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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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Abandonment and Realization - (spangs rtogs)- ཨཱ

Abandonment and Realization. (RY)

renunciation/ abandoning and realization. (IW)

abandonment and realization. (RY)

bla ma'i thugs rgyud kyi spangs rtogs kyi yon tan the qualities of freedom and realization of the teacher's wisdom mind. (RY) - A synonym for 'buddhahood' or 'enlightenment.' (bla ma'i thugs rgyud kyi spangs rtogs kyi yon tan)- ཨཱ
བླ་མའིཐུགས་རྒྱུད་ཀྱི་སྤངས་རྟོགས་ཀྱི་ཡོན་ཏན་། - the qualities of freedom and realization of the teacher's wisdom mind. (RY)

Abhidana of the Samvara Tantra - a tantric text. RY

Abbot, the Master, and the Dharma King: are Shantarakshita, Padmasambhava, and Trisong Deutsen

Abhidharma (chos mngon pa) ཨཱ

Abhidharma, knowledge, 'actual things', metaphysics. [RY]

Abhidharma [undefiled prajna rjes 'brangs dang bcas pa &, manifesting that, the prajnas of hearing and contemplating etc. &, texts showing these, chiefly teaching the precepts of proper prajna, both bka' and commentaries, Abhidharma, knowledge, 'actual things', metaphysics]. [IW]

Abhidharma. [RY]

Abhidharma - knowledge, phenomenology. [JV]

phenomenology. [RY]

Abhidharma. [RY]

Abhidharma. One of the three parts of the Tripitaka, the Words of the Buddha. Systematic teachings on metaphysics focusing on developing discriminating knowledge by analyzing elements of experience and investigating the nature of existing things. [RY]


One of the Three Baskets of Buddhist teachings.

There are several different explanations of the term abhidharma. Master Vasubandhu explains that it means manifestly directed towards the characteristics of dharmas. He wrote in the Treasury of Abhidharma:

Abhidharma is stainless full knowing, its following included,/ In order to attain it, whatever and whichever treatise.

In this explanation, abhidharma refers both to the undefiled realization of Nobles and to the shes rab and treatises by which one can attain that realization.

Similarly, in the Ornament of the Sutras, Maitreya explains that the word abhi or manifest means seeing or being seen and refers to shes rab.

Master Buddhaghosa, however, explains it as "meaning 'that which exceeds and is distinguished from the Dhamma'... the prefix abhi having the sense of preponderance and distinction, and dhamma here signifying the teaching of the Sutta Piṭaka." Based on such descriptions, some translators translate the term as "higher dharma" or "further dharma." [Excerpted from the Abhidhamma Sangaha: A Compendium of Abhidhamma.]

The abhidharma was first collected in the Seven Treatises of Abhidharma, which compiled and systematized the teachings of the sutras. DKC</noinclude>1) systematic teachings which analyze elements of experience and investigate the nature of existence, thus dispelling wrong views and establishing analytic insight. 2) One of the three parts of the Tripitaka, the Words of the Buddha, the essence of which is prajna, or discriminating knowledge (kun rtogs ye shes). 3) Branch of Buddhist literature and practice concerned with the analysis of phenomena into their elementary constituents (dharmas). 4) Systematic teachings on metaphysics focusing on the training and developing of discriminating knowledge by analyzing elements of experience and investigating the nature of existing things. The chief commentaries on Abhidharma are the Abhidharma Kosha by Dignaga from the Hinayana perspective, and the Abhidharma Samucchaya by Asanga from the Mahayana point of view. Dignaga was a disciple of Vasubandhu. Vasubandhu was later converted to Mahayana by Asanga. RY

Abhidharma Kosha -(mngon pa mdzod)-. An authoritative scripture on Buddhist metaphysics according to Hinayana, composed by the Indian pandita Dignaga. RY

Abhidharma Pitaka -(mngon pa'i sde snod)-. One of The Three Pitakas -(sde snod gsum)-, containing the foundation of Buddhist psychology and logic. It describes the universe, the various types of beings, the steps on the path to enlightenment, refutes wrong views and so forth. RY

Abhidharma Samuccaya -(mngon pa kun btus)-. An authoritative scripture on Buddhist metaphysics according to Mahayana, composed by the Indian pandita Asanga. RY

Abhisamaya Lamkara -(mngon rtogs rgyan)- The 'Ornament of Realization' authored by Maitreya and written down by Asanga. It explains the paths and bhumis of the bodhisattva vehicle. RY

Abhisheka -(dbang bskur)-. See empowerment. RY


Absolute (yongs grub); unchanging ('gyur med yongs grub), expl.; unmistaken (phyin ci ma log pa'i yongs grub), expl. [LWx] RY

absolute bodhicitta -(don dam byang chub gyi sems)- corresponds to the realization of emptiness. The relative bodhicitta -(kun rdzob byang chub kyi sems)- is the wish to attain enlightenment for the sake of others and the putting of this wish into action. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Abu -(a bu)-. Another name for Paltrul Rinpoche, Jigme Choskyi Wangchuk (1808-87), also known as Dzogchen Palge Tulku. RY

Acarya -(slob dpon)- master. RY

Acceptance -(bzod pa)- One of the 'four aspects of ascertainment' attained on the path of joining. RY

Acceptance of the profound Dharma -(zab mo'i chos la bzod pa)- Acceptance of Emptiness; that dharmas are unproduced. RY

Acceptance that dharmas are unproduced - (mi skye ba'i chos la bzod pa) Skt. anutpattika-dharma-ksanti - An important realization gained on entry to the eighth Bodhisattva Stage. RY

Accomplishment -(dngos grub, Skt. siddhi)- 1) See 'supreme and common siddhis 2)-(sgrub pa)- See 'four aspects of approach and accomplishment.'. 3) The result of the practice. RY

Accomplishment of Means and Knowledge (thabs shes grub pa) LW1 RY

Accomplishment of Nonduality (gnyis med grub pa) LW1 RY

Accomplishment of Secrets (gsang ba grub pa) LW1 RY

Accomplishment of Thatness to Clearly Encompass Reality (dngos po gsal ba'i rjes su 'gro ba'i de kho na nyid grub pa) LW1 RY

Accomplishment of the Great Secret Thatness (gsang ba chen po de nyid grub pa) LW1 RY

Accomplishment of the Innate (lhan skyes grub pa) LW1 RY

Accomplishment of Wisdom (ye shes grub pa) LW1 RY

Accomplishment. 1) (dngos grub), Skt. siddhi. The attainment resulting from Dharma practice usually referring to the 'supreme accomplishment' of complete enlightenment. It can also mean the 'common accomplishments,' eight mundane accomplishments such as clairvoyance, clairaudiance, flying in the sky, becoming invisible, everlasting youth, or powers of transmutation. The most eminent attainments on the path are, however, renunciation, compassion, unshakable faith and realization of the correct view. See also 'supreme and common accomplishments.' 2) (sgrub pa). See also 'approach and accomplishment.'[AL] RY

Accumulation of merit (bsod nams kyi tshogs) - Virtuous actions or meditation practice carried out with conceptual mind; for instance, the concepts of oneself, the deed and the purpose. [Bardo Guide 91] RY

Accumulation of wisdom (ye shes kyi tshogs). Virtuous actions embraced by the discriminating knowledge (shes rab) of insight into emptiness, naked mind free from conceptual thinking.. RY

Accumulation(s) (tshogs). The provisions for journeying along the path of enlightenment. See the 'Accumulations, the two.' RY

Accumulations, the two (tshogs gnyis). The accumulations of merits and of Wisdom-knowledge that one must gather by practicing the Perfections so as to achieve Enlightenment. RY

Acharya Lilavajra. One of the Indian mahasiddhas. RY

Acharya Nagarjuna (slob dpon klu sgrub). A great Indian master of philosophy. He was named "Naga Master" because he taught the beings in the naga world and returned with the extensive version of Prajnaparamita left in their safe keeping. RY

Acharya Padma. [Daki] RY

Acharya Padmavajra. [Daki] RY

Acharya Shantipa (slob dpon shan ti pa) - An Indian master in the Mahamudra lineage. RY

Acharya Tubten Chöphel LW1 RY

Action dagger (las phur) - The kilaya for fulfilling the activities in the practice of Vajra Kilaya. RY

Action Family (karma-kula, las kyi rigs (tshogs)) - The Family of Amoghasiddhi. RY

Action resembling its cause (byed pa rgyu mthun) - The ripening of karma showing itself as the tendency to repeat the same kind of action. RY

action seal LW1 RY

Action Tantra (bya ba'i rgyud) - Kriya LW1 RY

Action without intermediate (mtshams med pa'i las) - Five actions with the most severe karmic effect: killing one's mother, one's father, or an arhant; causing schism in the sangha of monks; and drawing blood from a tathagata with evil intent. These actions can also be called 'immediates' because their karmic effect will ripen immediately after death without leaving time to go through a bardo state. ZL RY

Action, act, activity, rite (karman; las, phrin las, 'phrin las). For the activity of a Buddha, or for Tantric rites, Tib. often used the honorific (')phrin las, which I have sometimes translated as 'divine action' or 'divine activity'. The 'four activities' or 'four rites' are Pacifying or Calming, Increasing, Subjugating or Subduing, and Fierceness. See also karma. RY

Activities (las, phrin las). Usually referring to the four activities of pacifying, increasing, magnetizing and subjugating. ZL RY

Activities. See 'four activities.' RY

Activity dakinis. [Daki] RY

Activity Garland Tantra (kar ma ma le 'phrin las kyi rgyud) - A Mahayoga scripture listed here as one of the Six Secret Sections. Sometimes also mentioned as one of the Eighteen Mahayoga Tantras as the tantra of enlightened activity. Texts with this name are found both in Vol. TSA and SHA of the Nyingma Gyübum. ZL RY

Activity practices (las tshogs). They refer chiefly to the four activities of pacifying, increasing, magnetizing and subjugating. RY

Adamantine, Concentration called (Vajropamo nama samadhih, rdo rje lta bu zhes bya ba'i ting nge 'dzin). The concentration in which Liberation or the Enlightenment of a Buddha is attained. Called 'destroyer of hostile forces' (para-sainya-pramardin) since it eliminates the last obstructions. RY

Adhi Rinpoche (a dhih rin po che LW1 RY

Adi Buddha Samantabhadra (mdod ma'i sangs rgyas kun tu bzang po). 1) The primordially enlightened buddha. 2) the all-pervasive primordial Buddha from whom radiates the five Dhyanibuddhas; the representation of dynamic energy that brings from into existence. RY

Adityabandhu (nyi ma'i gnyen: kinsman or friend of the sun) An epithet of Buddha Shakyamuni.

Aeon (bskal pa, Skt. Kalpa) - 1) World-age, period, cosmic cycle. 2) World-age, cosmic cycle. 3) Cosmic period. There are small aeons, intermediate aeons and big aeons. An intermediate aeon consists of two small aeons, and a big aeon consists of 80 intermediate aeons. 4) Aeon of Strife (rtsod dus) LW1 RY

Afflicted mind consciousness (nyon yid kyi rnam shes) - A term used in the abhidharma teachings. It is one of the eight consciousnesses which harbors the thought "I am" and is the basis for all negative emotions. One of the eight collections. RY

Affliction (kun nyon) state of, LW1 RY

Agang Monastery (a 'gang), at Machuka (rma chu kha). There is a miraculously-formed image of Hayagriva known as rma khar rta mgrin rang byung. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Age of Destruction ('jig dus). When seven suns blaze and the whole world is consumed in a firestorm RY

age of residues (snyigs dus), which is characterized by a degeneration in 1) the life span (tshe), 2) the general karma (las), 3) the view (lta ba), and 4) the faculties of beings (sems can), as well as by 5) an increase of the obscuring emotions (nyon mongs). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Age of Strife (kali-yuga, rtsod dus). 1) The present world-age. 2) The present world-age dominated by decline and degeneration. ZL RY

Aggregate(s) (phung po). See 'five aggregates.' RY

Agitation (rgod pa). The state of mind disturbed by thoughts and emotions. RY

Agitation and fading (layauddhatya, bying rgod). faults of meditation. RY

Agnean - Another name for the Central Asian Dharma language known as Tokharian A RY

Agni (agni, anala; me lha). The Vedic god of fire, guardian of the south-eastern direction. RY

Aids to Bodhi, or to Enlightenment (bodhi-paksika-dharma, byang chub phyogs chos). A series of seven groups of qualities - thirty-seven in all - to be practiced at successive stages of the Path. RY

Aishvara LW1 RY

Ajanta - Site of major Buddhist cave temples; the later Mahayana temples are renowned for their art RY

Ajatashatru - 1) Son of bimbisara and ruler of Magadha at the time of the Parinirvana; he provided for the needs of the First Council 2) Son of King Bimbishara of Magadha. Abetted by the rebellious Devadatta, he we usurped the throne, imprisoned his parents, and starved them to death. After he had conquered and annexed neighboring states, laying the foundation for the unification of India, he became afflicted with a skin disease. Remorseful, he went to the Buddha to repent his sin and take refuge in him. After the Buddha's parinirvana, King Ajatashatru sponsored the 500 arhats to collect the Buddha's teachings. Indian Buddhism is greatly indebted to the converted King Ajatashatru for his prevalence and prosperity. RY

Ajita (ma pham pa). See Maitreya LW1 RY

Ajita, the Indefeatable (ma pham pa), Maitreya. RY

Akanishta {'og min}. 1) Non-higher. The highest Buddhafield. There are six places that have this name, from the eighth paradise of the gods of the fourth concentration up to the absolute Akanishta, which is inconceivable. 2) the highest of the heavens of the form realm. 3) The 'highest;' the realm of Vajradhara, the dharmakaya buddha. Can also refer to the highest abode of gods in the form realms. 4) For a discussion of the various types of Akanishtha, see Gyurme Dorje's translation of Longchen Rabjam's phyogs bcu mun sel. 5) The 'highest;' the realm of Vajradhara, the enlightened sphere the dharmakaya buddha. Often used as a synonym for 'dharmadhatu.' 6) ultimate (don gyi 'og min)RYDzogchen Primer

Akanishta realm ('og min gyi zhing). The highest buddha realm. RY

Akaramatisila - brought back altogether five statues of Avalokitesvara, which became among the most venerated ones in Tibet and Nepal. The four others are the Jowo Lokeshvara which is still kept in the Potala at Lhasa, the Jowo Wati Sangpo of Kyirong (see chap.12, note 21, the Jowo Jamali at Kathmandu and the Jowo Ukhangpa (u khang pa) in Patan (Kathmandu). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Akhu Tersey - RY

Akshobhya - (mi bskyod) 1) one of the five Dhyani buddhas; his Sambhogakaya form is Vajrasattva. 2) (mi bskyod pa). 'Imperturbable', n. of a Buddha, Lord of the 5 Vajra Families. 3) The chief buddha of the 5 Vajra Families. The manifestion of mirror-like wisdom. RY

Akshobhya (mi bskyod pa) - the lord of the 5 Vajra Families, dwelling in Abhirati (mngon dga') - the eastern Buddhafield. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Aku - is used to address a paternal uncle, but is also used for a monk or a priest, independent of any family ties. Similarly, "Ashang" is used to address a maternal uncle, but is also used for any layman. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Alak (a lag) - is an honorific title given to lamas and notables in Amdo. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Alaya (kun gzhi) - The basis of all of Samsara and Nirvana. See 'all-ground.'Dzogchen Primer [RY

alayavijnana (kun gzhi'i rnam shes) - See all-ground consciousness LW1 RY

Ali Kali - means the A-string and the Ka-string. The 16 vowels and 30 consonants of the Sanskrit alphabet. LW1 RY

Alidha (g.yas brkyang g.yon bskum). A posture, either sitting or standing, in which the left leg is bent more sharply than the right. RY

All-encompassing purity (snang srid dag pa rab 'byams) - the all-encompassing purity of appearance and existence, infinite purity of phenomena, infinite purity of appearance and existence. All which appears and exists (snang srid thams cad), the world and the beings - is actually all-encompassing purity. We really should understand this: everything, all world-systems and all beings — whatever appears and exists, meaning the 'perceived' and the 'perceiver' — all takes place as the sphere of the Three Kayas. (Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya, Nirmanakaya). Everything originates as the Three Kayas, takes place as the sphere of the Three Kayas, and dissolves back again as the sphere of the three kayas. Dzogchen Primer RY

All-accomplishing wisdom (bya ba grub pa'i ye shes) - One of The Five Wisdoms; the transmutation of envy. RY

All-embodying Jewel Scripture (rin chen kun 'dus kyi lung) - One of the Eighteen Major Scriptures of the Mind Section of Dzogchen. ZL RY

All-embodying One - Vairochana (kun rigs rnam par snang mdzad) is a deity who embodies the 5 Vajra Families. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

All-encompassing Bliss Scripture (bde ba rab 'byams kyi lung). One of the Eighteen Major Scriptures of the Mind Section of Dzogchen. Vol. Ka of the Nyingma Gyübum. ZL RY

All-Encompassing Knowledge (shes bya kun khyab) LW1 RY

All-encompassing purity (dag pa rab 'byams). The elements and skandhas of the world and its beings, are, in their pure aspects, the five male buddhas and five female buddhas (rgyal ba yum lnga). RY

All-encompassing purity of appearance and existence (snang srid dag pa rab 'byams) - 1) A term used especially in the teachings of the Inner Tantras demonstrating that all phenomena are inherently perfect; the five aggregates are the five male buddhas, and so forth. 2) A term used especially in the teachings of the maha, anu and ati tantras demonstrating that all phenomena are inherently perfect. [Bardo Guide 91] RY

All-ground (kun gzhi) - Skt. Alaya - 1) Literally it means the 'foundation of all things.' The basis of mind and both pure and impure phenomena. This word has different meanings in different contexts and should be understood accordingly. Sometimes, it is synonymous with Buddha Nature or Dharmakaya, the recognition of which is the basis for all pure phenomena; other times, as in the case of the 'ignorant all-ground,' it refers to a neutral state of dualistic mind which is not yet embraced by innate wakefulness and thus is the basis for samsaric experience 2) ground of all of Samsara and Nirvana. Dzogchen PrimerRY

All-ground consciousness (kun gzhi'i rnam par shes pa). The cognizant aspect of the 'All-ground,' like the brightness of a mirror. (kun gzhi'i rnam shes) definition of; expl.; in relation to ignorance LW1 RY

All-ground for manifold tendencies (bag chags sna tshogs pa'i kun gzhi) The alaya serving as the basis for samsaric tendencies. LW1 RY

all-ground for true application (sbyor ba don gyi kun gzhi) LW1 RY

all-ground wisdom (kun gzhi'i ye shes) LW1 RY

All-ground; as basis for both confusion and liberation cognizant quality of expl.; in relation to 'disturbed mind consciousness'; pure all-ground (dag pa'i kun gzhi) [Lwx] RY

All-Holding Lotus (pad ma kun tu 'chang). See Padmasambhava LW1 RY

All-illuminating samadhi (kun tu snang ba'i ting nge 'dzin). The second of the three samadhis. compassion arising out of emptiness. RY

All-knowing King of Dharma (kun mkhyen chos kyi rgyal po). See Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. RY

All-Pervading Adornment by Jigmey Lingpa (1729-1798). 671 pages. Vol. 34 in the Nyingma Gyübum. Tibetan title: de bzhin gshegs pas legs par gsungs pa'i gsung rab rgya mtsho'i snying por gyur pa rig pa 'dzin pa'i sde snod dam snga 'gyur rgyud 'bum rin po che'i rtogs pa brjod pa 'dzam gling mtha'i gru khyab pa'i rgyan. ZL RY

All-pervasive suffering of being conditioned (khyab pa 'du byed kyi sdug bsngal). The third of the three sufferings. It is perpetuated by the continuation of the five aggregates. 2) all-pervasive suffering of formations (khyab pa 'du byed kyi sdug bsngal) LW1 RY

all-pervasive suffering of formations (khyab pa 'du byed kyi sdug bsngal) LW1 RY

Altan Khan - Sixteenth century Mongol leader who converted to the Dharma, establishing priest-patron relationship with Third Dalai Lama RY

Ama Khandroma (a ma mkha' 'gro ma) was said to be a human descendant of the dakini guardian of Tsari. See Wylie (1962, 94). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ama Tsomen Gyalmo (a ma mtsho sman rgyal mo), the chief among the four sisters (sman mo) who are guardians of the Lake. She is the wife of one of Machen Pomra's nephews. See also chap.6, note 23. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Amazing Emanated Scriptures (ya mtshan sprul pa'i glegs bam). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Amban and assistant Amban were the Chinese emperor's representatives in Lhasa, from 1727 to 1912. The emperor himself was known in Tibet as the Jamyang Gongma, or, in full, "God of the Skies, Exalted Manjusri, Great Lord" (gnam gyi lha 'jam dbyangs gong ma bdag po chen po), a title that the fifth Dalai Lama, on the occasion of his visit to Peking in 1653, conferred upon the Manchu ruler (China being considered to be the Buddhafield of Manjusri). The Ambans at the time of this story were Wen'gan (who stayed at Lhasa from 1820 to 1823) and Linghai (1819 to 1821). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Amdo. mdo stod - 1) the Khams region, the Amdo region RY

Amendment of Breaches of Secret Mantra (sngags kyi spang skong). Name of tantric scripture. ZL RY

Amitabha ('od dpag med pa, a mi de ba). 'Measureless Light', name of a Buddha, Lord of the Lotus Family and of the Sukhavati Pure Land. usually red in color. RY

Amitabha (snang ba mtha' yas). The chief buddha of the lotus family and lord of the pure land Sukhavati. He is also the manifestation of discriminating wisdom. ZL RY

Amitabha Temple (snang ba mtha' yas kyi gling). A temple at Samye. ZL RY

Amitabha. See Buddha Amitabha LW1 RY

Amitayus (tshe dpag med) LW1 RY

Amitayus (tshe dpag med) Lit. 'Buddha of Infinite Life; The Buddha of long life. Buddha associated with the 'Long life initiation.' RY

Amitayus (tshe dpag med). See Buddha Amitayus. ZL RY

Amnye Getho (a myes ge tho): a line of red cliffs inhabited by the mountain god of the Jasa tribe. It is two days' walk from Ragya Monastery, through the Sharlung Valley (shar lung), across the Machu River. (See Rock, 1956). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Amogha Pasha (don yod zhags pa). A tantra belonging to Kriya Yoga also known as Meaningful Lasso Tantra. ZL RY

Amoghasiddhi (don (yod) grub (pa)). 'Unfailing Accomplishment', n. of a Buddha, Lord of Action Family. RY

Amoghasiddhi (don grub) one of the Five Dhyanibuddhas. RY

Amoghasiddhi (don yod grub pa). The chief buddha of the karma family. The manifestation of All-accomplishing wisdom. RY

Amoghavajra - Eighth century tantric master in China; also active in Sri Lanka RY

Amravati - Buddhist center in souther India; home of a famous Stupa and a major Buddhist school of art RY

Amrita (bdud rtsi). lit. 'Deathless': nectar, ambrosia (conferring immortality or other powers). RY

Amrita (bdud rtsi). Same as 'Nectar Quality,' the heruka of the ratna family among the Eight Sadhana Teachings and the tantric teachings connected with that deity. [AL] RY

Amrita (bdud rtsi). The 'nectar of immortality,' the drink of the gods. RY

Amrita {sman}. Inner offering which symbolizes the five meats and the five nectars. RY

Amrita and rakta (sman rak). Two types of blessed substance used on the shrine in Vajrayana rituals.[AL] RY

Amrita and rakta. RY

Amrita Medicine (bdud rtsi sman) LW1 RY

An Shih-kao - Second century Parthian monk who founded translation center at Lo-yang in China RY

Analytical meditation {dpyad sgom}. Meditation practice where whatever thought that occurs in the mind is analyzed. RY

Ananda (kun dga' bo) - 1) One of the ten close disciples of the Buddha. The Buddha's personal attendant, who recited the Sutras at the First Council and served as the second patriarch in the oral transmission of Dharma. 2) The cousin of the Buddha Shakyamuni who became his attendant. After the Buddha passed away he preserved the teachings by remembering everything that the Buddha had said. 3) A cousin, and long-time attendant of Buddha Shakyamuni. Ananda was noted for his great learning and was present at most of the Buddha's preachings. He was said to remember all the sutras, and to have recited them at the time of their compilation. RY

Anathapindada, (alt. sp. Anathapindika) Garden of - A garden in the Jeta Grove near Shravasti, where Buddha Shakyamuni gave numerous sermons. So named because it was donated to Buddha by the elder Anathapindada. See Jeta Grove. RY

Anathapindika (alt. sp. Anathapindada) (mgon med zas sbyin): one of the most generous benefactors of Lord Buddha. He acquired the Jetavana Grove at Sravasti and built in it a monastery where the Buddha and his disciples spent their yearly rainy-season retreat for nineteen years. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Anavatapta – naga Anavatapta, "Who Never Warms Up " (ma dros pa). [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ancient Tradition (rnying ma) and the New Tradition (gsar ma) correspond to the "early" and the "later" stages of translating Buddhist scriptures into Tibetan. [MR-ShabkarNotes]

Ancient Kings of Tibet - The ancient kings of Tibet, descended from the Licchavis of India, ruled Tibet for hundreds of years. There were five dynasties which reigned before the great Dharma Kings: the Seven Khri beginning with Nyatri Tsenpo (gnya' khri bstan po); the Two ltengs; the 8 lde kings; and the Five Powerful Ones (btsan lnga), the last of whom was tho tho ri gnyan btsan. During his reign, the Dharma entered Tibet in the form of Buddhist relics, dharanis, texts, and mantras. Although the king did not understand the full significance of these things, he recognized the holiness of these objects, and so kept and preserved them carefully. After lha tho tho ri, four kings ruled before the first of the Dharma Kings: khri gnyan gzungs btsan, 'bro gnang lde, stag ri gnang gzigs, and gnam ri srong btsan. RY

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The Rangjung Yeshe Gilded Palace of Dharmic Activity (Front Cover)

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