' The capital of Tibet and location of the famous Jokhang temple founded by King Songtsen Gampo. [ZL] [RY]

Lhasa Thil is the main part of the city of Lhasa; [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lhasa Trülnang (lha sa 'phrul snang). [ZL] [RY]

Lhasey Lotsawa. [RY]

Lhasey. [RY]

Lhasum Damdrak. [RY]

Lhatho Thori / (lha tho tho ri) - the 27th king of Tibet, who received a Buddhist Sutra, statue, and relic; regarded as an incarnation of Samantabhadra [RY]

Lhathori Nyentsen: 433 brings the first Buddhist scriptures to Tibet [MR] lHa-tho-tho-ri - The 27th king of Tibet, who received a Buddhist Sutra, statue, and relic; regarded as an incarnation of Samantabhadra. [Tarthang]

Lhatse Dzong; (lha rtse rdzong) or Drampa Lhatse; (gram pa lha rtse) The fortress of Lhatse (now destroyed) was built on a rock at the entrance of the Tsangpo gorge. One finds there the cave of Drokmi Lotsawa, an important translator of the lamdre teachings of the Sakya school and one the earliest teacher of Marpa. Below the Fortress was a Gelukpa Monastery, Lhatse Chöde (lha rtse chos sde). [MR]

Lhatsun Changchup Ö (lha btsun byang chub 'od) was the nephew of the King of Gu-gey, Lha Lama Yeshe Ö (lha bla ma ye shes 'od). Lha Lama sent envoys with offerings of gold to invite Atisha to Tibet so that he could restore the purity of the teachings, which were in decline. But Atisha refused. Meanwhile, Lha Lama was captured by the king of Garlog, who was alarmed at any effort to revive the teachings. The king demanded Lha Lama's weight in gold as ransom. When Changchup Ö brought it, Lha Lama said, "I am now old, and it matters little whether I live or not. Use the gold to bring Pandit Atisha here." So Changchup Ö sent Naktso Lotsawa to India with the invitation. Hearing that the king Lha Lama had sacrificed his life for the sake of the teachings, Atisha said he could not refuse the invitation, although he had received a prediction from Tara that he would live to the age of ninety-two if he remained in India but only until seventy-three if he went to Tibet. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lhatsün Chenpo Namkha Jigme, 1597-c.1650. (lha btsun nam mkha' 'jigs med). A pupil of Rigdzin Jatson Nyingpo and also of Dundul Dorje [bdud 'dul rdo rje] 1615-1672 to whom Jatson Nyingpo principally transmitted the Ratnasamanyasamgha, the Köncho Chidu, teachings. Namkha Jigme was himself a tertön, the discoverer of the "Attainment of the Vidyadhara Life" teachings [rig 'dzin srog sgrub] [Peter Roberts]

Lhatsün Namkhai Jigme: 1587-1653 [MR]

Lhatsün Ngönmo (lha dbang rgya mtsho blo gros). (gter ston lha btsun sngon mo), Revealed the terma of Liberating History of the Great Stupa Jarung Khashor. [RY]

Lhatsün Ngönmo (gter ston lha btsun sngon mo), (lha dbang rgya mtsho blo gros). Revealed the terma of Liberating History of the Great Stupa Jarung Khashor. [RY]

Lho brag bka' 'bum, the writings of Lodrak Drupchen Lekyi Dorje. See chap.1, note 61. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Lhodrak Po-ting (lho brag po mthing). [ZL] [RY]

Li ma, bronze alloy with a high percentage of silver and gold. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Liberated ground of primordial purity. [Daki] [RY]

Liberating History of the Great Stupa Jarung Khashor (mchod rten chen po bya rung kha shor gyi lo rgyus thos pas grol ba) by Lhatsün Ngönmo (gter ston lha btsun sngon mo, lha dbang rgya mtsho blo gros). 59 pages. Published recently in India. Translated by Keith Dowman as The Legend of the Great Stupa, Dharma Publishing, Berkeley. [ZL] [RY]

Liberating instructions (grol byed kyi khrid). Oral instructions received from an authentic master which, when practiced, liberate one's mind from delusion. [RY]

Liberating Sorcery of Mother Deities (ma mo rbod gtong) [LW1] [RY]

Liberating Sorcery of Mother Deities (ma mo rbod gtong). One of the Eight Sadhana Teachings of Mahayoga. [ZL] [RY]

Liberating Sorcery, Bötong (ma mo rbod gtong); transmission of [LW1] [RY]

Liberating Sorcery, Bötong, (rbod gtong); transmission of [LWx] [RY]

Liberation (thar pa). Emancipation from samsaric existence. [RY]

Liberation and omniscience (thar pa dang thams cad mkhyen pa). Refers to liberation from samsaric existence and the state of complete enlightenment. [RY]

Liberation Bodhichitta Sadhana of Pure Compassion (snying rje dag pa sgrol ba byang chub sems kyi sgrub pa). [ZL] [RY]

liberation of the upper gate (steng sgo rnam grol); as e and vam [LW1] [RY]

liberation of the upper gate (steng sgo rnam grol); as 'e and wam'; reference [LWx] [RY]

Liberation Through Hearing in the Bardo (bardo thos grol). Published in English as Liberation Through Hearing in the Bardo. Trungpa and Freemantle, Shambhala Publications. [RY]

Liberation Through Hearing, the Bardo Thödrol (bar do thos grol) and The Self-liberation through Awareness Seen in its Nakedness (rig pa ngo sprod gcer mthong rang grol) belongs to the famous cycle of rediscovered teachings of Karma Lingpa (1326-?, see GC, vol.2 pp. 714-8 and NS, pp. 800-801), known as The Peaceful and Wrathful Deities, Self-liberated Wisdom Mind (zhi khro dgongs pa rang grol). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Liberation, Freedom (moksa, thar pa). Release from the bondage of samsara, whether as a Arhant or as a Buddha, the latter being 'Great Liberation.' [RY]

Licchavi [LW1] [RY]

Licchavi [LWx] [RY]

Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava, The; Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, 1978. [ZL] [RY]

Life and Teaching of Chokgyur Lingpa [LW1] [RY]

Life and Teaching of Chokgyur Lingpa, The: Stories of a great tertön by Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche, Rangjung Yeshe Publications, Boudhanath. [ZL] [RY]

Life and Teachings of Chokgyur Lingpa; [LWx] [RY]

Life Story of Dorje Dröllo by Taksham Nüden Dorje. (bla ma rdo rje gro lod kyi rnam thar). A life story of Padmasambhava focusing on the esoteric meaning of his wrathful manifestation as Dorje Dröllo. [ZL] [RY]

Life Story of Padmasambhava by Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thaye (1813-1899). A Short Biography of Guru Rinpoche extracted from The Precious Garland of Lapis Lazuli, an explanation of termas and a collection of life stories of the 108 main tertöns written by Jamgön Kongtrül the First and found in Vol I of his Rinchen Terdzö. Tibetan title: zab mo'i gter dang gter ston grub thob ji ltar byon pa'i lo rgyus rin po che bai dur-ya'i phreng ba. An English translation of this extract is included in Dakini Teachings, Shambhala Publications, 1990. [ZL] [RY]

Life Story of Vairochana by Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thaye (1813-1899). 71 pages. Tibetan title: vai ro rnam thar padma'i dga' tshal. Short terma in poetic verse form. Included by His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse in the Rinchen Terdzö. [ZL] [RY]

Life Story Yeshe Tsogyal by Namkhai Nyingpo. Tibetan title: bod kyi jo mo ye shes mtsho rgyal gyi mdzad tshul rnam par thar pa gab pa mngon byung rgyud mang dri za'i glu phreng. Woodblock of the manuscript available at Sangdog Palri Temple in Kalimpong, India. Recently translated by Tarthang Tulku as Mother of Knowledge, Dharma Publishing, and by Keith Dowman as Sky Dancer, Rutledge and Kegan Paul. [ZL] [RY]

life-faculty (srog gi dbang po) [LW1] [RY]

life-force and spirit. The Tibetan is bla. It has no equivalent in the Sanskrit, but is a native Tibetan concept. In scholarly texts it is described as being a synonym for life-force, and that which is a basis for the consciousness, though in popular use has more the meaning of that which remains briefly within a corpse and leaving it has an immaterial existence independent of the deceased's mind. The meaning here is the first interpretation. [Peter Roberts]

Life-mastery Vidyadhara (tshe dbang rig 'dzin). The second of the four vidyadhara levels. [RY]

life-pillars [LW1] [RY]

life-upholding wind (srog 'dzin gyi rlung) [LW1] [RY]

Life-wheel, hail and spells (srog ser gtad gsum). Three aspects of protective tantric rituals. [ZL] [RY]

Life-wind (srog rlung). One of the five major 'winds' or pranas. Here it refers to the original 'life-wind' which is the functioning of wisdom. [RY]

light-body ('od kyi sku) [LW1] [RY]

L continued

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