Geographical Glossary from Matthieu Ricard

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Geographical Glossary from Matthieu Ricard

Geographical Glossary from Matthieu Ricard

To be used for making individual pages, with hyperlinks. All entries should be marked with "[MR]"

Pemakö (padma bkod)
From Powo: Dashong-la, Chendruk Nang, Chenrezig Lhatso, Tsandrak Latsa, Tsandra Thang, Dorsem Podrang, then down to Rinchen Pung, Metok, and back up to Buddha Tsephuk, and Namchak Barwa GE
Lundrub Teng in Derge, founded in 1616 at a site originally consecrated by Thangtong Gyalpo.

Nine regions of Tibet (bod yul gling dgu)
stod: guge, pu hrangs, mang yul.
smad: padma rab sgang, khams sgang, tsha ba sgang.
bar: dbus, gtsang, dwags kong E gnyal.

dbu and gtsang extends from gung thang in mnga' ris, ([[which is located in the modern rdzong dga'(kha?) near ding ri, to sog la skya bo or sog g.yag la near so dgon.

mdo stod extends from sog la skya bo to the rma chu khug pa (the bend of Machu around Amnye Machen).

mdo smad goes from rma chu khug pa to rgya mchod rtan dkar po (the White Chinese Stupa) near the Ka chu River and Tho chu River, between Lanchou and Yung Ching in Kansu Province.
'brug se ba byang chos gling founded in 1189 (?) or between 1205 and 1207


The Thirteen Myriarchies (khri skor bcu gsum) of Tibet:
dbus
1. rgya ma
2. 'bri gung
3. tshal pa
4. thang po che
5. phag ru
6. g.ya bzang gtsang
7. lho and
8. byang of la stod
9. gur mo
10. chu mig
11. shangs
12. zha lu
13. yar 'brog

The Valley of Yon
Ngari Traksang (mnga' ri grwa tshang)

A large Gelukpa monastery built in 1541 under the auspices of the Second Dalai Lama Gedun Gyatso. It stands like a fortress on an eminence dominating the entrance of the Yon Valley.

Yonpu Taksang ('on phu stag tshang)

One of the thirteen taksang, or "Tiger Lairs", sacred caves in Tibet and Bhutan blessed by Guru Rinpoche. He was in Yonpu Taksang, situated high at the head of the Yonpu Valley, that Guru Padmasambhava gave to Khandro Yeshey Tsogyal, the empowerment of Vajra Kilaya.



Thagchi Gonpa (ban pa thag phyi) also known as Chithig Gonpa (phyi thig), in East Lodrak, the place well known to many pilgrims as Benpa Chador. People suffering from leprosy would come to circle the temple and paint gold on the face of the embalmed image. Often, the gold on the face would be seen to crack as image took on the illness of the pilgrim. A place connected with Lodrak Drupchen Lekyi Dorje (lho brag grub chen las kyi rdo rje, 1326-1401).



Densatil ([[]])

The monastery of Densatil, which has been thoroughly destroyed by the Chinese, laid West of Ngari Traksang, at the limit of Yon and Sangri, in a scenic valley with high cliffs, cascades, and beautiful groves of flowering shrubs and juniper trees. It was founded by Phagmo Drupa ([[]]) who lived lived there in a small meditation hut constructed of willow sticks. Many disciples soon flocked near Phagmo Drupa among whom the founders of many sub-school the the Kagyu lineage. After Phagmo Drupa's desmise, the place became attached to the Drigungpas who built a large monastery. Densatil was then doomed to become a political place with the rise of the Phagmo Drupa oligarchy who reigned over Tibet from ***.

Sangri Kharmar (zangs ri mkhar kmar)

The Red Citadel (Kharmar) is thus called because is was built upon a red rock, at the southern extremity of the Copper Mountain (Sangri), overloooking the northern banks of the Tsangpo river. On the cliff-face to the west of the temple (which was destroyed by the Chinese) is Machik Labdrön's (1055-1149) meditation cave.

Tashilhunpo

Tashilhunpo was founded in 1447 by Gedun Drup (1391-1475) Tsongkhapa' nephew and disciple, who was retrospectively designated as the first Dalai Lama, and whose relics where preserved in a stupa at Tashilhunpo.

It became the seat of the Panchen Lama, who are said to be incarnation of Buddha Amitabha. The first Panchen Lama who holded such a title was Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen (1570-1662), who was declared by the 5th Dalai Lama (1617-1682), his disciple, to be the 4th Tulku of Khedrup Je (1385-1438), on the two chief disciples of Tsongkhapa (1357-1419). Tashilhunpo used to house upto four thousand monks.

Ngor Ewam Chöden (ngor evam chos ldan)

The second most important monastery of the Sakya school was founded in 1429 by Ngorchen Kunga Sangpo (1382-1444). It became famous for being the seat of the Lamdre teachings, and sheltered a rich library which included a large collection of Sanskrit manuscripts.

Sakya (sa skya)

The seat of the Sakya school, Sakya was founded by Konchog Gyalpo of the powerful Khön family, in 1073. Its main temple, the impressive Great Miraculously Appeared Temple was erected in 1268, and it is the only building among the over hundred temples of Sakya's monastic complex which survived the Chinese destruction.
Lhatse Dzong (lha rtse rdzong) or Drampa Lhatse (gram pa lha rtse)

The fortress of Lhatse (now destroyed) was built on a rock at the entrance of the Tsangpo gorge. One finds there the cave of Drokmi Lotsawa, an important translator of the lamdre teachings of the Sakya school and one the earliest teacher of Marpa. Below the Fortress was a Gelukpa Monastery, Lhatse Chöde (lha rtse chos sde).

Shelkar Dzong (shel dkar rdzong)

The Whitle Crystal Castle /Fortress, was the provincial capital for the Tingri area.

Shelkar Chöde (shel dkar chos sde)
A monastery founded by a Sakya Lama, Sindeu Rinchen, who then turned to the Geluk order.

Drampa Gyang (gram pa rgyangs)

One of the twelve missionary temple (mtha's 'dul gzugs *** lha khang) built in the 7th century by King Songtsen Gampo. Nearby was the Gyang Bumoche, an immense Trashi Gomang (many-doored) Stupa build by Thangthong Gyalpo and the Sakya master Sonam Tashi (1352-1412). Nearby is a small valley with Gyang Lompo Lhung a cave blessed by Guru Rinpoche.


Phuntsoling (phun tshog gling) and Jonang (jo nang)

Ganden Phuntsoling, or Jonang Monastery, was founded by Dolpupa Sherap Gyaltsen (1292-1361), whose established his hermitage nearby, an built the Great Stupa that Gives Liberation on Sight. /by Setting Eyes upon it. The place became later the seat of the great master Jetsun Taranatha Kunga Nyingpo (***).


Tingri Langkhor (ding ri glang 'khor)

Tingri Langkhor, which lies West of Tingri Dzong, was established in 1097 by the Indian yogin Padampa Sangye (-1117). The Langkor monastery, now in process of restoration, was built above the cave where Padampa meditated.

Mila Phuk in Nyelam (mi la phug)

Near Pelgyeling Monastery (the Place of Increase and Expansion, a name given by Milarepa himself). The monastery was built upon one the Namkha Ding Phug (Garuda Cave /Hovering in Space) where Milarepa meditated during several years, in the Nyelam valley (near the village of Shongang.) A litlle above is the Rechungpa's cave. Nyelam means the Path of Hell, referring to the tortuous passage dwon the Po Chu gorge to Shammo.


Netang Drolma Lhakang (sgrol ma lha khang)

Netang Drolma Lhakang was the main residence of Jowo Atisha in Tibet, and the place where he died in 1054. One finds there a statue of Atisha, regarded as is own likeness, some bone-relics of Atisha and his dharma robes.


Gyeling Tsokpa (rgyal gling tshogs pa, or brgyad gling)

A Sakya Monastery in Lower Dranang Valley.

Jampaling (byams pa gling), the Great Kumbum

A very vast Gelukpa monastic estate, when standed (before its total anihilation by the Chinese) the Great Stupa of the Thousand Images of Maitreya build by Jampalingpa Sonam Namgyel (1401-1475). It was an immense stupa with temples inside at each level. In the ground floor temple was a giant 50 m high image of Maitreya.

Neudong Dzong (sne'u gdong rdzong)

The site of the palace from which the Phagmodrupa family ruled Tibet during the 14th and 15th centuries.

Neudong Tse Tsokpa (sne'u gdong rtse tshog pa)

A Sakya monastery (now totally destroyed by the Chinese) situated at the foot of Neudong Dzong. It was founded by the Kasmiri Pandita Sakyashri (1145-1243). The temple sheltered a precious image of Sakyashri who talked as a person on several accasions.

The Power-Places of Central Tibet, The Pilgrim's Guide, by Keith Dowman, published by Routledge and Kegan Paul, London and New York, 1988, pp. 345.

The Tibet Guide, by Stephen Bachelor, published by Wisdom Publications, London, 1987, pp. 466

Lhasa, Ramoche Temple (ra mo che)

Ramoche is located to the east of the Potala and the north of the Jokhang. It was built at the same time as the Jokhang by the King Songsen Gampo's Chinese Queen, Wengchen Kongjo (Gyasa). It first housed the maing image of Jowo Shakyamuni, which Wengchen brought from China as her dowry. But soon after Songsen Gampo's death it was exchanged with the smaller Jowo which was then in the Jokhang, and became known from the onwards at the Smaller Jowo of Ramoche. The Ramoche Jowo, which was brought as her dowry by Bhrikuti, the King' Nepali wife was a statue of Akshobya.

The five sacred places blessed by Guru Rinpoche;:
(1) Trak Yerpa, brag yer pa, the holy place related to the body aspect, (2) Samye Chimpu, bsam yas mchim pu, the place related to the speech aspect, (3) Lhodrak Karchu, lho brag mkhar chu, the place related to the mind aspect, (4) Yarlung Sheltrak, yar klung shel brag, the place related to the quality aspect, and (5) Nering Senge Dzong, (in Mön, East Bhutan), nee ring seng ge rdzong, the place related to the activity aspect.

Trak Yerpa, (brag yer pa)

Drak Yerpa (brag yer pa) is the holy place of Guru Padmasambhava related to the speech aspect. In this palce of great scenic beauty there are over 80 caves where many great beings from all lineages meditated. On the top are the caves of Guru Padmasambhava (brag gi yang bgrod dka') and of Yeshe Tsogyal (gsang phug). Below is Drubthop Phug (grub thob phug) the great cave where the 80 siddhas of Yerpa (Guru Padmasambhava's disciples) meditated together. There is also Lord Atisha's cave (rten 'brel phug, or Atisa'i gzim phug).

There is also Dawa Phug (zla ba phug), a cave blessed by Guru Padmasambhava who left an imprint of his foot in the rock]]). Padampa Sangye, too, meditated in this cave. Nyima Phug (nyi ma phug) is another cave, uphill, blessed by Guru Rinpoche. Dorje Phug (rdo rje phug) is the cave where Lhalung Palkyi Dorje is said to have hid himself after assassinating King Langdarma in 842. Chögyal Phug (chos rgyal phug) is the cave where King Songtsen Gampo meditated. Chanag Dorje Phug (Phyag na rdo rje'i phug) comprise a serie of four south-facing caves.

At the invitation of Ngok Changchup Dorje, Jowo Atisha, accompanied by Drom Tönpa, came in 1047 and taught extensively at Yerpa, and established there the second Kadampa Monastery, Yerpa Drubde (yer pa sgrub sde)

At the very top of the cliff are Utse Phug (dbu rtse phug), Pukar Rabsel (phug dkar rab gsal) and Pema Phuk (pad ma phug)

The eight: sacred places blessed by Guru Padmasambhava for the practice of the Eight Herukas:
(1) Drak Yongdzong, sgrags yongs rdzong, the place related to the Heruka of the body family, Jampel Shinje, where Nup Sangye Yeshe achieved realization, (2) Samye Chimphu, bsam yas mchims phu, the place related to the Heruka of the lotus, speech family, Tamdrin, where Gyalwa Chöyang attained realization, (3) Lhodrak Karchu, lho brag mkhar chu, the place related to the Heruka of the mind family, Yandag, where Gelong Namkhainyinpo attained realization, (4) Yarlung Sheldrak, yar klung shel brag, the place related to the Heruka of the quality family, Dutsi Yönten, where Karchen Yeshe Shönnu attained realization, (5) Mönkha Senge Dzong, mon kha ne ring seng ge dzong, the place related to the Heruka of the activity family, Dorje Phurba, where Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal attained realization, (6) Yartö Shambo Khangra Yartö, yar stod sham po gangs rwa, the place related to the Mamo Bötong, where Dromi Palgi Senge attained realization, (7) Padro Taksang, spa phro stag tshang, the place related to Jigten Chöto, where Langchen Palseng, attained realization, and (8) Samye Drakmar Yamalung, bsam yas brag dmar g.ya' ma lung, the place related to the Möpa Tranak, where the Great Translator Vairocana attained realization.
Satellite temples of Samye ( bsams yas gling bzhi dang gling phran brgyad) rta mgrin gling, byams pa gling, sems bskyed gling, 'jam dpal gling, tshang mang gling, bdud 'dul sngags pa gling, sgra bsgyur gling, lung rten gling, mi g.yo bsam gtan gling, rin chen sna tshogs gling, dpe har ...gling, rnam ...khang gling.

[AC]
47/48 Amdo between Tsognon and Tsongkha?
48/ dmar gtsang brag: Kudung of Lachen
Tha yen chi che chung: in Ba khog
48/1 List of Monasteries
50/3 about a rig and hang nge


A 'gang monastery. The place of rma khar rta mgrin rang byung

Sog po mda' bcu gcig: A rig etc,.
Main distinctions in Golok: mgo log, dbal shul, mdzod dge nyin rsib.

52/3 in stod itself 6 districts: (1) skang tsha (2) gtsos...


[AC, I-4] AC = Amdo Chojung

mdo khams sgang drug and sgang gsum
Amdo mdo stod is until the rma chu'i khug pa
[AC, I-48]
Chusang Monastery (chu bzang) Ganden Mingyur Ling (dga'-ldan mi-'gyur gling); near there in ba khog the big and small Thayenchi retreat places (tha yan chi che chung) founded by Chu bzang rnam rgyal dpal 'byor, 1578-1651.
[AC, II-61 to 68]
brag dkar sprel rdzong near Hangne Chado Monastery (hang nge bya mdo dgon), North of Amnye Machen Range, east of the Machu River. Said to be a place filled with the same blessings as Tsari. There is a dkar chag (description) of the place written by Drigung Chotrag ('bri khung smyos chos kyi grags pa). In it one finds a prediction (condensed here) which says that in this degenerated age the Lotus Born Guru, Padmasambhava will go to Lake Trishok Gyalmo, then subdue the Nine Oath Breaker Brothers at Yerma Thang, hide there many spiritual treasures and reach to Trakar Drel Dzong. There, while he will remained asorbed in deep samadhi in a cave, two fierce Rakshsanis (?) will block the top entrance of teh cave with a rock. Guru Rinpoche will remoce the rock with his vajra and subdue the Rakshanis. Then Guru Rinpoche will bond under oath the guardian of the place, a spirit with human body and monkey head. Guru Rinpoche will then make prayers that no evil ever harm people of the locality and hide many spiritual treasures and left many imprints of his feet and the rocks. One also finds all around many images of Guru Rinpoche, his eight manifestations, letters and symbols, naturally appeared at the surface of the rocks.

The mighty Amnye Machen Range, the Great Peacock Ancestor, (a myes rma chen) also called Magyal Pomra (rma rgyal spom ra) or Machen Pomra (rma chen spom ra) stands in the great curve of the Machu River (which becomes the Yellow River in China), to the east of two great lakes, Tsaring Nor and Oring Nor (skya rangs mtsho and sngo rangs mtsho). This sacred mountain is said to be the abode of Machen Pomra, a powerful protector of the Dharma who, after having after having being turned to the Dharma, became a Bodhisattva who realized the 10th spiritual level (bhumi) of enlightenment.
In his History of the Dharma Protectors (dam can bstan srung rgya mtsho'i rnam thar, vol. 1 p.142), Lelung Shepai Dorje (sle lung bzhad pa'i rdo rje, b.1697) presents Magyal Pomra as the chief of three hundred and sixty surrounding mountain-gods led by four main ones, one in each of the four directions (including gnyan chen thang lha in the north). Magyal Pomra said to be married to Gungmang Lhari (gung sman lha ri) and to have nine sons and nine daughters.
When Guru Padmasambhava subjugated all the devas and rakshas in Samye, he omitted to subjugate Machen Pomra. The Bönpos rejoiced greatly, but then Guru Padmasambhava made the summoning mudra and Machen came, arrogantly putting one foot on top of Hepori in Samye and keeping one foot in Amdo. Guru Padmasambhava bound Machen under oath, yet the latter remained one of the most haughty among the wild spirits.
There are eight great peaks in the Machen range, of which the three most prominent are: Amnye Machen, in the center, the lowest of the three, at 6282m; Chenrezi (spyan ras gzig), to the south, the medium peak; and Dradul Lung Shok (dgra 'dul rlung gshog), to the north, the highest. It takes a week to perform the circumambulation of the sacred mountain on foot, and more than a month when prostrating the entire way, as many faithful pilgrims do. Pilgrims gather in great numbers especially every twelve years, in the Tibetan Horse Year. See K. Buffertille (1991) and Galen Rowell (1984).

The ruins of Shabkar's stone hermitage are still clearly recognizable (See Buffertille, 1992). Pilgrims who perform the circumambulation of Amnye Machen often visit the site which is located at a place called Mowatowa (mo ba gto ba), on the west side of the range, in between the Height of the Supreme Horse (rta mchog gong pa) and before the Great Hanging Brocade Image (gos sku chen mo, a cliff of various hues, said to be the door curtain of Magyal's palace). According to the Guide to Amnye Machen, p.6/b, "Mowatowa faces the abode of Avalokiteshvara, with one face, two hands, the color of a snow mountain embraced by one hundred thousand suns, surrounded by countless Bodhisattvas of the tenth bhumi." According to information gathered by Rock (1956, p. 116), Mowatowa refers to two conical hills, one called Mowa, the Soothsayer (mo pa), and the other called the Towa, the Thrower of Torma (gtor ba). The latter is thus called because the area is littered with many rocks representing the torma offering which the Towa has thrown.

II-95 'dzam thang
II-101 on dpal shul
II-102 Tertön Tsultrim Dargye
II-124 U rge grwa tshang gsang sngags smin rgyas gling
at rwa rgya dgon: shang bza' sprul sku blo bzang dar rgyas 1759-1824

[AC, II-198] Lo Dorje Drak (lo rdo rje brag) blessed by Lhalung Palgyi Dorje (lah lung dpal gyi rdo rje) and the Three Learned Men.
232: List of grub gnas in yar nang
287: mar nang tsho lnga near gar rtse
^ AM GE

[AC, II-287] Retreat Center of Labrang Tashikhyil, founded by Chöpa Rinpoche (chos pa) and Kalden Gyatso in 1648.
(This is a different place than the Tashikhyil Hermitage of Shabkar Tsogdruk Randrol, which is in the mountain, a few hours drive from Rekong on the road to Xining.)

[AC, II-321] Bido Monastery, bis mdo'i dgon chen, Tashi Chöling, founded by Lama Sherap Gyaltsen. Has 13 branch monasteries.

sku 'bum dgon ling byams pa gling or Kumbum founded in 1604 by rgyal sras don yod chos kyi rgya mtsho


[AC, II-304 to 310]
The Eight Places of the Accomplished Ones (grub thob gnas brgyad), in the Golden Valley of Rekong, are eight places prophesied by Guru Padmasambhava, where eight great yogins of his lineage practiced, attained realization and performed many miracles.
In AC, vol.2, pp. 304-312, the eight (or nine) places are identified as follows:In the center is Balgi Khargong Lakha ('bal gyi mkhar gong la kha) the meditation place of the Bodhisattva of Bol ('bol gyi byang chub sems dpa').
In the east is Taklung Shelgi Riwo (stag lung shel gyi ri bo,) the meditation place of Shelgi Odeh Gung Gyal (shel gyi 'o de gung rgyal.)
In the south-east is Lhadrag Karpo in the Upper part of Chang (spyang phu'i lha brag dkar po), where Kalden Gyatso had a vision of Kasarpani and of the Sixteen Arhats. In the vicinity is Ratse Phug (rwa rtse phug,) the meditation place of Masö Shili Urwa (ma gsod zhi li 'ur ba.)
In the south, in Dambu, is Drakar Serkhang ('dam bu'i brag dkar gser khang), the meditation place of the great Brahmin Litrö (bram ze chen po li khrod).
In the south-west is Thamug Dzongmar Gonpa (mtha' smug rdzong dmar dgon pa,) the meditation place of Athu Ngakpa Yu Ngok (a mthu'i ngags pa g.yu rngogs)
In the west is Sheldel Chökyi Potrang (shel del chos kyi pho brang,) the meditation place of Tönpa Odeh Shampo (ston pa 'o de sham po.) AC mentions that this is actually an extra, or ninth place.
In the north-west is Kyagang Nemö Bangwa or Dori Palkyi Ritse (skya sgang gnas mo'i bang ba, or do ri dpal gyi ri rtse,) the meditation place of Seyi Gyalwa Changchub (bse yi rgyal ba byang chub,) where there are many images that have appeared naturally on the rocks.
In the north is Gongmo Gurkhang Draktsa (gong mo'i gur khang brag rtsa,) the meditation place of the Bönpo master Drenpa Namkha (dran pa nam mkha').

In the north-east, Chuchik Shel (bcu gcig shel), the meditation place of Kathok Dorje Wangpo (ka thog rdo rje dbang po, see notes 5 and 6), Chöpa Rinpoche and Jetsun Kalden Gyatso (see note 2).
In RO, p.46-58, nine places where eight siddhas meditated are identified in a slightly different way (The spelling of the places and of the siddhas' names also vary):
1]]) Foremost is Chuchik Shel (bcu gcig shel), the meditation place of Kathok Dorje Wangpo (ka thog rdo rje dbang po, see notes 5 and 6). 2]]) Taklung Shelgi Riwo (stag lung shel gyi ri bo,) the meditation place of Shelgi Odeh Gung Gyal (shel gi 'od de gung rgyal). 3]]) Ratse Phug, in the upper part of the Chang Valley (spyang lung gi phu'i rwa rtse phug), the meditation place of the siddha Shulu Urwa (shul lu 'ur ba) who could fly in the sky and attained the rainbow light body. 4]]) Drakar Serkhang in Dambu ('dam bu'i brag dkar gser khang), the meditation place of the great brahmin Ludrol (bram ze chen po klu grol,) who cured himself of leprosy and blessed a spring to cure wounds, ulcers and leprosy. 5]]) Yulung Palgi Gonpa (g.yu lung dpal gyi dgon pa), the meditation place of Gartön Dampa Chöding (mgar ston dam pa chos sdings) 6]]) Thamug Dzongmar Gonpa (mtha' smug rdzong dmar dgon pa,) the meditation place of Athu Ngakpa Yu Ngok also known as Yuyi Ralpachen (a mthu'i ngags pa g.yu rngogs or g.yu yi ral pa can.) 7]]) At Karong (ka rong), a valley in Upper Rekong, is Sheldel Chökyi Potrang (shel del chos kyi pho brang), also known as Shideu Chökyi Potrang (zhi de'u chos kyi pho brang), another meditation place of Odeh Gung Gyal ('od de gung rgyal). 8]]) Dori Palgi Ritse (do ri dpal gyi ri rtse), the meditation place of Gyalpo Lhachö Setön (rgyal po'i lha mchod bse ston,) also known as Gyalwa Changchub (rgyal ba byang chub) who flew miraculously to the top of the mountain. 9]]) Gongmo Gurkhang Traktsa (gong mo'i gur khang brag rtsa), the meditation place of the Bönpo master Trenpa Namkha (bon gyi ston pa dran pa nam mkha', see Foreword, p.*).

Itinary:
(Ask transit permit for Gansu at Public Security Office at Chengdu)
Chengdu = Hong Nuen = Mewa Gonpa (largest Nyingma Monastery, Sheltreng Rinpoche, lineage of Do Khyentse) = Dzogeh = Lhamo (biggest pilgrimage place) = (Gansu border) = Labrang (see Gonpo Tseden) = Rekong = Tashikhyil Retreat in a 3km forest before the gorges on the track road from Rekong to Xinning]]) = Xinning = Tsonying = Bird Sanctuary = Sato Gonpa ([[walking distance of Bird Sanctuary, Nyingma Gonpa headed by Alak Kalden, Shedra: Khenpo Dode of Dzogchen,

In Rekong-Tashikhyil see Alak Namkha great scholar, retired from Quinhai Minorities... Tsognon Mirig Parkhang

stod mnga ri skor gsum: The Three Lands of Ngari in Tö. These are 1]]) Gugey Ya'i Kor (gu ge gya' yi sKor), the Slate Land of Gugey; 2]]) Puhrang Khang gi Kor (spu rang gangs kyi sKor), the Snow Land of Puhrang; 3]]) Ruthop Chap gi Kor (ru thop chab kyi sKor), the Water Land of Ruthop

According to The Ocean-like Annals (deb ther rgya mtsho), History of Amdo by Konchog Rabgye:
1]]) Purang, Mang Yul, and Sangkar (spu rang, mang yul, zang dkar), making the first land; 2]]) Li, Drusha, and Balti (li, bru sha, sbal ti), making the second land; and 3]]) Shang Shung, Triteh and Tömeh (zhang zhung, khri te, stod smad), making the third land.
bar dbus gtsang ru bshi: Initially the The Four Regions in U and Tsang were described as follows:
In U (bdus) 1]]) Uru (dbu ru) all the regions on the left side of the Kyichu River first and then of the Tsangpo River after Chaksam, where the Kyichu River meets the Tsangpo. 2]]) Yoru (g.yo ru), the regions on the right sides of these two rivers.
In Tsang (tsang) 3]]) Yeru (dyas ru), the Right Region (on the right side of the Tsangpo which come from Mt Kailash) and 4]]) Yönru (g.yon ru), the Left Region, on the left side of the Tsangpo. (this last region was also known as Rulag, ru lag).
Later on they also became described as
In U 1]]) Puri (spus ri) and 2]]) Gungri (gung ri)
In öTsang 3]]) Yeru (g.yas ru) and 4]]) Yönru (g.yon ru)
For a discussion about this see the The Ocean-like Annals, part I, p.4.

In Annals of Kokonor of Sumpa Khenpo:
U Tsang goes from Gunthang (gung thang) of mnga' ris, which is located in the modern rdzong dga'(kha?) rdzong near Tingri, to sog la skya bo or sog g.yag la near so dgon. Mdo stod is from sog la skya bo to the rma chu khug pa (the bend of Machu around Amnye Machen), mdo smad is from rma chu khug pa to rgya mchod rtan dkar po (the White Chinese Stupa) near the Ka chu River and Tho chu River, between Lanchou and Yung Ching in Kansu Province.

Smad mdo kham sgang gsum: The Three: Ridges /Heights of Dokham are 1]]) Markham in Upper Kham (smar khams in mdo khams); 2]]) Yermo Thang in Lower Kham, Amdo (g.yer mo thang in mdo smad); and 3]]) Gyi Thang in Tsongkha (gyi thang in tsong kha)

One usually speaks of the Six: Heights of Dokham which are (AC I-4) 1]])Dokham: Zalmo Gang (zal mo sgang); 2]])Dokham: Tsawa Gang (tsha ba sgang); 3]])Dokham: Markham Gang (smar kham sgang); 4]])Dokham: or Powor (or Pomzer) Gang (spo 'bor /or spom ser sgang); 5]])Dokham: Mardza Gang /or Dridza Zermo Gang (dmar rdza /or 'bri rdza zer mo?? sgang) and 6]])Dokham: Minyak Rabgang (mi nyak rab sgang). /move earlier

Jeto Lha (4420) Myniak Chakra Chorten (Tanthong Gyalpo) Tawu Drepa Lha (4500) Lhatseka pass (4000) Kantze (3600, Talung Valley) Kawa Lungring (6000)

Dagpo Shedrup Ling, monastic college seat of the fifth Shamar Kunchok Yanlag (1525-1583). Also the place where Karmapa VIII, Mikyo Dorje passed away (13307-1554)


Sangna Chöling: founded by Pema Karpo



The 24 or 32 (gnas nyi shu rtsa bzhi)
Among them: Lachi (la-phyi) (biog. ***)
Once the world was ruled by Mahadeva, an all-powerful demon-god who had established his seat in the land of Magadha. Likewise four devas and four rahus established their dominion in the sky, four yakhsas and four rakshasas upon the earth, and four nagas and four non-human beings under the earth, thus defining 24 abodes.
Among these 24 places, Lachi, corresponds to Gaudhavari. It was ruled by the malicious and fierce mara-deva dri-za lha-dgra and his consort dpa'-bo'i blo-can-ma. Mahadeva was their lord. Following the propitiations and offerings made to him, Mahadeva abandonned his own physical form and transformed himself into 24 lingams, one in each of the 24 holy places.
These demonic forces prevailed from the golden age until the arising of our present age of strife and conflict. It is then that the Blessed One, Vajradhara knew that the time had come to subdue this unacceptable beings. Without ever wavering from the state of universal compassion which pervades his wisdom-heart, he arose as in a wrathful display, with four heads and twelve arms. In a divine dance he trempled down Mahadeva and his consort, liberated their souls into ultimate peace, and lead them to Buddhahood.
At this point, Vajradhara's emanations was offered by the Buddhas of the five families, the celestial palace atop Mt Meru as his residence, and the 24 male and female Bodhisattvas, the 12 goddesses, and all the others of the 62 emanated deities of Cakrasamvara's mandala. The 24 male Bodhisattvas and their consorts, arising in wrathful forms subdued the malicious spirits of the 24 places, while the 8 Wratful Ones with their consorts manifesting as the 8 sgo-mtsams-ma subdued the 6 Mamos of the 8 charnel grounds, transforming these sites into 32 sacred places (gnas yul gsum chu so gnyis) .
Especially the Bodhisattva Vajrapani and his consort Vaitali (ro-lang-ma) subdued the Ghandarva (dri-za) spirit of Lachi and his consort. The Bodhisattva and his consort took possessions of the spirits' abode and ornaments and transformed them into celestial palace and divine attributes. They enjoyed the meat and chang which the spirits were reveling in, as the sacramental substances of ganachakra feast offerings. They blessed the lingam symbol of Mahadeva as the support of the mandala of the 62 deities of the Cakrasamvara mandala.
These 24 sacred places are present in the various parts of the innate vajra body of each being. Among these Gaudhavari, or Lachi, is located on the left ear. As confirmation of this, one finds at Lachi rocks naturalled shaped as an ear.
Lachi was blessed successively by Guru Rinpoche, the Great Yuthokpa (g.yu thog pa chen po) Jetsun Milarepa, and later by many Drigungpa masters. Caves of Jetsun Mila: Brag dkar rta so where he stayed 12 years before going to Lachi. (On the way are brag dmar po mtho mchong lung nyi ma rdzong and bring spo ze la, which leads to gnya' nang mthong la and to the door of Lachi, gnya nang bkra shis sgang)
/292 Drigung Jigten Gonpo (see his biography by dbon shes rab 'byung gnas) had a dream in which the guardian deities of the Three Holy Places (lha btsan for Kailash, zhing skyong for Lachi and zhing skyongs ? for Tsari) prostrated themselves and requested him to come and bless the place. Jigten Gonpo said he would send their great meditators. Accordingly he sent first 80 hermits to each of these sites. A few years later he sent 900 hermits to each and finally 55525 Dharma practitioners to each, lead by pan chen gy ya sgang pa to Kailash, by dge bshes gi yag ru dpal grags to Lachi, and by rdor 'dzin mgo bo che to Tsari. dge bshes gi yag ru dpal grags established himself in Lachi and under his inspiration many practice centers were established all around, in Gyalgi Shri, Nyanang, Mangyul, tsum ku thang, etc,. For 686 years (until the Iron Female Ox year of the 15th rabjung) there was an ininterrupted succession of Drigung masters in the area.
Lachi is said to be a "triple triangle"; the sky above is triangular ", the earth below is triangular, and the waters in between are triangular. South of Dingri is bring spo ze la on top of which Jetsun Milarepa flew.
South of Lachi is mthon mthin rgyal mo a high snow peak in triangular shape which is the Tseringma's palace.
chu dbar sgrub sde:
Initially a blooming retreat center of the Drigung tradtition, it was then turned to the Karma Khamtsang tradition by the 10th Karmapa who erected there a new large temple and a protectors' temple. Then at the 5th Dalai Lama's time it was turned to the Geluk tradition and renamed dga' ldan 'gro phan gling. Among the main relics found there are a statue of Jetsun Milarepa made by Rechungpa with clay mixed with Milarepa's funeral ashes and Milarepa's nose-blood (pur thal and shang mtshal) ; an ivory statue of Milarepa made by Rechungpa, too; and a stone from Milarepa's cremation hearth, upon which the six-syllable of the mani appeared miraculously. /319 brag dmar po mtho mchong lung
Mara's Subjugation Cave : the principal among the four main caves of Lachi (bdud 'dul phug, ze phug, lung bstan tshal chen phug, and sbas phug), where Jetsun Milarepa subjugated all evil forces. It is also the cave where Jetsun Milarepa spent 6 months in complete seclusion, blocked by snows which had fallen form 18 days and nights, and where Jetsun Milarepa transformed his body into water and vice-versa. Later other greats saint meditated in this cave: Rechungpa, Nyö Lhanangpa (mnyos lha nang pa, ko brag pa, g.yag ru dpal grags, la phyi pa nam mka' rgyal mthan, tsang myongs, sharkha ras chen). One finds around several footprints of Mirarepa.
Guide to
gsang lam sgrub pa'i gnas chen nyer bzhi'i ya gyal goo-dah-wa-ri 'am 'brog laphyi gangs kyi ra ba'i sngon byung gi tshul las tsam pa'i gtam gyi rab tu phyed pa nyung du rnam gsal

by 'bri gung chung zang dkon mchog bstan 'dzin chos kyi blo gros rnam par rgyal ba'i sde. Composed in 1896.


Reding /Ratreng Monastery;
The first Kadampa monastery to be founded, by Drom Tönpa, who began building it in 1057, three years after Atisha's death, and remained there until his own death in 1064, spending most of his time in meditation retreat. After Drom the abbotship of the monastery passed to Naljorpa Chenpo (Great Yogin). Reting became the center of the Kadampa order of Tibetan Buddhism.


Mount Kailash ([[]])
Usually accessed via Purang (Taklakot). On the circumambulation path of the mountain itself there used to be four monastery, Gyangtra to the south, Nyenri to the west (*), Dri-ra Phuk to the norht and Zutrul Phuk to the south. All four were practically destroyed during the Chinese invasion but are now under restoration (exept for Nyenri). The starting point for the circumambulation is Darchen, a sheep-trading center and the main village in the area.
After a few hours westward one reaches Tarpoche a grassy valley filled with prayer flags where Buddhist festival used to be held. One hour north of Tarpoche are the ruins of Nyenri Monastery and Langchen Phuk a cave blessed by Guru Padmasambhava. At Chugu there are a lot of mani stones and Pema Phuk a cave blessed by Buddha Shakyamuni. Then come accross a large rock known as Guru Padmasambhava' torma. Then one passes three peaks associated with the three deities of longevity (Amitayus, White Tara, and Vijaya). The one reaches Dira Phuk from where one can see the northern face of Mt Kailash and the mountains of the Protectors of the Three Kinds of Beings (Mnajushri to the west, and Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani to the east). Then cross the Drolma La (5670 m). On the way up to the pass is Vajrayogini Cemetery, still used to deposit the bodies of those who die while on pilgrimage. After the pass one sees the Tukje Chenpo Lake (Gori Kund). From the bottom of the slopes one takes the eastern valley for five hours to Zutrul Phuk. The monastery has been recently rebuild around the cave itself. From there in 5-6 hrs one reaches back to Darchen. North from Darchen on can go to Gyangtra, now rebuilt by Drigung monks, and then to the ruins of Sera Lung Monastery. From there to go closer to the mountain itself one needs to have completed 13 circumambulations of the moutain. One then reaches the moraines of the south face of Kailash. There used to be there 13 stupas with relics of Patriarchs of the Drigung lineage. Slightly off this route are the two small lakes of Tso Kapala.

Lake Manasarovar

South of Kailash, across the great plain of Barga, at the base of the Mount Gurla Mandhata (***) are the two lakes of Mapham Yutso (Manasarovar, 330 sq kms) and Lhanag Tso (Rakshas Tal, 224 sq kms), the Manasarovar being the highest body of fresh water in the world (4558 m). The two lakes are connected by a channed called the Ganga chu.

Seralung used to house up to one hundred monks, tradionally a monastery of the Drigung Kagyu order it was totally destroyed by the Chinese and the small newly built temple is now run by Gelukpa monks. Nearby on the shore of the lake on finds the five-colored sands. Trugo Monastery and Yer-gno Monastery (in ruins) are places where Atisha spent some time in meditation. Trugo is also a market place to which many nomads converge. Chiu Monastery, on a hill where Guru Rinpoche spent his last seven days in Tibet (?)

Tirthapuri

A sacred place with a cave blessed by Guru Rinpoche and Yeshe Tsogyal, where one can see granite rock with their embedded foot-prints. One also finds hot springs and a geyser.

bru sha would be Gilgit along the Indus valley in modern Pakistan. It was part of the Tibetan empire in the eight century.
^ GE


Tsari 18,813' or 5644 m
gnod sbyin gangs bzang 22,300' = 6690 m
gnam lcags 'bar ba 26,595' = 7756 m

rma chu, arises beyond skya rengs and sngo rengs (Oring and Tsaring Lakes) in the Bayankaras, flows east through 'gu log, and makes a huge hair-pin, called the "knee" /bent (khug pa), to flow back toward the west. Another bend is made at a right angle as the rma chu turns to flow north into A mdo. Against it turns east toward China where it is called the Huang Ho or Yellow River and flows into the Pacific. Its 2903 mile course makes it the world's sixth longest river.

'bri chu, arises in ldang la range. Its becomes the Yangtze or Blue River, and empties in the Pacific after a course of 3430 miles, the world's fifth river.

In Amnye Machen: July temperature 17 C, January - 38 C
Vegetation, pine, spruce, cypress. Lower juniper
In southern Tibet, also fir, rhodedendron....


Mindroling, top temple: Terchen without hat on left side corner. Mingyur Paldron; on right side next to door, up, holding rosary and vase with leaves.


Idenfication of a few places from question asked to Khetsun Sangpo:

Jönpalung in Kongpo: check in Jedrung's Guide to Pemakö
Cema Senge (bye ma seng ge) : near Uyuk ('u yug)

Decen Samdrup in Nyipu: in Kongpo, a large Drukpa Kagyu monastery?

E-yul: the Seat of the Lhagyari, a valley north east of Samye. There is a path coming there from Lhasa.

Kongpo Chimyul (kong po mchims yul): assimilated to kong po rgyang mda'

Kongpori Lawalung (gongs po ri gla ba lung): a preeminent hill in Tsethang.

Pangri Jokpo (bang ri 'jog po) = the seat of Jatshon Nyingpo in Kongpo

Pema Ja Ö Sheldzong: in Kanchen Jung Nga area in Sikkim ??

Sedrak in Tsang, is on Nyang mountains

Yamdrok Tonang (yar 'bro do nang): the main hill complex in the middle of Yamdrok Lake

Uke monastery in Ze (gzad kyi 'ug skad dgon) : valley adjacent to (south?) Shuksep

Zingpa Tao (zing pa rta mgo) in northern Tibet??, treasure place of Terda Lingpa??

The Jowo Jampel Dorje of Purang
The Jowo Shakyamuni of Lhasa and Mati Sangpo Jowo of Kyidrong, and the Korchag Jowo of Purang are sometimes said to be the three most sacred images of Tibet. Here follows a brief account of the making of this holy statue, according to Ngawang Sonam Gyaltsen's "History of the 'Khor chags Jo bo Image and Temple," (see bibliography), and to oral sources.
The silver images of the Three Protectors (Rigs gsum mgon po) of Korchag ('khor chags) in Purang, representing the Bodhisattvas Manjushri, Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani.
King Khore ('khor re), (son of the pious King Lha Lama Yeshe Ö, who, at the cost of his own life, invited Pandit Atisha to Tibet,) renounced his kingdom in his old age to become a monk. [Khore's son was Lha de wa byung zhing, whose son had three sons, the middle one had three sons, the middle one being byang chub od] He took as teacher the Lord of Dharma Dzamling Trakpa of Kardung (dkar dung gi 'dzam gling grags pa), a learned and accomplished master. Having received teachings, King Khore then stayed in the mountain retreat of Dzamphuk ('dzam phug), meditating upon Arya Dzambala. After he had thus practiced for no longer than seven days seven strong Atsaras appeared and offered to the king seven load of silver. The king recounted this event to his master who declared, "O king, these were emanations of Arya Dzambala who bestowed upon you you the ordinary siddhi. Don't waste this wealth, with it erect a holy image that will cause beings to accumulate merit." Accordingly, the King erected three temples in Kardung, the Upper and Lower Mansion /Citadel (mkhar gong og), and the Golden Mansion /Citadel (gser mkhar). He then resolved to use the silver offered by the Atsaras to erect a large statue of Lord Manjushri, the embodiment of the wisdom, love and power of all the Buddhas of the three times, the divinity of supreme knowledge. For this he called upon the most famous goldsmiths of his times the Nepalese Ashodharma and the Kashmeri (?) Wangkula.
[Oral source:] Since the Kardung highland, at higher end of Purang valley, where the king resided there was no wood to melt the silver for casting, the king decided to have the statues cast lower down in the valley of Purang. Yet, no matter how skillful the goldsmith were and how many times they tried, the casting always came out badly. In the end, exasperated, one of the goldsmith threw the silver to the ground. At that very moment, the silver miraculously transformed itself into a perfect image of the Lord Manjushri. These were placed on a chariot and taken back up the valley.
On the way the convoy came across a sandy place inhabited only by a hermit and his helper. The latter had noticed several times a mysterious light, like a flame emitting sparks, burning upon a large round rock. Although he meant to tell his master about it, he would regularly forget to do so when coming back home. One day, when seeing the flame, he put a stone in the fold of his robes, as a reminder to tell his master. When he came back to the hermitage and bend forward to offer tea to his master, the stone fell on the ground. The master teasingly said, "Son, weren't you intending to throw a stone at me?" The attendant replied: "Of course not," and he told his master about the light. The hermit told his attendant to go and erect an altar of piled up stones upon the flame. The attendant did so, and when, the next day, both master and disciple went on the spot there was nothing more than a big rock. The master knew at once that this was an Amolika stone, and that a most sacred image would dwell later upon it.
In the mean times, King Khore had the image consecrated by Lotsawa Rinchen Sangpo and many other holy beings, so that it became dazzling with blessings and looked like Buddha Manjusrhi alive.
King Khore, then decided to bring the statue to his residence in Kardung, and had it placed upon a charriot. The charriot progressed with ease through hills and valleys, but when it passed the rock Amolika, the statue spoke, "I have come round (Khor) up to here, here I shall stay (chags)," and stepped down onto the stone; its feet became attached to the rock as though they were part of it. The place thus became known as Khorchag. Having witnessed this miraculous happening, the King had a beautiful temple, called "Spontaneous Accomplishment of All Aims" (yid bzin lhun grub), built to shelter the precious image. These holy statues have been destroyed during the so called "cultural revolution". Recently new statues have been made, in which pieces of the ancient ones have been incorporated.
Then, the image spoke a second time. It told the temple keeper, "Close all the doors of the temple and don't let any living being come in for seven days." After five days had thus passed the temple keeper started to wonder what was going on inside and to worry that, invited to some celestial realm, the precious statue might disappear. He opened the door, and saw many emanated craftmen who instantly dissolved in the heart of the Jowo statue. Amazed, the caretaker discovered a beautiful tree-branched lotus on the top of the Amolika rock. On the central lotus, was the resplendent self-arisen image of Lord Manjushri, and the two side lotus were ready as if to serve as stand for image of the two other great Bodhisattvas, Avalokitesvara and Vajrani. The whole setting was exceedingly fine and beaufiful, yet a few ornaments were left incomplete, since the door had been open two days too early.
A few generation later, Namgonde (gnam mgon sde), a descendant of King Khore, did a recitation on Dzambala at the Upper Citadel (sku mkhar gong), and had a vision of the deity***. On day, many Mongolian merchant came by and and told the king: "We are going on pilgrimage to Mount Kailash. Would you be gracious enough to keep our bales? We will come back in three months at the earliest, or in three years at the latest. If for some reason we do not come back after three years, use the contents of these bundles for some virtuous purpose."
Three years passed without the yogins returning. The king opened the bundles to them find them full of boundless treasures, among which a great number silver ingots marked with the letter dzam, the symbol of Vaishravana, the god of wealth. The king and his queen decided to use this silver to cast images of the Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani...
Altogether, in his history, the statue of Jowo Jampel Dorje spoke seven times. During the "cultural revolution", it was taken to Mongolia and thought to be lost. However, recently, it was found there and given back to the Purang Temple.
Khore ('khor re), Sakyapa temple of 'khor chags or Kojarnath, below Taklakot, on the Karnali River in Nepal.

Gaden Tsewang (dga' ldan tshe dbang)
Amnye Getho (A mye ge /nye dge? tho)
(See Shabkar Namthar, Chapter 5) A line of red cliffs inhabited by the mountain god of the Ja sa tribe. It can be reached through the Sharlung Valley (shar lung), two days walk from Ragya Monastery, accross the Machu River. (One crosses two high passes, follows the shar lung valley and reach the pastures of the rgya bzah nomads).

gnyan po g.yu rtse rdza ra: a beautiful limestone peak about 20000', 1000 45 - 1000 / 330 30 -330 45, about 30 miles south of Machu River, in Khang Sar and Khang Gen golok area, west of lgna ba tribes. Is has seven glaciers and many lakes the main one of which being shal mtsho. It is considered the second sacred mountain of the area after Amnye Machen.

[Rock, 88] smu dge thang: beyond 'ba' valley, a waterless desert near mdzo mo nang in rgyud par Range, north of Ragya, NE of rgyud par tshar rgan (a 14700' elevation from which one can see the whole Amnye Range and Muge Thang as well), after the sand dunes of mang ri bye ma.

[104] NE of rgyud par valley is a stream parallel to Gyupar Range, which then turns W-NW in Machu: that is rmang ra. The stream joins Machu at rmang mdo.


Gushri Khan, Tenzin Chögyal (bstan 'dzin chos rgyal, 1592-1654) had ten sons from three queens. His descendants in the Kokonor area on the banks of the Machu River became known as the Barungar (the Right Banner) of the O-rod. After Gushri Khan moved to Kokonor his former pastures in Urumchi were occupied by the Dzungars.
As described by Ahmad (see bibliography) and others, the Mongols were divided into two sections, the Eastern Mongols and the Western Mongols. The Eastern Mongols comprised the Mongols of the Outer and Inner Mongolia, which were, again, divided into two wings, the Right Wing (Baragun Gar) and the Left Wing (Jagun Gar.) These were themselves divided into Principalities, or "Banners" (dpon khag in Tibetan, Khoshun in Mongolian, and Ch'i in Chinese) which comprised a number of Divisions, or "Arrows" (mda' in Tibetan, from the Mongolian Sumun, originally a group of 150 adult men and their families). According to H.H. Howorth (see bibliography), there was 49 banners in Inner Mongolian, and 89 in Outer Mongolia. Sumpa Khenpo (see bibliography) speaks of 33 Banners and 101 Arrows in the Kokonor area.
Each Mongolian banner is ruled by a Chieftain or Jasag (ja sag) who can have any of the various rank of Mongolian nobility, from Ching Wang ([[King, or Prince of the First Order, to Gung (Duke.)


The Korchag Jowo 'khor chags jo bo of Purang
The Jowo Shakyamuni of Lhasa, the Mati Sangpo Jowo of Kyidrong, and the Korchag Jowo of Purang are often said to be the three most sacred images of Tibet. Here follows a brief account of the making of this holy statue, according to Ngawang Sonam Gyaltsen's "History of the 'khor chags jo bo Image and Temple," (see bibliography), and to oral sources:

King Khore ('khor re), (son of the pious King Lha Lama Yeshe Od, who, at the cost of his own life, had invited Pandit Atisha to Tibet,) renounced his kingdom in his old age to become a monk. (Khore's son was lha de wa byung zhing, whose son had three sons, the middle one had three sons, the middle one being byang chub od) He took as teacher the Lord of Dharma Dzamling Trakpa of Kardung (dkar dung gi 'dzam gling grags pa), a learned and accomplished master. Having received spiritual instructions, King Khore then stayed in the mountain retreat of Dzamphuk ('dzam phug), meditating upon Arya Dzambala. After he had thus practiced for no longer than seven days, seven Atsaras appeared and offered to the king seven loads of silver. The king recounted this event to his teacher who declared, "O king, these were emanations of Arya Dzambala who bestowed upon you the ordinary siddhi. Don't waste this wealth, with it erect a holy image that will help beings to accumulate merit."
Accordingly, the King erected three temples in Kardung, the Upper and Lower Fort (mkhar gong 'og), and the Golden Fort (gser mkhar). He then resolved to use the silver offered by the Atsaras to erect a large statue of Lord Manjushri, the divinity of supreme knowledge, and the embodiment of the wisdom, love, and power of all the Buddhas, For this he called upon the most famous goldsmiths of his times the Nepalese Ashodharma and the Kashmeri Wangkula.
[Oral source:] Since the Kardung highland, at higher end of Purang valley, where the king resided there was no wood to melt the silver for casting, the king decided to have the statues cast lower down in the valley of Purang. Yet, no matter how skillful the goldsmith were and how many times they tried, the casting always came out badly. In the end, exasperated, one of the goldsmith threw the silver to the ground. At that very moment, the silver miraculously transformed itself into a perfect image of the Lord Manjushri. These were placed on a chariot and taken back up the valley.
On the way the convoy came across a wild sandy place inhabited only by a hermit and his helper. This helper had noticed several times a mysterious light, like a flame emitting sparks, burning upon a large round rock. Although he meant to tell his master about it, he would regularly forget to do so when coming back home. One day, when seeing the flame, he put a stone in the fold of his robes, as a reminder to tell his master. When he came back to the hermitage and bend forward to offer tea to his master, the stone fell on the ground. The master teasingly said, "Son, weren't you intending to throw a stone at me?" The attendant replied, "Of course not," and told his master about the light. The hermit instructed his attendant to go and erect an altar of piled up stones upon the flame. The latter did so, and when, the next day, both master and disciple went on the spot there was nothing more than a big rock. The master knew at once that this was an Amolika stone, and that a most sacred image would dwell later upon it, and a temple would be erected.
In the meantime, King Khore had the image blessed by Lotsawa Rinchen Sangpo and many other holy beings, so that it became dazzling with blessings, and ressembled the live Manjushri.
King Khore, then decided to bring the statue to his in Kardung, and had it placed upon a charriot. The charriot progressed with great ease through hills and valleys, but when it passed the rock Amolika, the statue spoke, "I have come round (khor) up to here, here I shall stay (chags)," and stepped down onto the stone. Its feet became attached to the rock as though they were part of it. The place thus became known as Khorchag. Having witnessed this miraculous happening, the King had a beautiful temple, called "Spontaneous Accomplishment of All Aims" (yid bzin lhun grub), built to shelter the precious image. These holy statues have been destroyed during the so called "cultural revolution". Recently new statues have been made, in which pieces of the ancient ones have been incorporated.
Then, the image spoke a second time. It told the temple keeper, "Close all the doors of the temple and don't let any living being come in for seven days." After five days had thus passed the temple keeper started to wonder what was going on inside and worry that, invited to some celestial realm, the precious statue might disappear, he opened the door. At that moment, he saw many emanated craftmen dissolve in the heart of the Jowo statue and, amazed, discovered a beautiful tree-branched lotus on the top of the Amolika rock. On the central lotus, was a resplendent self-arisen image of Lord Manjushri, and the two side lotus were ready as if to serve as stand for image of the two other great Bodhisattvas, Avalokitesvara and Vajrani. The whole setting was exceedingly fine and beaufiful, yet a few ornaments were left incomplete, since the door had been open two days too early.
A few generations later, a descendant of King Khore, Namgonde (gnam mgon sde), performed a recitation on Dzambala at the Upper Citadel (sku mkhar gong), and had a vision of the deity. On day, many Mongolian merchants came by and told the king: "We are going on pilgrimage to Mount Kailash. Would you be gracious enough to keep our bales? We will come back in three months at the earliest, or in three years at the latest. If for some reason we do not come back after three years, use the contents of these bundles for some virtuous purpose."
Three years passed without the yogins returning. The king opened the bundles to find them full of boundless treasures, among which a great number silver ingots marked with the letter dzam, the symbol of Vaishravana, the god of wealth. The king and his queen decided to use this silver to cast images of the Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani...
Altogether, in its history, the statue of Jowo Jampel Dorje spoke seven times. During the "cultural revolution", it was taken to Mongolia and thought to be lost. However, recently, it was found there and given back to the Purang Temple.


At the completion of the work, each of those who contributed to it made an aspiration-prayer. In accordance with their vows, the first son became the Abbot, Shantarakshita, the second one became the Master, Guru Padmasambhava, the third one became the Dharma King, Trisong Detsen, and the fourth one became the wise minister Bami Trisher (a Buddhist minister of the King Trisong Detsen). The ox who had carried earth and stones did not know how to pray and, feeling that his hard work had been forgotten, made the perverse wish to harm the work of the four sons. He became the King Langdharma who attempted to eradicate Buddhism from Tibet, but failed to do so; he was eventually assassinated by Lhalung Palkyi Dorje, himself the rebirth of a crow who had heard the ox make his wicked vow, and had made a wish to be reborn as a Bodhisattva who would assassinate the apostate king.
Keith Dowman communicated to us the following summary of the conventional history of the Great Stupa: "Both Newari and Tibetan legend place the foundation of The Great Stupa of Bodhnath in antiquity. The Newars believe that the Licchavi king Manadeva (died A.D.505) built the original stupa as a reliquary for his father, King Vrsadeva, after he had unwittingly killed him. The Tibetan legend implies only that the stupa was built before Trisong Detsen invited Guru Padmasambhava to Tibet in the eighth century. A thirteenth century Tibetan biography of Padmasambhava (Padma bka' thang shel brag ma) provides the first literary reference to the stupa and establishes the earliest Tibetan connection with it. There is no further substantial information concerning Bodhnath until the early sixteenth century, when Sakya Zangpo, a Nyingmapa yogin from Kham, had a vision at Samye, in Central Tibet, that induced him to travel to Bodhnath to restore the stupa. However, upon arrival, he had difficulty in identifying the mound of earth that once had been the stupa. Having found the right location, Sakya Zangpo unearthed the Stupa and restored it. It is Sakya Zangpo's sixteenth century reconstruction that is still extant, although its form has been modified. Sakya Zangpo established a line of incarnate Lamas in Yolmo (Helambu) who were the caretaker abbots of the stupa. Thereafter the community of Buddhist Tamangs thrived around the stupa, which also became the principal destination for Tibetan pilgrims outside Tibet. In 1855 the abbotship of Bodhnath was given to a Chinese pilgrim, a Nyingma yogin, who gave service as interpreter to Jung Bahadur during the peace talks following the Nepali-Chinese war. Under the Second and Third Chini Lamas, who also were the Dalai Lama's consuls in Nepal, the abbotship of Bodhnath extended both its spiritual and temporal power. Since the death in 1982 of the last traditional abbot of Bodhnath, the Third Chini Lama, much of the spiritual authority has been devolved upon the Tibetan lamas who have built monasteries in the vicinity of the stupa."

From Gyurme's Index of Locations:

Abhirati = mngnon dga'
Citadel of the Indestructible Array = 'og min rdo rje bkod pa'i grong khyer
Imputed Akanistha = brtags pa'i 'og min
Anavatapta Lake = mtsho ma dros pa
Bounteous Array, Ganavyuha = stug po dkod pa
Dartsedo, in lower Gyelmorong smug rgya(l) dar rtse mdo, the former capital of the Chakla Kingdom, and present capital of the district of the Kanze Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan. Also known as Kangding or Tachienlu.
Dhanasridvipa, or Suvanadvipa = Sumatra
Dorje Trak, founded in 1632 by Rigdzin III, Ngagi Wangpo. North of the Tsangpo, south west of Önshangdo, north of Chitesho, and west of Dra.
Drepung: founded in 1416 by Jamyang Chöje Tashi Palden.
Drigung: founded in 1179 by Myniak Gomring
Drida Zelmogang: 'bri zla zal mo sgang, Yangtse area between Derge and Drölma Lhakhang.
Further Taming Temples = yang 'dul gyi gtsug lha khang
Ganden (dga' ldan) founded in 1409 by Tsongkhapa
Gyelmorong (rgyal mo rong): river valley running from the watershed above Sertha and Dzamtang, south east through Berkham and Dartsedo, east and north east of Myniak. Also known as Gyalmo Tsawa Rong.
Yavavidpa = Java = nas gling
Kawa Karpo (kha ba dkar po) : mountain in Tsawa Rong, between the Salween and Mekong Rivers, representing the body aspect of Buddha-speech.
Khore ('khor re), Sakyapa temple of 'khor chags or Kojarnath, below Taklakot, on the Karnali River in Nepal.
Lundrup Teng in Derge, founded in 1616 at a site originally consecrated by Thangtong Gyalpo.
Minyak (mi nyag): east and norht east of Lithang, across the Nyag chu River
Ngor, monastery south east of Narthang founded in 1429 by Kunga Sangpo.
Palpung, founded in 1727 by Situ VIII Chökyi Jungne
Potala Palace: on Marpori in Lhasa, construction started in 1645-8 at the order of Great 5th.
Rekong (re bkong), the modern Tongre, south of Huang-ho river, south of Rongpo Gönchen.
Sakya, (sa skya) founded in 1268 by Pöncen Sakya Yeshe
Samye = Temple of Unchanging Spontaneous Presence
Sera, founded in 1419 by Camcen Chöje Sakya Yeshe
Vairochana of the Great Glacial Lake (rnam gangs chen mtsho)


Oddiyana (o rgyan yul): according to Jigme Lingpa's gtam tshogs, ch.3. fol. 38a (trans. M. Aris):
After crossing the lower reaches of Kashmir river there are seven hundred thousand towns of the sa-called "Hor". Traversing the regions there day by day one arrives at the Mountain of Medicinal Salt (sman tswai'i ri). Bhahola (bha to la), Malakote (ma la ko tre), and the region of the ocean whence pearls come forth. There lies a temple built by King Hulagu (hu la hu). Then after five days [one reaches] the town called Rupwal (ru ka la), and after four days Rajahura (ra dza hur). It is said that one of the four gates to Oddiyana (o rgyan) is situated there. However, if one examines this claim it is clear that due to the difference made by the south-western direction of the road, the [town of] Malakote (ma la ke ti) would lie in the region of the stod hor.